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  • Jefferson Adams
    Jefferson Adams

    High Fiber During Pregnancy Lowers Celiac Risk for Children

    Reviewed and edited by a celiac disease expert.

    The researchers found that children born to mothers who ate the most fiber (over 45 grams per day) were 34% less like to develop celiac disease, compared with mothers who ate less than 19 grams of fiber per day.

    High Fiber During Pregnancy Lowers Celiac Risk for Children - Image: CC--leonelponce
    Caption: Image: CC--leonelponce

    Celiac.com 06/24/2019 - A team of researchers recently set out to assess whether maternal diet during pregnancy plays any role in the later development of celiac disease in their children.

    Among other things, they found that moms who eat a high-fiber diet during pregnancy could reduce the chances of their children getting celiac disease later on, according to a new study, which is one of the first to investigate the link between fiber intake during pregnancy and children's risk of celiac disease.



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    In the study, a team of researchers analyzed information from more than 88,000 Norwegian children and their mothers, who gave birth between 1999 and 2009. The research team included Dr. Ketil Størdal, a research professor at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and a pediatric gastroenterologist at Østfold Hospital Trust in Norway, and other colleagues.

    The mothers answered questions about their fiber and gluten intake in their 22nd week of pregnancy, and the researchers tracked the children for about 11 years to see if any developed celiac disease.

    Kids of High Fiber Moms Have Lower Celiac Risk

    The researchers found that children born to mothers who ate the most fiber (over 45 grams per day) were 34% less like to develop celiac disease, compared with mothers who ate less than 19 grams of fiber per day.

    Mom's Fiber Intake May Influence Gut Bacteria in Kids

    It's known that fiber affects gut bacteria, aka, the gut "microbiome." Indeed, some studies have found that gut bacteria, aka, the gut "microbiome" is different in people with celiac disease than in those without it. The researchers think that the fiber levels of the mom might influence her child's gut flora, which could then reduce the child's celiac disease risk. 

    The researchers cautioned people not to read too much into the early findings. The team, says Dr. Størdal, "cannot yet recommend any specific dietary measures during pregnancy to prevent celiac disease, and this needs to be further studied."

    No Connection to Gluten-Free Diet

    However, the study found no evidence for a link between the mother's gluten intake and her child's risk of celiac disease. The study's findings, said Dr. Størdal, "do not support gluten restriction for pregnant women."

    The study will be presented Friday (June 7) at the annual meeting of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). It has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal.

    Read more at Medicalxpress.com



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  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams

    Jefferson Adams is Celiac.com's senior writer and Digital Content Director. He earned his B.A. and M.F.A. at Arizona State University, and has authored more than 2,500 articles on celiac disease. His coursework includes studies in science, scientific methodology, biology, anatomy, medicine, logic, and advanced research. He previously served as SF Health News Examiner for Examiner.com, and devised health and medical content for Sharecare.com. Jefferson has spoken about celiac disease to the media, including an appearance on the KQED radio show Forum, and is the editor of the book "Cereal Killers" by Scott Adams and Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.


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  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/27/2015 - We know that women with infertility have higher rates of celiac disease than women who are not infertile.
    There's been some evidence to suggest that celiac disease might have impact women's reproductive health. However, the quest for more solid answers continues.
    A team of researchers recently set out to assess fertility and outcomes of pregnancy among women with celiac disease. The research team included Stephanie M. Moleski, Christina C. Lindenmeyer, J. Jon Veloski, Robin S. Miller, Cynthia L. Miller, David Kastenberg, and Anthony J. DiMarino. The team crafted a retrospective cohort study in which they analyzed information gathered from patients at a tertiary care celiac center, along with information gathered from members of two national celiac disease awareness organizations.
    A group of women without celiac disease served as control subjects. Both groups answered an anonymous online survey of 43 questions about menstrual history, fertility, and pregnancy outcomes. The group included 329 women with small bowel biopsy-confirmed celiac disease and 641 control subjects. Of the 970 women included in the study, 733 (75.6%) reported that they had been pregnant at some point.
    In terms of pregnancy, there was no significant difference between women with celiac disease (n=245/329, 74.5%) and controls (488/641, 76.1%; P=0.57). However, fewer women with celiac disease than controls (79.6% vs. 84.8%) reported giving birth following 1 or more pregnancies (P=0.03).
    Women with celiac disease had higher rates of spontaneous abortion than did control subjects (50.6% vs. 40.6%; P=0.01). Women with celiac disease also had higher rates of premature delivery, at 23.6% compared to 15.9% among controls (P=0.02).
    The average age at menarche was a bit higher in the celiac disease group, at 12.7 years, than in the control group, which came in at 12.4 years (P=0.01).
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    Source:
    Ann Gastroenterol 2015; 28 (2): 236-240


