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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    Some Important Things You Should Know About a Gluten-Free Diet


    Jefferson Adams


    • People with celiac disease must follow a gluten-free diet. Here are some important facts to keep in mind about a gluten-free diet.


    Celiac.com 04/03/2018 - A gluten-free diet is crucial to avoiding problems associated with celiac disease. However, many gluten-free foods come with drawbacks that are important to understand.


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    Also, not all gluten-free food is created equal, not all gluten-free foods are healthy, and simply going gluten-free may not resolve all of your issues. Here are some things to keep in mind about a gluten-free diet:

    1. Gluten-Free food is more expensive than food made with wheat flour. In fact, gluten-free substitutes are about twice as expensive as standard foods. They are more costly to make, and they sell in lower volume, which pushes up retail prices.
    2. Like many of their non-gluten-free counterparts, gluten-free foods can be highly processed. Processed foods can promote inflammation, which is one of the things that people with celiac disease are trying to avoid.
    3. Gluten-Free does not automatically mean nutritious. In fact, gluten-free food is generally less nutritious than similarly processed foods made with wheat flour. Foods that are naturally gluten-free will generally be healthier than gluten-free substitutes. That may seem obvious, but if you look at the gluten-free food aisle in your local store, you will see many highly processed foods that are not any better than their gluten-containing counterparts in terms of general nutrition. Gluten-free foods are often higher in carbohydrates and calories than their non-gluten-free counterparts.
    4. Gluten-Free food is higher in salt than its non-gluten-free counterparts. Recent products tests show that most gluten-free snacks tested are far saltier than their non-gluten-free alternatives. Of 106 products surveyed, researchers found that many gluten-free snacks have up to five times more salt than non-gluten-free counterparts. 
    5. Gluten-Free food is higher in fat than its non-gluten-free counterparts.
    6. Gluten-Free food is higher in sugar than its non-gluten-free counterparts.
    7. Gluten-Free ingredients don’t always mean gluten-free food. The news is riddled with stories about gluten contamination in restaurants, pizza joints, etc., that claim to use gluten-free ingredients. Examples of companies that rolled out gluten-free pizza only to be met with complaints by people with celiac disease include: California Pizza Kitchen, Domino’s pizza, and Papa John’s, among others.
    8. The longer you avoid gluten, the more sensitive you may become. For many people with celiac disease, the longer they avoid gluten, the more sensitive they become. This can mean stronger, more lengthy reactions to seemingly minor gluten ingestion, so be careful.
    9. A gluten-free diet will not reverse osteoporosis, or iron and calcium deficiency. If your celiac disease progressed for a long time before your diagnosis, then the odds are much more likely that you have suffered from osteoporosis, iron and calcium deficiency. A gluten-free diet alone will not reverse osteoporosis, or calcium deficiency. In such cases, you will need to consult your doctor for proper treatment. Osteoporosis is especially problematic in women with celiac disease.

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    Guest Laura

    Posted

    Do you know what's worse than osteoporosis?  It's "near death" from severe malnutrition & its associated diseases caused by the toxic effects of gluten.  Gluten is "poison".  Wheat also contains gliadin which is believed to be linked to type I Diabetes Mellitus, Fibromyalgia & numerous other inflammatory diseases.  

    Celiac disease is a hideous condition.  Food cross-reactors prevent the intake of foods containing: Yeast-Egg-Milk.  It took 3 months to stop "craving" wheat after I was forced for health purposes to stop consuming it.  There were no gluten-free products (cookies/mixes etc.) that did not contain egg or yeast or milk. After a few years the desire for "sweet" foods dissipated. 

