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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    BACK TO SCHOOL: HOW MANY, AND WHICH CHILDREN SHOULD BE GLUTEN-FREE?


    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.


    • Journal of Gluten Sensitivity Autumn 2014 Issue


    Celiac.com 07/19/2016 - We know that celiac disease afflicts almost 1% of the general population (1). We also know that about 12% of the general population has non-celiac gluten sensitivity, as indicated by elevated IgG class anti-gliadin antibodies in their blood (2). Although elevated antibodies identified by this test are often dismissed as "non-specific", they are clear evidence that the immune system is mounting a reaction against the most common food in our western diet. It is also true that many people who produce these antibodies and have then excluded gluten from their diets have also experienced improved health. Unfortunately, most of the individuals who have elevated IgG anti-gliadin antibodies and might benefit from avoiding gluten do not know that they are gluten sensitive and/or have celiac disease. Thus, we really don't know how many, or which, school children should be avoiding gluten to optimize their academic potential as they work their way through the education system.


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    Approaching this issue from a different angle, we know that between 10% and 15% of the U.S. population has dyslexia (3). About 60% of those with ADHD have dyslexia (3). If we calculate the prevalence of ADHD, at 8.8% of the population (4), then just the ADHD component, it should give us 5.28% of the population with dyslexia. But we can't tell how much overlap there is between this group and the group that constitutes between 10% and 15% of the population that are reported as having dyslexia. These disabilities have been given considerable attention and have been studied for some time, yet we really know little about their causes, except in cases of traumatic brain injury.

    However, there is a startling study, reported in The Times ten years ago, from the Nunnykirk School in Northumberland, U.K. (5). The astounding results of this study continue to cry out for further research and possible replication. After 6 months on a gluten-free diet, testing showed that 11 of the 12 (92%) live-in students had improved their reading and comprehension at more than twice the rate at which regular students are expected to improve. Among the 22 students living in the community and attending this special school for dyslexic students during the day, 17 of them (77%) showed similar improvements (5). To put these results in perspective, special needs teachers are often very proud when they can help students achieve at rates similar to regular students. Doubling the rates of improvement is an astonishingly positive result! And a few of these students leaped ahead at six times the rate of normal students! The numbers of students involved in this study are too small to allow us to extrapolate to other dyslexic populations. And, given that the research was done in the United Kingdom, where definitions of learning disabilities, and other factors may be dissimilar, and that the work was reported in a newspaper instead of a peer reviewed journal, and the startlingly positive nature of these results, we really need further, carefully designed studies to explore this phenomenon.

    The Nunnykirk findings are consistent with the extensive brain and neurological research that has been done at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital at the University of Sheffield, over the last two decades, by Marios Hadjivassiliou and his colleagues. They have found that a strict gluten-free diet can often relieve central and peripheral neurological symptoms.

    Further, many prominent researchers who work with children and adults who have dyslexia characterize it as a neurobiological condition, and can demonstrate, with MRI, altered brain function in dyslexia (8). It is also clear that many cases of dyslexia are at least partly genetically conferred (8, 9). Neither are learning disabilities limited to dyslexia. Although some practitioners lump two or more learning disabilities together, the literature distinguishes between dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, dysphasia/aphasia, auditory processing disorders, visual processing disorders, etc. Some such practitioners not only differentiate between types of learning disabilities, they also differentiate between sub-types of disabilities. For instance, motor dysgraphia (where fine motor speed is impaired), dyslexic dysgraphia (where normal fine motor speed allows them to draw or copy but impairs spontaneous writing) and spatial dysgraphia (where handwriting is illegible due to distortion) can each be identified based on symptoms (10). Similar sub-types are seen in other learning disabilities.

    But what if the findings at Nunnykirk School are broadly applicable to all of these types of learning problems? Or perhaps further research can tell us which types and sub-types of learning disabilities can often be alleviated by a gluten-free diet.

    My own professional observations suggest that the number of students helped by a gluten-free diet would be similar to the proportions seen at Nunnykirk School. I have also observed that as the strictness of the diet increases, so does the number of students who improve. However, the diagnosing professionals are becoming reluctant to differentiate, even between general types of learning disabilities such as dyslexia and dysgraphia. As teachers, we were told that a child had learning disabilities and then, if not specified in the documents we were given, we had to figure out exactly what type of disability they had, then devise or research effective ways of teaching these students. I have done a little of both, but my experience is that this choice varies from one teacher to the next, and one situation to the next. Unfortunately, depending on the individual teacher's workload, teaching background, and personal biases, these children can sometimes be neglected or under-served, a choice that is often dictated by excessive workloads and demands on teachers' time to perform other tasks, especially extensive reporting and supervising sports and other extra-curricular activities.

    Please recall the overlap between dyslexia and ADHD mentioned earlier (3), and consider that there are ten reports of connections between attention deficit disorders and celiac disease published in the peer reviewed medical literature. Now, please recall that about 60% of these ADHD children will have dyslexia (3). Since the current, and past issues, of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, require that ADHD and learning disorders each be differentiated from any medical condition that might be causing the same symptoms and be alleviated by resolution of the medical condition in question. On that basis alone, almost every child being considered for a diagnosis of learning disorders or ADHD should be thoroughly tested for celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

    Yet, I would be very surprised to learn that this is commonly being done. Thus, we have a situation in which we are forced to rely upon a study conducted by a group of teachers, in cooperation with parents and students, that was published in The Times (5) and we must take action on our own because, as yet, celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity are not yet being differentiated from ADHD and/or learning disabilities. The really tragic part of this story is that a gluten-free diet, if started early enough, can reduce or completely eliminate all of these problems with learning disabilities and attention deficits, when gluten is the underlying problem.

    If you or your spouse are gluten sensitive, or have celiac disease, do you also have children who struggle in school? Based on the data from Nunnykirk School, current blood tests are probably not sufficient to rule out those who would benefit from a gluten-free diet. For the moment, you may need to institute a trial of a gluten-free diet, as mentioned above, while we await further research in this area. But wouldn't it be valuable for succeeding generations to know, or have a pretty clear idea whether the diet could help? And with what types and/or sub-types of learning disorders? That's where more research could really help. We already know that there is an association between gluten sensitivity and seizure disorders, ataxia and cerebellar degeneration, neuropathy (damage to peripheral nervous system), schizophrenia, depression, migraine, anxiety disorders, autism, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis (an autoimmune neuromuscular disease), and white matter lesions in the brain (11). It should not be surprising if gluten underlies many or most cases of learning disorders and attention deficits. And if research can tell us which cases would be most likely to benefit from the diet, that will be a huge step forward for parents, students, teachers, and government agencies that provide funding for the education of those who are afflicted with these ailments.

    In the meantime, we only have the information that we have. So, despite its many weaknesses, the Nunnykirk investigation of dyslexic children argues for experimental implementation, on a trial basis. I would suggest at least a six-months-long period of strict gluten avoidance to determine whether it will help individuals who suffer from dyslexia and/or other learning disabilities.