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/18/2018 - Despite many studies on immune development in children, there still isn’t much good data on how a mother’s diet during pregnancy and infancy influences a child’s immune development.  A team of researchers recently set out to assess whether changes in maternal or infant diet might influence the risk of allergies or autoimmune disease.
    The team included Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, Despo Ierodiakonou, Katharine Jarrold, Sergio Cunha,  Jennifer Chivinge, Zoe Robinson, Natalie Geoghegan, Alisha Ruparelia, Pooja Devani, Marialena Trivella, Jo Leonardi-Bee, and Robert J. Boyle.
    They are variously associated with the Department of Undiagnosed Celiac Disease More Common in Women and Girls International Health, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; the Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; the Section of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; the Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; the Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; and Stanford University in the USA.
    Team members searched MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Web of Science, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) for observational studies conducted between January 1946 and July 2013, and interventional studies conducted through December 2017, that evaluated the relationship between diet during pregnancy, lactation, or the first year of life, and future risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. 
    They then selected studies, extracted data, and assessed bias risk. They evaluated data using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). They found 260 original studies, covering 964,143 participants, of milk feeding, including 1 intervention trial of breastfeeding promotion, and 173 original studies, covering 542,672 participants, of other maternal or infant dietary exposures, including 80 trials of 26 maternal, 32 infant, or 22 combined interventions. 
    They found a high bias risk in nearly half of the more than 250 milk feeding studies and in about one-quarter of studies of other dietary exposures. Evidence from 19 intervention trials suggests that oral supplementation with probiotics during late pregnancy and lactation may reduce risk of eczema. 44 cases per 1,000; 95% CI 20–64), and 6 trials, suggest that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and lactation may reduce risk of allergic sensitization to egg. GRADE certainty of these findings was moderate. 
    The team found less evidence, and low GRADE certainty, for claims that breastfeeding reduces eczema risk during infancy, that longer exclusive breastfeeding is associated with reduced type 1 diabetes mellitus, and that probiotics reduce risk of infants developing allergies to cow’s milk. 
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    Stay tuned for more on diet during pregnancy and its role in celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS Med. 2018 Feb; 15(2): e1002507. doi:  10.1371/journal.pmed.1002507


    Jonas F. Ludvigsson, M.D.
    Celiac.com 09/01/2018 - Celiac disease is a common disease triggered by gliadin exposure in genetically sensitive individuals.  It has long been known that untreated celiac disease is associated with intestinal malabsorption, but it is also associated with ongoing inflammation.  This inflammation may have adverse effects on the uptake of important nutrients.  This is probably the underlying reason for the increased risk of osteoporosis demonstrated in patients with celiac disease.  Malabsorption and ongoing inflammation in untreated celiac disease could also potentially have a negative effect on fetal development.
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/22/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to determine if there is any association between prenatal gluten exposure and offspring risk of type 1 diabetes in humans.
    The research team first designed a national prospective cohort study using the national health information registries in Denmark. They looked at data on pregnant Danish women enrolled into the Danish National Birth Cohort, between January 1996 and October 2002, and assessed maternal gluten intake, based on maternal consumption of gluten containing foods, as reported in a 360 item food frequency questionnaire at week 25 of pregnancy.
    The team gathered information on type 1 diabetes occurrence in the participants’ children, from 1 January 1996 to 31 May 2016 by linking to the Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes.
    Overall, their study included data on 101,042 pregnancies in 91,745 women, of whom 70,188 filled out the food frequency questionnaire. Once they corrected the figures to account for multiple pregnancies, pregnancies ending in abortions, stillbirths, lack of information regarding the pregnancy, and pregnancies with implausibly high or low energy intake, they included 67,565 pregnancies and 63,529 women.
    Gluten intake averaged 13.0 grams per day, ranging from under 7 grams per day to more than 20 grams per day. There were 247 children with type 1 diabetes among the group, for an incidence rate of 0.37%, with an average follow-up of 15.6 years.
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