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  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams
    This article originally appeared in the Summer 2002 edition of Celiac.coms Scott-Free newsletter.
    Celiac.com 03/29/2006 - I recently reviewed the results of a Celiac.com survey, and was surprised to learn that 37 percent of 472 respondents do not believe that there will ever be a cure for celiac disease, while 32 percent think there will be, and 31 percent are unsure. After reading the question again I realized that it might be loaded—does the gluten-free diet count as a cure? Some people think so. Others think that the diet is a curse, or at best just a treatment. With the vast improvement that has taken place during the last few years in the quality of gluten-free foods I like to think of the diet as really good tasting cure. Of course the diet isnt really a cure, but the proof is in the pudding, and the diet has allowed my body to become healthy again and make me feel as though I am cured, and that is what counts—isnt it?
    Like most people, however, I still hold out hope that all the celiac disease research that will be done in the future will yield a cure—one that does not include a special diet. But be careful what you wish for because if you are like me your diet is probably healthier now than it ever was, mostly due to the necessary avoidance of most fast and processed foods. Perhaps the diet is really a blessing in disguise for many of us, and we will actually live longer and healthier lives due to it, in spite of having a "disease." But at the rate they are currently spending money on celiac disease research there will never be a cure—you say? After reading Laura Yicks summary of this years Digestive Disease Week International Conference in San Francisco (pg. 8), which includes a proclamation made by Dr. Alessio Fasano that celiac disease is "by far the most frequent genetic disease of human kind," I have renewed confidence that there will be a lot more money spent on research in the future, and eventually a cure will be found.
    More surprises in the survey results came when 6.5 percent of respondents said spelt was safe for a gluten-free diet, while 32.3 percent were unsure. I like to interpret this result as 38.8 percent of respondents were just diagnosed and are on their first visit to Celiac.com—but this is wishful thinking. Unfortunately this result means that we have more work to do (spelt is not safe!). The most surprising response, however, was how many people cheat on their diets—a full 43 percent! Some 13 percent actually cheat 20-40 times per year or more. The main excuses for cheating: 1) People missed a particular item too much to go without it; and 2) Gluten-free foods are not always available or are too expensive. These were the same folks who got the spelt question wrong—the ones who were just diagnosed, right? We have more work to do...
    There are just too many great alternatives out there to knowingly eat gluten. After learning so much over the years about food ingredients and preparation I like to think that I could walk into a restaurant called "House of Gluten" and order a gluten-free meal. Educating yourself about how food is prepared and which ingredients are safe or not safe is really the key to enjoying life while on this diet. Remember, the next time you are tempted, say to yourself over and over—this diet is a really good tasting cure—and dont cheat! Oh no...65 percent of respondents dont know that buckwheat is safe, and 58 percent dont know that Quinoa is safe...time for me to get back to work—enjoy Scott-Free!

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/26/2016 - An Australian dietary organization has published a study showing the high and hidden costs of a gluten-free diet, and is calling for a subsidy program to help offset those extra costs.
    A newly published study quantifying the cost of gluten-free foods shows a family with two children can pay nearly 20% more for gluten-free food. The costs are even greater for single men on welfare.
    The study is the first of its kind to prove "that a gluten-free diet is a significant financial burden for many Australian family types," say University of Wollongong researchers Kelly Lambert and Caitlin Ficken, the study's authors.
    The study was supported by the Dieticians Association (DAA) of Australia, and the results appear in its scientific journal Nutrition and Dietetics. For their study, Lambert and Ficken compared gluten-free diet groceries with a standard non-gluten-free shopping basket using data from supermarkets in five varying suburbs in the Illawarra region south of Sydney.
    They found that flour actually showed the highest cost differential, with gluten-free flour costing 570 per cent more than plain flour, "so even making things from scratch is exorbitantly more expensive," said Ms Lambert, who is also a dietician at Wollongong Hospital.
    The study showed that wholemeal gluten-free bread was nearly five times more expensive than comparable non-gluten-free bread.
    In the face of these results, the DAA is calling for gluten-free diets to be subsidized for those with medical need.
    What do you think? Is a gluten-free diet for people in medical need something that deserves to be subsidized?
    Read the more at: Dietitians Association of Australia