    Sources:
    1. Fasano A, Berti I, Gerarduzzi T, Not T, Colletti RB, Drago S, Elitsur Y, Green PH, Guandalini S, Hill ID, Pietzak M, Ventura A, Thorpe M, Kryszak D, Fornaroli F, Wasserman SS, Murray JA, Horvath K. Prevalence of celiac disease in at-risk and not-at-risk groups in the United States: a large multicenter study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Feb 10;163(3):286-92.
    2. Hadjivassiliou M, Grünewald R A, Davies-Jones G A B. Gluten sensitivity as a neurological illness. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002;72:560-563.
    3. Dyslexia Research Institute http://www.dyslexia-add.org/
    4. National Resource Center on ADHD http://www.help4adhd.org/about/statistics
    5. Blair http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/uk/article1924736.ece
    6. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.
    7. Aziz I, Hadjivassiliou M. Coeliac disease: noncoeliac gluten sensitivity--food for thought. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jul;11(7):398-9.
    8. Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA. The Neurobiology of Reading and Dyslexia. Focus on Basics - Connecting Research & Practice, Volume 5,A: Aug. 2001. http://www.ncsall.net/index.html@id=278.html
    9. Eicher JD, Powers NR, Miller LL, Mueller KL, Mascheretti S, Marino C, Willcutt EG, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Smith SD, Pennington BF, Tomblin JB, Ring SM, Gruen JR. Characterization of the DYX2 locus on chromosome 6p22 with reading disability, language impairment, and IQ. Hum Genet. 2014 Jul;133(7):869-81.
    10. About Education http://specialed.about.com/od/readingliteracy/a/Dyslexia-And-Dysgraphia.htm
    11. Jackson JR, Eaton WW, Cascella NG, Fasano A, Kelly DL.Neurologic and psychiatric manifestations of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Psychiatr Q. 2012 Mar;83(1):91-102.
    12. Diaconu G, Burlea M, Grigore I, Anton DT, Trandafir LM. Celiac disease with neurologic manifestations in children. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2013 Jan-Mar;117(1):88-94. PubMed PMID: 24505898.
    13. Niederhofer H. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and celiac disease: a brief report. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011;13(3). pii: PCC.10br01104PMCID: PMC3184556.
    14. Niederhofer H, Pittschieler K. A preliminary investigation of ADHD symptoms in persons with celiac disease. J Atten Disord. 2006 Nov;10(2):200-4.
    15. Zelnik N, Pacht A, Obeid R, Lerner A. Range of neurologic disorders in patients with celiac disease. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):1672-6.
    16. Kozłowska ZE. [Evaluation of mental status of children with malabsorption syndrome after long-term treatment with gluten-free diet (preliminary report)]. Psychiatr Pol. 1991 Mar-Apr;25(2):130-4. Polish.
    17. Diaconu G, Burlea M, Grigore I, Anton DT, Trandafir LM. Celiac disease with neurologic manifestations in children. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2013 Jan-Mar;117(1):88-94. PubMed PMID: 24505898.
    18. Niederhofer H. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and celiac disease: a brief report. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011;13(3). pii: PCC.10br01104. PMCID: PMC3184556.
    19. Niederhofer H, Pittschieler K. A preliminary investigation of ADHD symptoms in persons with celiac disease. J Atten Disord. 2006 Nov;10(2):200-4.
    20. 4: Zelnik N, Pacht A, Obeid R, Lerner A. Range of neurologic disorders in patients with celiac disease. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):1672-6.
    21. Kozłowska ZE. [Evaluation of mental status of children with malabsorption syndrome after long-term treatment with gluten-free diet (preliminary report)]. Psychiatr Pol. 1991 Mar-Apr;25(2):130-4. Polish.


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    Danna Korn

    The key to gluten-free cooking is simple: take a little bit of homework on your part, a dash of extra effort, and dump in a whole lot of creativity - voila! You're a gluten-free gourmet! But some of the greatest culinary challenges are for those meals-on-the-run, which seem to be the most common kind sometimes. Kids with Celiac Disease has extensive menu suggestions for all meals and snacks, but the following is a short excerpt of on-the-go snack ideas:
    Chips There are many flavors of gluten-free chips available at grocery stores! string cheese Taquitos, quesadillas, tacos, tamales (made with corn tortillas - they travel well) Nachos Corn Nuts Raisins and other dried fruit Chex mix There is a gluten-free cereal available at many grocery stores or health food markets thats just like Chex--make the mix as you would Chex mix. Popcorn Cheese cubes with toothpicks in them and rice crackers Fruit rolls Lettuce wrapped around ham, cheese, turkey, or roast beef Rice cakes (check with the manufacturer; not all are gluten-free) Hard-boiled eggs or deviled eggs Applesauce Apples dipped in caramel or peanut butter (if youre sending apples in a lunchbox, remember to pour lemon juice over the slices; that will keep them from turning brown) Individually packaged pudding Jello Yogurt Fruit cups (individually packaged cups are great for lunchboxes) Fruit snacks (like Farleys brand) High-protein bars (e.g., Tigers Milk, GeniSoy) Nuts Marshmallows Trail mix Combine peanuts, M&Ms, dried fruit, chocolate chips, and other trail mix items for a great on-the-go snack.
    - Beware of commercial trail mixes--they often roll their date pieces in oat flour. The occasional candy bar or other junk food treat (see the next chapter for information on safe junk food)

    Dr. Rodney Ford M.D.
    Celiac.com 04/20/2016 - I am likely to be accused of gluten heresy. That is because I propose that celiac disease and gluten sensitivity usually coexist. By this I mean that they are not mutually exclusive entities.
    In other words, most people who have celiac disease are also gluten-sensitive. Many people who are gluten-sensitive are likely to develop celiac disease with continued gluten exposure (depending on their genetic markers).
    My observations show that the distinction between celiac disease and gluten-sensitivity (the gluten syndrome) is blurred. The purpose of published algorithms and decision trees are designed to separate out celiac disease from other gluten-illnesses. I suggest that this thinking is flawed.
    For example, most flow charts go something like this: (See Flow Chart 1 at left).
    People are selected for celiac-blood-tests for a number of reasons. If your blood tests are positive (and usually if you carry a DQ2/8 gene), then you get an endoscopy to confirm/deny the diagnosis. This allows you to be categorized either Yes-celiac disease or Not-celiac disease. There is no overlap. This is an "us-and-them" scenario.
    However, isolating YES-celiac disease from every other gluten problem does not take into account that people who have gluten-gut-damage may well have other manifestations of gluten-related disorders.
    Such simplistic algorithms (decision trees) strike problems at every decision point. Such as: Who should be tested? Who should be re-tested? When should these tests be done? At what age? On how much gluten? What tests should be done? What are the cut-off levels? How important is carrying the DQ2/8 genes? What about sero-negative celiac disease? How accurate are endoscopic biopsies? Who interprets the Marsh scale? How long should a gluten challenge be?
    Such simplistic algorithms (decision trees) also do not give satisfactory answers to the following questions:
    Why do 10% of people with celiac disease have little or no symptoms, despite having severe small bowel damage (villous atrophy)? This group is called "asymptomatic" celiac disease. Villous atrophy alone cannot account for the majority of gluten-related symptoms. Why do half of the people with celiac disease have autonomic nervous system dysfunction? This is the disturbance of the automatic nerve activity of your internal organs. This cannot be directly attributed to villous atrophy. Why do most people with celiac disease have some brain/mental upset, including the pervasive brain-fog? Many people have neurological disease from gluten but do not have established celiac disease. How can so many "extra-intestinal manifestations" of celiac disease be attributed to intestinal gut damage alone? I am sure that you will have witnessed strong feelings from the defenders of 'celiac-disease-is-a-stand-alone illness'. For instance, read these two opposing comments from Facebook:
    A. "I find it hard to believe that gluten intolerant people (or gluten avoiders) are as strict as us who have celiac disease." B. "I am gluten intolerant (suspected Celiac but I refuse to eat gluten in order to be tested properly) … I am incredibly strict on what I eat." The world of gluten is not black and white! But there remains a tension between those who have "biopsy-proven" celiac disease, and those people who are "gluten-intolerant". However, there is a cross-over between gluten-sensitivity/intolerance and celiac disease. There is no sharp dividing line – there is lots of grey!
    I would like to see the support groups of both celiac disease and gluten sensitivity work together with a focus on their common ground. This is already happening in some countries. Both groups promote an accurate diagnosis and a strict gluten-free diet. But I call into question the accuracy of current diagnostic methodology.
    Another comment from Facebook is a good example of these blurred lines:
    "I had an endoscopy and I have some small intestine damage: increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, shortened villi and duodenitis. The gastroenterologist said I had gluten-sensitivity but because I was not celiac (wasn't Marsh stage 3a), he said that I didn't need to be quite as careful with gluten. But I know I am super sensitive - even a small piece of chocolate with gluten in it makes me sick for a few weeks. I suspect that I either didn't have enough gluten before the endoscopy, or I am in the early stages of developing it."
    This is what I conclude:
    Both groups (people with celiac disease, and people with gluten sensitivity/intolerance) come under the umbrella category of gluten-related disorders. The term non-celiac gluten-sensitivity (NCGS) excludes those with evidence of intestinal damage from gluten. But with time and continued gluten ingestion, some of these people will develop celiac disease. NCGS is part of the gluten-related disorders spectrum (see my book: www.glutenrelateddisorder.com). Both groups have an identical list of possible symptoms. They are both equally harmed by gluten. They are indistinguishable from each other without blood tests and/or endoscopy. For both groups, my recommendation is to be zero gluten. Avoidance of cross-contamination is crucial for everyone. Both groups can be exquisitely sensitive to gluten. Some celiacs experience no symptoms from gluten, making it more of a challenge for them to remain gluten-zero. Some gluten-sensitive people do not yet have overt symptoms but are developing an inflammatory state. Many people who are gluten-sensitive produce antibodies to gluten, AGA (anti-gliadin-antibodies). There is a large literature on this. AGA-positive people are more likely to develop gluten-illnesses. AGA tests are recommended in the Fasano paper the "spectrum of gluten related disorders", for the celiac and gluten sensitivity work-up (particularly for neurological disorders). I use them on a day-to-day basis in my Clinic, and so do many other practitioners. More wheat/gluten harmful proteins have yet to be identified. Early in the development of celiac disease, the person can have significant symptoms, and they may have elevated AGA antibodies, but they may have no evidence yet of intestinal damage. At this stage these two conditions are indistinguishable. How early can you diagnose celiac disease? Do you have to wait until there is substantial intestinal damage so that you can make the classic diagnosis with villous atrophy? Or do you keep on eating gluten until the damage has occurred? Or do you go strictly gluten zero and not know if you are gluten sensitive or have early celiac disease? The HLA gene (DQ2/DQ8) cannot be used as a casting vote. It is my recommendation to abandon gluten as early as possible and not wait until you have substantial intestinal damage, which may never heal. Not only is the gluten intolerant community (this includes celiac disease) confused about gluten-illness. Also, the medical fraternity is confused. The science and clinical issues are rapidly developing whilst most medical practitioners are still looking for the classic celiac with weight loss, malabsorption, and a bloated tummy (and are using an out-of-date simplistic algorithm). Many people request celiac tests of their GPs but are denied the test. The community is much more aware of gluten related disorder than medical practitioners. Yes, there are a lot of issues to think about. These gluten-illnesses are complicated to diagnose. My prediction is that increasing numbers of people will adopt a gluten zero diet. However, almost certainly it is much more than the substance gluten that is making us sick. It will take a long time to unravel all of these strings. Most people are after an easy answer, or a drug, or a vaccine. But I'm sure that it is going to become even more complicated as we learn more. These complexities do not show up in a simplistic algorithm.
    The way for an individual to solve this is to adopt a gluten-zero diet, lifelong.