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/08/2016 - People with celiac disease are supposed to follow a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. Celiac patients should receive regular follow-up dietary interviews and blood tests to make sure that they are successfully following the diet.
    However, none of these methods offer an accurate measure of dietary compliance. The only way to know for sure, is to test. A team of researchers recently set out to evaluate the measurement of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stools as a marker of gluten-free diet adherence in celiac patients and compare it with traditional methods of gluten-free diet monitoring.
    The team conducted a prospective, nonrandomized, multi-center study including 188 celiac patients on gluten-free diet and 84 healthy controls. Subjects were given a dietary questionnaire and fecal GIP quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). They simultaneously measured serological anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) IgA and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (anti-DGP) IgA antibodies.
    A total of 56 of the 188 celiac patients, about 30 percent, had detectable GIP levels in stools. There was significant association between age and GIP in stools that revealed increasing dietary transgressions with advancing age. Nearly forty percent occurred in in subjects 13 years of age or older, with 60% occurring in men 13 years of age or older.
    The team found no connection between fecal GIP and dietary questionnaire or anti-tTG antibodies. However, they did spot a connection between GIP and anti-DGP antibodies, with seven of the 53 GIP stool-positive patients testing positive for anti-DGP.
    The detection of gluten peptides in stool samples shows the limits of traditional methods for monitoring a gluten-free diet in celiac patients. The GIP ELISA provides direct and quantitative assessment of gluten exposure soon after consumption, and might improve diagnosis and clinical management of non-responsive celiac disease and refractory celiac disease.
    Basically, doctors need to take a much more hands on role in monitoring celiac patients who are following gluten-free diets.
    Source:
    Am J Gastroenterol 2016; 111:1456–1465; doi:10.1038/ajg.2016.439; published online 20 September 2016 The research team included Isabel Comino PhD1, Fernando Fernández-Bañares MD, PhD2, María Esteve MD, PhD2, Luís Ortigosa MD, PhD3, Gemma Castillejo MD, PhD4, Blanca Fambuena MS5, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx MD, PhD6, Carlos Sierra MD, PhD7, Alfonso Rodríguez-Herrera MD, PhD8, José Carlos Salazar MD9, Ángel Caunedo MD10, J M Marugán-Miguelsanz MD, PhD11, José Antonio Garrote MD, PhD12, Santiago Vivas MD, PhD13, Oreste lo Iacono MD, PhD14, Alejandro Nuñez BSc13, Luis Vaquero MD, PhD13, Ana María Vegas MD12, Laura Crespo MD12, Luis Fernández-Salazar MD, PhD11, Eduardo Arranz MD, PhD11, Victoria Alejandra Jiménez-García MD10, Marco Antonio Montes-Cano MD, PhD15, Beatriz Espín MD, PhD9, Ana Galera MD8, Justo Valverde MD8, Francisco José Girón MD7, Miguel Bolonio MSc6, Antonio Millán MD, PhD5, Francesc Martínez Cerezo 4, César Guajardo MD3, José Ramón Alberto MD3, Mercé Rosinach MD, PhD2, Verónica Segura BSc1, Francisco León MD, PhD16, Jorge Marinich PhD17, Alba Muñoz-Suano PhD17, Manuel Romero-Gómez MD, PhD5, Ángel Cebolla PhD17 and Carolina Sousa PhD1
    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville, Spain; the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitari Mutua Terrassa, and CIBERehd, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain; the Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de La Candelaria, Tenerife, Spain; Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Reus, Spain; the Unit for the Clinical Management of Digestive Diseases and CIBERehd and Gastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital Universitario Virgen de Valme, Seville, Spain; the Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Celiac Disease and Digestive Inmunopatology Unit, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, Valencia, Spain; the Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital Materno-Infantil, Malaga, Spain; the Gastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Instituto Hispalense de Pediatría, Seville, Spain; the Servicio de Gastroenterología Pediátrica, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain; the Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Seville, Spain; the Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, Instituto de Biología y Genética Molecular (IBGM), University of Valladolid, CSIC and Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; the Clinical Analysis and Pediatrics, Hospital Universitario Río Hortega, Valladolid, Spain; the Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario de Leon, Leon, Spain; the Sección de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital del Tajo, Madrid, Spain; the Servicio de Inmunología, CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/IBiS/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain; with Celimmune, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, and with Biomedal SL, Seville, Spain

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2017 - More people than ever are following a gluten-free diet, but does the diet carry health risks that could cause harm in the long run? That's a very possible scenario, according to a report published in the journal Epidemiology.
    The report presents strong data to suggest that numerous gluten-free food staples contain high levels of toxic metals, which means that many gluten-free eaters could face higher risks for cancer and other chronic illnesses.
    Moreover, the US studies both reveal that people who follow a gluten-free diet have twice as much arsenic in their urine as those who eat a non-gluten-free diet. They also have 70 per cent more mercury in their blood, along with high levels of other toxic metals, such as lead and cadmium. Clearly the report invites further study to determine if these potentially negative effects are merely statistical, or if they are actually represented in corresponding numbers of gluten-free dieters.
    So, look for more study to see if people eating gluten-free are actually having higher rates of cancer and other toxic metal-related disorders.
    Meantime, you may be able to mitigate negative effects of a gluten-free diet by choosing products with lower levels of toxic metals. California-grown rice, for example seems to have lower levels compared to Chinese rice.
    If you follow a gluten-free diet for medical reasons, keep an eye out for symptoms related to toxic metal exposure, and consult a doctor if you think you are experiencing such symptoms.
    Read more at: Celiac.com.
    Does a Gluten-free Diet Mean Higher Arsenic and Mercury Levels? Read more at The Daily Mail.