    Yvonne Vissing Ph.D.
    Celiac.com 05/03/2016 - How do you know when your child has gluten sensitivity, gluten intolerance, or celiac disease? If gluten issues run in your family and you know there is a predisposition to having problems with gluten in foods, then you may be alert to signs that it has been passed on to your child. But if you and your biological family members never had problems with it, then you're not expecting gluten to be an issue. Children arrive with a complicated genetic past that we may not always have the details about. We may not know the health history of the families of our child's other parent, or even sometimes our own. We may not know if anyone had reactions to gluten. Because celiac and gluten sensitivities can appear as chameleons, genes for it may be masked as other health issues. Parents may be a carrier and have no identifiable symptoms at all. People may have celiac disease without ever knowing it.
    It's complicated to raise a child. When they don't feel well, it's hard to figure out when their health problems are physical, emotional, social, or psychosomatic. When it comes to kids, having a belly ache is a common occurrence. So are a variety of symptoms that are linked to celiac disease or gluten intolerance or sensitivity, like headaches, fatigue, skin issues, depression, or GI track problems. When are signs pointing at the normal wear-and-tear of growing up—and when they are related to a syndrome like celiac disease? It takes a significant period of observation to figure this out.
    Celiac disease is regarded to be an immune-mediated enteropathy caused by a permanent sensitivity to gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) found that the prevalence of celiac disease in children between age two-and-a-half and age fifteen ranges from 1 in 80 to 1 in 300 children. This means that in a pediatric practice of 1,500 children there are probably between 5 and 20 children with diagnosed or undiagnosed celiac disease—and potentially a lot more if one adds in gluten intolerance or sensitivities. According to the National Foundation for Celiac Awareness, celiac disease is genetically based, so reactions to gluten are more commonly found in those who have a family history of this autoimmune condition. They collaborated on a multi-phase research project with people diagnosed with celiac disease and at-risk family members who remained untested. Celiac disease was found in 5 to 10 percent of the family members of persons who had been diagnosed with celiac disease. But people may have reactions to gluten yet not have celiac disease. Some may have gluten intolerance or be sensitive to it without being diagnosed with celiac disease, so the actual relationship of health problems potentially associated with gluten may be considerably higher. First and second-degree relatives have more of a risk of developing celiac disease than are more distant relatives. For instance, their research found that celiac disease can occur in about 1 in 22 among children and their parents or siblings. But in analyzing the child's relationship to aunts, uncles, nephews, nieces, cousins, grandparents, half-siblings who may have celiac, the number decreases to 1 in 39. Detailed results of their research can be found from the NFCA's Seriously, Celiac Disease campaign.
    In our family, Chris never knew he was predisposed to celiac disease until he hit his twenties. Celiac is sneaky—while it can occur within people at any age, sometimes it doesn't show up until people get a bit older. As a child, he grew up on sandwiches, cookies, macaroni and cheese, and Grandma's home-made bread. When he had a tummy upset, as good mom I'd bring him chicken noodle soup and saltines. I never knew about celiac disease. My family came from a long line of gluten aficionados. As he hit adolescence and his teen years, signs of gluten intolerance emerged, only we didn't know that's what they were. Few parents link together migraines, skin problems with belly upsets and food "allergies." Chris's doctor dismissed his symptoms as independent, routine growing-up conditions without putting all the pieces of the puzzle together to realize that they were actually all a part of a larger celiac syndrome. It was only when he took a road trip and visited his father's sister and his cousins that he learned about the family's predisposition to celiac. His grandma always had stomach problems, I recall. She lived at a time and place where regular folks living in small towns were simply unaware of conditions such as celiac. As the old saw goes, you can't know what you don't know. In hindsight, she clearly had gluten issues. The gene seems to have been latent in her children, but passed on to take more active forms into the next generation of Chris and his cousin. It's confusing, because one child in the family can have a severe case of celiac while a full-blood sibling may have no sign of it at all! If he hadn't taken that road trip and stopped to visit his aunt, he may never have known that he had celiac. Upon that realization, suddenly everything made sense. All of his erratic symptoms were actually a picture-perfect portrayal of someone with celiac disease!
    We learned a bit about the disease, went to the store looking for gluten-free foods and quickly began modifying his diet. Since his MD couldn't figure out what was making him feel so bad, and if cutting out gluten could make him feel better, we decided that was a course worth pursuing. He felt better immediately. He has never been officially tested for celiac disease, although that would probably have been a better course of action. At that point in time, we simply didn't know about the testing options.
    Testing options have improved significantly over the last decade. The diagnosis of celiac disease can be done with a biopsy of the small intestine mucosa. Blood or serological tests are also helpful but less definitive. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center finds that the serum anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG-IgA) is a widely used antibody blood test for screening for celiac disease, as is a total serum IgA test. The total serum test bolsters the reliability of the tTG test. A newer version of an old anti-gliadin antibody test has been developed called DPG or deamidated gliadin peptides test. Tissue transglutaminase (TTG) measures, endomysial antibody (IgA antibody to endomysium EMA) are recommended by many experts, while formerly used antigliadin antibody tests (AGA) are not as widely used.
    About 95% of people with celiac disease have the HLA-DQ2 gene and most of the remaining 5% have the HLA-DQ8 gene. Genetic testing can determine if someone has one or both of these genes. If someone has the gene it means they are at risk of developing celiac disease, but it does not mean that you necessarily have it. A positive genetic test should be followed up with a celiac blood panel to determine if someone has celiac disease. Celiac disease experts recommend family member testing as a proactive approach to diagnosis and then follow up with tests every 2-3 years or if potential symptoms start to emerge. They note that it is possible for someone to initially have a negative test result, but then test positive years later. This is worthwhile to know when trying to figure out if a child has celiac disease or not. It also means that re-testing may be a necessary process, since both the child's body and the disease propensity may change over time.
    What are warning signs that a child may have celiac disease? According to the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and other celiac experts, there are both gastrointestinal and other symptoms to look for—symptoms that one may not logically associate with gluten. But remember that many of these symptoms may exist independently in children and have no relationship to having celiac disease at all! This is what makes trying to figure out whether or not a child has it extremely challenging.
    Once a determination is made that a child has celiac disease or is highly predisposed to be gluten intolerant or sensitive, changing the child's exposure to gluten in foods becomes of utmost importance. The problem is, most people aren't aware of gluten issues in general, and they particularly aren't thinking of it occurring in children. As Kay Chick (2014) describes in her article, there are many things that parents and teachers can do to proactively prevent problems in routine situations. She points out that many school cafeterias aren't equipped to safely serve children who have to go gluten-free. Most parents don't realize that making accommodations for children with celiac disease are assured under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; seventy-four percent of parents who participated in her study reported their children did not have a 504 plan or written into an Individualized Education Program (IEP) to help everyone make accommodations for their celiac disease. Children with celiac may also be eligible for services under the Individuals Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) if it has an impact on their ability to learn.
    Social events like birthday parties, camps, and field trips may expose children to gluten in foods and provide no alternatives for those who can't eat them. Sharing food is a common childhood occurrence, but an experience that leaves celiac kids out unless they are sure the food is safe. Going to another child's house to play or for a sleep-over may be an extra-big deal for a celiac kid. When the team goes out for a pizza party or ice cream cones after a game, the child with celiac has to be extremely careful. It helps enormously when adults and people in supervisory roles understand that when children need to avoid gluten, it is not because it is a choice—it is a health necessity. While a public awareness campaign to help people understand that there are children (and adults) who have to avoid gluten is underway, there's still a long way to go. Children need to learn self-advocacy skills to keep themselves healthy. This is sometimes hard to do when interacting with parents, teachers, and other adults who think that they understand the complications associated with needing to be gluten-free—and they actually don't.
    Going gluten-free doesn't have to be hard, but when it comes to children and youth, often it is. From identifying that celiac disease could be a problem, to diagnosing it, to addressing it in one's daily lifestyle, children are a special interest population. In order to help celiac children to live long and healthy lives, it begins with educating adults, most of whom will never have to personally go gluten-free. Speaking out on behalf of a celiac kid is an important thing to do. Adults in all professions need to learn what celiac is and how to institute celiac-safe strategies into their organizations. Even if they aren't affected, adults need to realize how their decisions and behavior may adversely impact children.
    Our youngest citizens count on adults to always be looking out for their best interests. Speak with your local schools, recreation groups, and youth-oriented civic organizations to make sure the leaders understand that the chances are high that they are serving children with celiac disease. Help them to understand that they should learn more about what it is, that they should make sure eating arrangements always take into consideration children with special dietary needs, and have food alternatives readily available. Every parent would expect the same concern and attentive care if their child had celiac. And as a community, aren't all children "our" children?
    For more information, see our book, Going Gluten Free (Norlights Press 2015). Yvonne Vissing has been appointed by the United Nations to be a Policy Chair for Child Rights, under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
    Resources:
    Chick, Kay. The Educational, Social, and Family Challenges of Children with Celiac Disease: What Parents Should Know. 3/19/2014. Celiac.com Children's Digestive Health and Nutrition Foundation (CDHNF). www.cdhnf.org Diagnosis and Treatment of Celiac Disease in Children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2005; Volume 40, Number 1 (Jan): 1-19. National Foundation for Celiac Awareness. http://www.celiaccentral.org/ North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) http://www.naspghan.org//files/documents/pdfs/medical-resources/celiac/CeliacGuidelineSummary.pdf Raising Our Celiac Kids (ROCK). https://www.celiac.com/articles/563/1/ROCK-Raising-Our- celiac-Kids---National- celiac-Disease-Support-Group/Page1.html University of Maryland School of Medicine Center for Celiac Research http://glutendude.com/celiac/celiac-disease-symptoms/

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/23/2016 - Digestive Disease Week 2016 took place in San Diego from May 21-24. Among the presentations given was one that stood out for its obvious health impacts. That presentation was given by Jonathan Cordova, DO, pediatric gastroenterologist at the University of Chicago Medical Center. His presentation tied celiac disease to major depressive disorder in adolescents, and stated that most adolescents with celiac disease have symptoms consistent with the disorder.
    Dr. Cordova said that "...interim analysis does suggest that a majority of adolescents living with celiac disease may have symptoms consistent with major depressive disorder," and that the depression has a negative impact on their quality of life, "but does not appear to be associated with their celiac disease state." That is, the depression does not seem to be impacted by how well their celiac disease is doing. Healthy gut and gluten-free diet, or unhealthy gut, with symptoms, it doesn't seem to matter. The depression levels seem about the same whatever the case.
    A number of recent studies indicate that depression and anxiety are the main reasons people with celiac disease report decreased quality of life, Dr. Cordova and his colleagues wrote. But, most of these studies were done on adults, almost none used adolescents, and adolescents may be more susceptible to depression.
    The research team was able to connect celiac disease with mental health disorders in adolescents by administering questionnaires to adolescents and their parents. Average age of adolescents was 14.6 years at the time of survey and 11.2 years at the time of diagnosis.
    The researchers found no correlation between celiac disease and depression, anxiety, ADHD, age at survey, quality of life, age at diagnosis or length of time on a gluten free diet. However, the majority of adolescents and parental reports screened positive for major depressive disorder.
    Interestingly, a parent's perception of the state of their child's celiac disease impacted their perception of depression in their child.
    Dr. Cordova says that "the data suggests that early screening for depression in any adolescent with celiac disease is crucial to help optimize behavioral health,"
    Dr. Cordova's team plans to follow these patients into young adulthood, and aims to re-screen them again in 5 years.
    Reference: 
    Cordova J, et al. Abstract #844. Presented at: Digestive Disease Week; May 21-24, 2016; San Diego

    Nicole Vela
    Celiac.com 08/02/2016 - One thing I have noticed since becoming a parent is how every place we go there are treats and candy. Even cashiers hand out candy at the checkout. Food is everywhere. Our kids are constantly being bombarded with sugary baked goods and salty snacks.
    Wow, how times have changed! When I was a kid, and yes, my saying that makes me sound ancient, but it was only the 80's...back then we were sent outside in the morning and all of the neighborhood kids convened in someone's backyard. We went home for lunch and moms certainly did not hand out treats, especially not butterfly shaped waffles or any of the other Pinterest-inspired foods out there. We considered ourselves pretty lucky if someone had Freeze Pops in their house. If you are raising a child gluten-free, you know how much of a challenge it is that everything revolves around food.
    The diagnosis of celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a huge eye opener for many. I think one of the hardest things for a family starting a gluten-free diet is how different our diet is from the way most people cook and eat. Since the 1950's we have morphed from TV dinners to buying entire meals from the grocery store deli, and our breads, cakes, and rolls from the bakery. And we've moved from a dinner out being a rare treat to the drive-thru being the norm for many families. Some parents never learned how to cook themselves, so it can be quite a shock to go from a world of just picking up dinner at the drive-thru or the deli, to a world of cooking from scratch at home. I know. I was a processed foods kid, and now I am definitely a "semi-homemade" cook.
    Going gluten-free can be overwhelming at first. It will get easier. Here are a few tips and resources for raising a gluten-free child.
    Take advantage of the internet and your smart phone. I love subscribing to digital gluten-free magazines, finding new recipes and reading books from my Kindle App. Make grocery shopping easy by using The Gluten-Free Grocery Guide by Triumph Dining (1). They have produced an app that tells you which foods are gluten-free at the grocery store. The app features popular brands and even includes store brands. They have done the research for you by calling brands and manufacturers to create this resource. I know how hard it is getting through the grocery store with kids in tow. It needs to be as easy as possible!
    Know that you are not alone. There are many other parents facing the same obstacles as you. Surround yourself with support. R.O.C.K, Raising Our Celiac Kids (2) is a support group that can help you with the challenges ahead. Two other support groups you may look into are The Gluten Intolerance Group (3) and Celiac Sprue Association (4), while these are not groups for kids, they still provide valuable help and information.
    Talk to family and friends about the seriousness of your child's needs. A lot of people don't understand how celiac disease or gluten sensitivity effects someone. Educate them. Make it clear that foods can't just be given to your kid, even a food that one may think of as gluten-free. Tell them about hidden sources of gluten. Let them know why a gluten-free menu at a restaurant may not actually be gluten-free. If your child spends a lot of time with a relative go over items in their home, like their toaster, that may be sources of cross contamination.
    Teach your child the effects of cheating on their diet can do. Short term and long term. There are going to be many times of temptation. They are eventually going to be teenagers and have their own transportation and money. They need to be able to make smart choices as young adults.
    Be prepared for class parties and classmates' birthdays. I suggest making it easier for yourself by giving a good supply of treats to your kid's teacher and having a good store of treats at home. Some yummy pre-packaged treats are Jelly Belly Snack Packs, Enjoy Life Cookies, and Lucy's Cookies. These are great choices for multiple food sensitivities. I also recommend packing snacks for around town, play dates, and after school activities. Having healthy gluten-free snacks on hand is important for when there may not be any allergy-friendly snacks available.
    I try to stick to as many natural foods as possible, but occasionally, I like a treat or an easy meal. Thanks to the huge growth in gluten-free consumers there are a ton of food choices available. Gluten-free pizza, mac 'n' cheese, chicken tenders, cookies, pasta, even gluten-free toaster pastries. If you live in a rural area, with stores that don't carry a lot of gluten-free items, take advantage of online shopping. I like the ease of shopping from Amazon, Vitacost and The Gluten-Free Mall. As a busy mom I love that I can get items delivered to my door.
    Get your kids in the kitchen. Teaching your kids to cook is an invaluable resource that will serve them life-long. Learning how to make a meal from whole natural foods can be fun and it teaches them how to eat a healthy diet. You can do this yourself or there are a lot of kids' cooking programs at local culinary centers, grocery stores, and community centers.
    Kids will adapt and adjust. If they are older and have been eating gluten-containing foods their whole lives, it will be more difficult because their palates have been formed. Try to ease the transition by having them go grocery shopping with you so they can learn what is still available to them, and then do something fun like chocolate gluten-free waffles. Or pick up some gluten-free ice cream cones and ice cream. Let them know they don't have to give up everything. Having a positive attitude is essential. Children will model what you show them.
    References:
    http://www.triumphdining.com/glutenfree/apps.php https://www.celiac.com/articles/563/1/ROCK-Raising-Our-Celiac-Kids---National-Celiac-Disease-Support-Group/Page1.html https://www.gluten.net/gluten-intolerance-group-branch-offices/ 4.http://www.csaceliacs.info/find.jsp