  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/21/2018 - Just a year ago, Starbucks debuted their Canadian bacon, egg and cheddar cheese gluten-free sandwich. During that year, the company basked in praise from customers with celiac disease and gluten-sensitivity for their commitment to delivering a safe gluten-free alternative to it’s standard breakfast offerings.
    But that commitment came to an ignoble end recently as Starbucks admitted that their gluten-free sandwich was plagued by  “low sales,” and was simply not sustainable from a company perspective. The sandwich may not have sold well, but it was much-loved by those who came to rely on it.
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/19/2018 - Looking for a nutritious, delicious meal that is both satisfying and gluten-free? This tasty quinoa salad is just the thing for you. Easy to make and easy to transport to work. This salad of quinoa and vegetables gets a rich depth from chicken broth, and a delicious tang from red wine vinegar. Just pop it in a container, seal and take it to work or school. Make the quinoa a day or two ahead as needed. Add or subtract veggies as you like.
    Ingredients:
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    Dish into bowls.
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/18/2018 - Across the country, colleges and universities are rethinking the way they provide food services for students with food allergies and food intolerance. In some cases, that means major renovations. In other cases, it means creating completely new dining and food halls. To document both their commitment and execution of gluten-free and allergen-free dining, these new food halls are frequently turning to auditing and accreditation firms, such as Kitchens with Confidence.
    The latest major player to make the leap to allergen-free dining is Syracuse University. The university’s Food Services recently earned an official gluten-free certification from Kitchens with Confidence for four of the University’s dining centers, with the fifth soon to follow.
    To earn the gluten-free certification from Kitchens with Confidence, food services must pass a 41 point audit process that includes 200 control check points. The food service must also agree to get any new food item approved in advance, and to submit to monthly testing of prep surfaces, to furnish quarterly reports, and to provide information on any staffing changes, recalls or incident reports. Kitchens with Confidence representatives also conduct annual inspections of each dining center.
    Syracuse students and guests eating at Ernie Davis, Shaw, Graham and Sadler dining centers can now choose safe, reliable gluten-free food from a certified gluten-free food center. The fifth dining center, Brockway, is currently undergoing renovations scheduled for completion by fall, when Brockway will also receive its certification.
    Syracuse Food Services has offered a gluten-free foods in its dining centers for years. According to Jamie Cyr, director of Auxiliary Services, the university believes that the independent Gluten-Free Certification from Kitchens with Confidence will help ease the anxiety for parents and students.”
    Syracuse is understandably proud of their accomplishment. According to Mark Tewksbury, director of residence dining operations, “campus dining centers serve 11,000 meals per day and our food is made fresh daily. Making sure that it is nutritious, delicious and safe for all students is a top priority.”
    Look for more colleges and universities to follow in the footsteps of Syracuse and others that have made safe, reliable food available for their students with food allergies or sensitivities.
    Read more.