    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 07/07/2016 - Norelle R. Reilly, M.D., has offered several of her opinions regarding gluten-free diets in a commentary published in The Journal of Pediatrics, earlier this year (1). It is important to recognize the difference between this publication and a report of findings arising from a study. She didn't conduct a study. No ethical approval was cited or needed. Despite the inclusion of several tables and one graph, Dr. Reilly was only charting changes in the popular use of search terms between 2004 and 2015, on a single search engine, at Google.com. Her tables simply provide explanations of several acronyms and a structure for her opinions, which may suggest more substance than her beliefs warrant. She simply formed a set of opinions that may or may not be supported by the research and other reports she cited. After all, Dr. Reilly had to interpret those studies so we aren't hearing from the investigators who actually conducted that research. We are just learning her interpretations of that research. Her clinical experience may or may not have factored into the opinions she offers, but since she failed to cite any such experience it seems most unlikely. She has also lumped all gluten-free diets into a single entity, which she labels GFD and which also poses several problems as you will see shortly.
    Dr. Reilly has warned about the multiple hazards of the gluten free diet, especially for children. These hazards include its potential to cause harm due to its higher fat content, deficiencies in B vitamins and iron, as well as the increased costs of gluten-free food. She also points to social isolation and inconvenience as hazards of the gluten free diet, which would appear to include what she calls "a deterioration of their quality of life while on a GFD". She goes from there to say that the claim that "gluten is toxic" is a fiction for which there is no supporting evidence (1). She also says that those following a gluten free diet may be at greater risk from inorganic arsenic and/or mercury poisoning (1). She admonishes those who are at risk of developing celiac disease not to undertake a gluten-free diet "without first testing for celiac disease" and Dr. Reilly advises her readers that "there is no role for a GFD for children outside of treatment of celiac disease and wheat allergy" based on what she calls the "hazards" of this diet. She won't soon be going on my Christmas card list.
    As many Journal of Gluten Sensitivity readers have heard before (from me), our pre-human line of primates split from our common primate ancestor with the bonobo chimpanzee sometime between 5 and 14 million years ago, depending on what source you read. Unlike our omnivorous, primate cousins, we humans have thrived in a wide range of habitats and have populated almost every part of our planet.
    Some of us may have genes from ancestors who were cultivating and eating significant quantities of gluten grains as long as 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, in the Fertile Crescent of the Levant. Perhaps some human genes have been exposed to these grains for an even longer period. We really don't know. We can only judge based on the evidence we have. However, the evidence we have shows that most of the world's populations have had considerably less time to adapt to consuming these foods. Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Australia, as well as island dwellers from much of the Pacific Ocean, and even isolated groups of people in Europe and Asia have only consumed these foods for somewhere between 500 and about 5,000 years. A few of these populations, such as some groups of Canadian Inuit, some Pacific Islanders, etc. have only consumed gluten grains for less than 100 years. Yet Dr. Reilly would have us believe that the foods on which our forefathers thrived, while populating almost every habitable niche on earth, are somehow harmful. That seems a distinctly questionable perspective. She says that "The health and social consequences worthy of consideration in advance of starting a child on a GFD are not described adequately online or in books promoting an empiric GFD trial." Perhaps. That may simply result from the common awareness of the relatively short duration during which so many humans have consumed gluten-containing foods.
    Further, Dr. Reilly's assertion that "This Commentary [sic] will provide an update on the current GFD fad ....." (1) suggests more than a small bias on her part. Has she undertaken to guide us through the facts, fiction, and fad of the GFD, while suffering the delusions of yet another fad herself? Is it possible that Dr. Reilly, in addition to eschewing some principles of natural selection and adaptation, is tending toward a paradigm that only counts gluten-induced disease when that ailment falls within her purview? This may be a trap set by today's trend toward the increasingly specialized study and practice of Medicine. Or it may reflect a less thoughtful resistance among these professionals, reminiscent of the 80 years' resistance to the germ theory.
    Many neurologists, for instance, have been exploring a range of neurological ailments that are either triggered by gluten or are characterized by antigliadin antibodies found in the brain fluids of individuals afflicted by these neurological ailments (2). Some of these patients do have celiac disease but a majority do not(3). Yet their neurological ailments will often respond to a gluten free diet that must be more strict than is usually required to control celiac disease (4). In their work, Dr. Hadjivassiliou and colleagues have stated that "the neurological manifestations of celiac disease and NCGS are similar and equally responsive to a GFD suggestive of common pathophysiological mechanisms" (5). Thus, although Dr. Reilly is correct when she says that non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is not yet well understood, it is quite clear that there is more information on the connection between gluten consumption and at least some cases of a wide range of neurological diseases (6, 7) than Dr. Reilly would like to credit. And these findings don't seem to be having much impact on many gastrointestinal researchers or practitioners. What is going on there?
    Further, regardless of the state of the intestinal mucosa, dermatitis herpetiformis (which Dr. Reilly did mention) is yet another form of NCGS in which it is clear that gluten exposure triggers the onset of this malady and a gluten free diet controls it. Yet she fails to mention that a subset of schizophrenia patients also experience symptom remission on a gluten-free diet, even among pre-pubescent children (8) and the association between schizophrenia and gluten has been repeatedly reported in the literature over the last half century (9 -19). The immune reaction to gluten is usually not the same as that seen in celiac disease (17). Nonetheless, for this group, the underlying trigger is gluten and its dietary restriction can produce startlingly positive results (18, 19). These psychiatric ailments can have a devastating impact on the victims' lives and their families when a simple diet can sometimes provide an effective treatment.
    While there is still some debate about whether gluten is the trigger in some cases of intestinal NCGS ailments, considerable evidence has also accrued showing that gluten is the trigger in a wide range of conditions both in association with untreated celiac disease and in the absence of celiac disease . The added problem is that Dr. Reilly has lumped all gluten free diets into a single entity. Yet many of us who avoid eating gluten also avoid other Neolithic foods, believing them to drive much of the current increases in autoimmunity, cancer, obesity, diabetes, and a host of other modern diseases. Dr. Loren Cordain's books have given rise to a large number of adherents to the "Paleo-Diet" that Cordain advocates (20). Other gluten avoiders find themselves developing symptoms when consuming "replacement" grains such as rice, corn, or millet, and choose to avoid those grains as well. Still other gluten avoiders subscribe to vegetarian diets, while others eat only organically produced meats and/or vegetables. These dietary practices also vary according to geographic location, all while avoiding gluten consumption. For instance, these variations might include increased fish consumption near the seashore and increased beef consumption inland, increased yak milk consumption in the Himalayas and increased millet consumption in West Africa. Thus, it seems questionable to lump all gluten avoiders into a single group, then suggest that they are suffering social isolation, lower quality of life, arsenic and/or mercury poisoning, and a host of other hazards.
    Dr. Reilly has argued that "The gluten-free diet (GFD) is a critical medical treatment for the millions of individuals worldwide with celiac disease (celiac disease), an autoimmune condition for which no other therapy is currently available" (1). That part is true. However, she then cites a study in which patients with celiac disease followed a gluten-free diet for an average of between 0 and 8.2 years and showed higher serum levels of mercury than either healthy controls eating a regular diet, or patients with celiac disease who were not following a gluten-free diet (21). There are several important things wrong here. The first is that Dr. Reilly has assumed that what is happening with the treated celiac patients may reasonably be assumed to be happening to those with NCGS who choose to follow a gluten-free diet. However, as she has so adroitly pointed out, people with celiac disease are different from those with NCGS. Thus, as was stated in the study of mercury and celiac disease that she cited (21), a person with celiac disease might have a genetic propensity for increased mercury absorption. Or they might experience a resurgence of those portions of the intestinal villi that are more likely to offer the primary point at which mercury is absorbed, or they might be more inclined to have mercury amalgam fillings that are degraded and absorbed due to grinding one's teeth, or chewing gum (21) or perhaps gastro-esophageal reflux is a factor in the degradation of mercury amalgam fillings. The authors of this study of mercury and celiac disease also acknowledge that their report is limited by the small number of participants. Dr. Reilly, on the other hand, fails to mention that only a small number of treated celiac patients participated in this study - only twenty of them. Neither does she seem to recognize that the study's results cannot legitimately be generalized from celiac patients on a gluten-free diet, to the non-celiac gluten sensitive population who may choose to avoid gluten. Further research might bridge that gap, but the study she cited does not (21) and such results should not be used to suggest a generalized risk that may be exclusive to those with celiac disease.
    The same study also seems to include treated celiac patients who are very new to the diet but have shown diminished tissue transglutaminase antibody levels (21). The average duration of the gluten free diet is 8.2 years, but with a deviation of up to 8.2 years. It is difficult to understand how this could mean anything else. I have contacted the lead author for clarification and have not yet received a response.
    With respect to high levels of inorganic arsenic in rice pablum, the celiac and gluten sensitive community has been aware of this problem since the 2009 publication of several articles, both in the popular and peer-reviewed scientific literature, arising out of studies conducted by professor Andy Meharg and his students the previous year (22). They found that samples of several brands of rice pablum purchased at supermarkets, commonly fed to babies, contained high levels of arsenic. Here in the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity, we also published a warning article (23). Some members of the same research group that exposed this problem with rice pablum have also published data showing that phosphorus fertilizer can mitigate uptake of arsenic in wheat (24). We continue to hope that rice farming practices will be similarly investigated and best practices will soon be prescribed for rice farmers, but Dr. Reilly has raised an important point here. Rice consumption should be limited by everyone, including those following a gluten-free diet.
    Reilly has also asserted that "there are no data supporting the presumed health benefits of a GFD" (1). This bold statement is followed by a heading that reads "Fiction: Gluten is toxic", then " There are no data to support the theory of an intrinsically toxic property of gluten" (1). Yet gliadins have also been demonstrated to damage a variety of tissue cells. In an experiment conducted by Hudson and colleagues, simple exposure to this sub-group of proteins from wheat gluten resulted in damage to several lines of embryonic cells (25). Similarly, Doherty and colleagues showed that many persons who are fed large amounts of gluten will develop villous damage or other intestinal damage, even in the absence of celiac disease (26). Some gluten proteins will cause damage to a variety of cell lines, and people fed large amounts of gluten will experience intestinal damage, yet Dr. Reilly claims that there are no data to support what she calls the "fiction" that gluten is toxic (1).
    Reilly also decries the higher fat content of the gluten-free diet. But dietary fats combine to make up a huge topic. Some promote inflammation. Others have anti-inflammatory properties. Some must be used as energy or they will prompt the liver to produce ketone bodies. These latter offer alternative fuels for the brain in the context of insulin resistance (27). Condemning its high fat content is a little like lumping all gluten-free diets into one group. It is a gross over-simplification that draws into question the writer's competence in the realm of Dietetics.
    The same can be said about Reilly's identification of iron deficiency as the result of avoiding gluten grains. Until we have a better understanding of the proportions of the various minerals that are irreversibly bound by phytates and phenols in the human gastrointestinal tract, blaming gluten grain avoidance for iron deficiency in humans is, at best, inaccurate. While she does mention that many of these nutrients we will fail to get from gluten free foods are simply fortifications that have been added to processed, gluten-containing foods, she has failed to recognize or discuss the mineral binding and wasting that ensues from eating these foods and additives together.
    Similarly, while some B vitamins are plentiful in processed, gluten-containing grains, others are not. However, the same B vitamins are abundantly available in other common food sources that do not contain the anti-nutrients common to cereal grains. Such deficiencies are not the result of a gluten free diet so much as they are the result of a poorly balanced diet, which can happen regardless of gluten exclusion.
    Reilly goes on to admonish those who are at risk of developing celiac disease not to undertake a gluten-free diet "without first testing for celiac disease" (1). This is spoken like a person who is intimately familiar with the medical system and would have little or no difficulty getting adequate testing to rule out celiac disease on request. She has probably not spent much of the previous decade or so repeatedly undergoing repeated rounds of the same useless tests, such as barium swallow X-rays, barium enema X-rays along with repeated, often unnecessary, courses of various antibiotics, multiple courses of drugs to treat ulcers that fail to show up on the aforementioned tests, and taking supplements or drugs to correct blood test abnormalities, without considering the potential underlying causes. And none of the above strategies are likely to ever suggest celiac disease. Yet these are the stock-in -trade of the general practitioner who is often reluctant to refer to gastrointestinal specialists. This reluctance frequently escalates when the above symptoms are accompanied by psychiatric and/or neurological complaints, although such symptoms are reported in between 51% and 73% of newly diagnosed celiac patients (7, 8) and some cases of psychosis can be attributed to gluten intake alone (18, 19, 28). In the face of such evidence, the claim that gluten fractions are not toxic seems almost laughable. Yet her polemic "commentary" has spawned quite a number of spin-off articles that condemn the gluten-free diet as a fad or a hoax, and many innocent victims and their families continue to suffer from the psychiatric, neurological, and other extra-intestinal manifestations of non-celiac gluten sensitivity or celiac disease. I frequently observe school children with diagnosed learning disabilities who make huge strides forward when on a gluten free diet. And the explanation is really quite simple (29). And I am saddened by the certitude with which this diet is condemned by otherwise reasonable people.
    Historically, the GFD has been contentious since it was introduced in 1937, when Dr. W.K. Dicke first began to treat his celiac patients with it. One may wonder why it has stirred so much controversy. I continue to be shocked when I read opinion articles such as Dr. Reilly's when they are included in peer-reviewed publications. I am not surprised by the many follow-up articles in the popular press that condemn the gluten free diet. This is the same resistance that I witnessed almost a quarter of a century ago, when I was diagnosed with celiac disease. I'm left wondering why so many supposedly objective professionals are so quick to oppose a diet that offers benefits to people with a wide range of maladies, many of which are, otherwise untreatable. What could motivate these vehement critics? I just don't understand.
    Sources:
    1. Reilly NR. The Gluten-Free Diet: Recognizing Fact, Fiction, and Fad. J Pediatr. 2016 May 10. pii: S0022-3476(16)30062-2.
    2. Stenberg R, Hadjivassiliou M, Aeschlimann P, Hoggard N, Aeschlimann D. Anti-transglutaminase 6 antibodies in children and young adults with cerebral palsy. Autoimmune Dis. 2014;2014:237107.
    3. Hadjivassiliou, M., Gibson, A., Davis-Jones, G., Lobo, A., Stephenson, T.,Milford-Ward, A. (1996). Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet 347, 369-371.
    4. Turner MR, Chohan G, Quaghebeur G, Greenhall RC, Hadjivassiliou M, Talbot K. A case of celiac disease mimicking amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007 Oct;3(10):581-4.
    5. Hadjivassiliou M, Rao DG, Grìnewald RA, Aeschlimann DP, Sarrigiannis PG, Hoggard N, Aeschlimann P, Mooney PD, Sanders DS. Neurological Dysfunction in Coeliac Disease and Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Apr;111(4):561-7.
    6. Hadjivassiliou M, The Neuroimmunology of Gluten Intolerance. Textbook chapter. in press.
    7. Zelnik N, Pacht A, Obeid R, Lerner A. Range of neurologic disorders in patients with celiac disease. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):1672-6.
    8. Lionetti E, Leonardi S, Franzonello C, Mancardi M, Ruggieri M, Catassi C. Gluten Psychosis: Confirmation of a New Clinical Entity. Nutrients. 2015 Jul 8;7(7):5532-9.
    9. Dohan C. "Cereals and schizophrenia: data and hypothesis" Acta Psychiat Scand 1966; 42: 125-152
    10. Dohan FC, Grasberger JC, Lowell FM, Johnston HT Jr, Arbegast AW. Relapsed Schizophrenics: More Rapid Improvement on a Milk-and Cereal-free Diet" Brit J Psychiat 1969; 115: 595-596
    11. Singh MM, Kay SR. Wheat gluten as a pathogenic factor in schizophrenia. Science. 1976 Jan 30;191(4225):401-2.
    12. Zioudrou et. al. "Opioid peptides derived from food proteins. The exorphins" J Biol Chem 1979; 254:2446-2449
    13. Mycroft et. al. "MIF-like sequences in milk and wheat proteins" NEJM 1982; 307: 895
    14. Dohan et. al. "Is Schizophrenia Rare if Grain is Rare?" Biol Psychiat 1984; 19(3): 385-399
    15. Dohan "Is celiac disease a clue to pathogenesis of schizophrenia?" Mental Hyg 1969; 53: 525-529
    16. Ashkenazi et. al. "Immunologic reaction of psychotic patients to fractions of gluten" Am J Psychiat 1979; 136: 1306-1309
    17. Samaroo D, Dickerson F, Kasarda DD, Green PH, Briani C, Yolken RH, Alaedini A. Novel immune response to gluten in individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2010 May;118(1-3):248-55.
    18. Kraft BD, Westman EC. Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literature. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009 Feb 26;6:10. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-6-10.
    19. De Santis A, Addolorato G, Romito A, Caputo S, Giordano A, Gambassi G, Taranto C, Manna R, Gasbarrini G. Schizophrenic symptoms and SPECT Abnormalities in a coeliac patient: regression after a gluten-free diet. J Intern Med. 1997 Nov;242(5):421-3.
    20. Cordain L. The Paleo Diet. John Wiley & Sons. NY, 2002.
    21. Elli L, Rossi V, Conte D, Ronchi A, Tomba C, Passoni M, Bardella MT, Roncoroni L, Guzzi G. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2015;2015:953042
    22. Meharg, A. A., Sun, G., Williams, P. N., Adomako, E., Deacon, C., Zhu, Y-G., Feldmann, J. & Raab, A. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern. Apr 2008 In : Environmental Pollution . 152, 3, p. 746-749.
    23. Hoggan R. How do you like your arsenic? Journal of Gluten Sensitivity, Spring 2009.
    24. Pigna, M., Cozzolino, V., Violante, A. & Meharg, A. A. Influence of phosphate on the arsenic uptake by wheat (Triticum durum L.) irrigated with arsenic solutions at three different concentrations Feb 2009 In : Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 197, 1-4, p. 371-380.
    25. Hudson DA, Cornell HJ, Purdham DR, Rolles CJ. Non-specific cytotoxicity of wheat gliadin components towards cultured human cells. Lancet. 1976 Feb.
    26. Doherty, M., & Barry, R.(1981). Gluten-induced mucosal changes in subjects without overt small-bowel disease. The Lancet March 7, 517-520.
    27. de la Monte SM, Wands JR. Alzheimer's Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–Evidence Reviewed. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008 November; 2(6): 1101–1113.
    28. Jackson J, Eaton W, Cascella N, Fasano A, Santora D, Sullivan K, Feldman S, Raley H, McMahon RP, Carpenter WT Jr, Demyanovich H, Kelly DL. Gluten sensitivity and relationship to psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2014 Nov;159(2-3):539-42.
    29. Addolorato G, Di Giuda D, De Rossi G, Valenza V, Domenicali M, Caputo F, Gasbarrini A, Capristo E, Gasbarrini G. Regional cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with celiac disease. Am J Med. 2004 Mar 1;116(5):312-7.