    Zyana Morris
    Celiac.com 05/17/2018 - Celiac disease is not one of the most deadly diseases out there, but it can put you through a lot of misery. Also known as coeliac, celiac disease is an inherited immune disorder. What happens is that your body’s immune system overreacts to gluten and damages the small intestine. People who suffer from the disease cannot digest gluten, a protein found in grain such as rye, barley, and wheat. 
    While it may not sound like a severe complication at first, coeliac can be unpleasant to deal with. What’s worse is it would lower your body’s capacity to absorb minerals and vitamins. Naturally, the condition would cause nutritional deficiencies. The key problem that diagnosing celiac is difficult and takes take longer than usual. Surprisingly, the condition has over 200 identified symptoms.
    More than three million people suffer from the coeliac disease in the United States alone. Even though diagnosis is complicated, there are symptoms that can help you identify the condition during the early stages to minimize the damage. 
    Here is how you can recognize the main symptoms of celiac disease:
    Diarrhea
    In various studies conducted over years, the most prominent symptom of celiac disease is chronic diarrhea.
    People suffering from the condition would experience loose watery stools that can last for up to four weeks after they stop taking gluten. Diarrhea can also be a symptom of food poisoning and other conditions, which is why it makes it difficult to diagnose coeliac. In certain cases, celiac disease can take up to four years to establish a sound diagnosis.
    Vomiting
    Another prominent symptom is vomiting.  
    When accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting can be a painful experience that would leave you exhausted. It also results in malnutrition and the patient experiences weight loss (not in a good way though). If you experience uncontrolled vomiting, report the matter to a physician to manage the condition.
    Bloating
    Since coeliac disease damages the small intestine, bloating is another common system. This is due to inflammation of the digestive tract. In a study with more than a 1,000 participants, almost 73% of the people reported bloating after ingesting gluten. 
    Bloating can be managed by eliminating gluten from the diet which is why a gluten-free diet is necessary for people suffering from celiac disease.
    Fatigue
    Constant feeling of tiredness and low energy levels is another common symptom associated with celiac disease. If you experience a lack of energy after in taking gluten, then you need to consult a physician to diagnose the condition. Now fatigue can also result from inefficient thyroid function, infections, and depression (a symptom of the coeliac disease). However, almost 51% of celiac patients suffer from fatigue in a study.
    Itchy Rash
    Now the chances of getting a rash after eating gluten are slim, but the symptom has been associated with celiac disease in the past. The condition can cause dermatitis herpetiformis, which causes a blistering skin rash that occurs around the buttocks, knees, and elbows. 
    A study found out that almost 17% of patients suffering from celiac disease might develop dermatitis herpetiformis due to lack of right treatment. Make sure you schedule an online appointment with your dermatologist or visit the nearest healthcare facility to prevent worsening of symptoms.
    Even with such common symptoms, diagnosing the condition is imperative for a quick recovery and to mitigate the long-term risks associated with celiac disease. 
    Sources:
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov  Celiac.com ncbi.nlm.nih.gov  mendfamily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/16/2018 - Galectins are a family of animal lectins marked by their affinity for N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates. Galectins control several immune cell processes and influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. A team of researchers recently set out to assess the role of galectins, particularly galectin-1 (Gal-1), in the treatment of celiac disease.
    The research team included Victoria Sundblad, Amado A. Quintar, Luciano G. Morosi, Sonia I. Niveloni, Ana Cabanne, Edgardo Smecuol, Eduardo Mauriño, Karina V. Mariño, Julio C. Bai, Cristina A. Maldonado, and Gabriel A. Rabinovich.
    The researchers examined the role of galectins in intestinal inflammation, particularly in Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease patients, as well as in murine models resembling these inflammatory conditions. 
    Maintaining the fine balance between host immunity and tolerance promotes gut homeostasis, and helps to prevent inflammation. To gain insight into the role of Gal-1 in celiac patients, the team demonstrated an increase in Gal-1 expression following a gluten-free diet along with an increase in the frequency of Foxp3+ cells. 
    The resolution of the inflammatory response may promote the recovery process, leading to a reversal of gut damage and a regeneration of villi. Among other things, the team’s findings support the use of Gal-1 agonists to treat severe mucosal inflammation. In addition, Gal-1 may serve as a potential biomarker to follow the progression of celiac disease treatment.
    Gut inflammation may be governed by a coordinated network of galectins and their glycosylated ligands, triggering either anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory responses. That network may influence the interplay between intestinal epithelial cells and the highly specialized gut immune system in physiologic and pathologic settings.
    The team’s results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory and tolerogenic response associated with gluten-free diet in celiac patients is matched by a substantial up-regulation of Gal-1. This suggests a major role of this lectin in favoring resolution of inflammation and restoration of mucosal homeostasis. 
    This data highlights the regulated expression of galectin-1 (Gal-1), a proto-type member of the galectin family, during intestinal inflammation in untreated and treated celiac patients. Further study of this area could lead to better understanding of the mechanisms behind celiac disease, and potentially to a treatment of the disease.
    Source:
    Front. Immunol., 01 March 2018.  
    The researchers in this study are variously affiliated with the Laboratorio de Inmunopatología, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; the Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina; the Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Córdoba, Argentina; the Laboratorio de Glicómica Funcional y Molecular, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; the Sección Intestino Delgado, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital de Gastroenterología Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo, Buenos Aires, Argentina; the Unidad de Patología, Hospital de Gastroenterología, Bonorino Udaondo, Buenos Aires, Argentina; the Instituto de Investigaciones, Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires, Argentina; and the Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.