    Yvonne Vissing Ph.D.
    Celiac.com 07/20/2017 - It is common for school teachers in the United States not to know what student has celiac disease, or allergies of any sort. Most schools don't have formal systems so that the principal, school nurse, teacher, or cafeteria workers know when a child has celiac disease or food allergies. An informal game of roulette is played, where everyone assumes that everything is fine – that is, until a child has a heath reaction.
    In Montreal, Canada, the Lester B Pearson School Board has taken a different approach to dealing with food allergies and conditions such as celiac disease that their students might have. They regard these health conditions to be so important that how to handle them is present in their official Policy on Safe and Caring Schools.
    To summarize what they do, at the beginning of each school year parents are sent a form requesting them to inform the principal, homeroom teacher, and other relevant school personnel about health conditions and allergies. This includes children who have celiac disease and gluten issues. If a child changes schools, or if a student in an existing school gets a new health diagnosis or has newly identified health needs, this information should be made known to school personnel.
    A photograph of the student is taken and put on a card with the health condition so that others in charge may know that a particular child has gluten issues. In the cafeteria, workers have the photos of the children posted in the kitchen where they can see them so that they can know that brown-haired Lucinda in fifth-grade has celiac disease and should be served only foods that are safe for her. Children may not know what foods have gluten in them and which do not, so they may not always be the best informants for identifying which foods being served are safe for them and which are not.
    Given that additives may vary according who is doing the cooking or what ingredients are used, a food like macaroni and cheese may be made with wheat pasta, making it unsafe, or corn, rice or quinoa pasta, rendering it acceptable. Both may look identical to the naked eye, but they aren't so it is a food service worker's obligation to know whether Lucinda can have the dish or not. Likewise, teachers may be given the photograph and health card so that they remember when Billy brings in cupcakes for his birthday celebration, that there are gluten-free ones available (hopefully!) in the cafeteria freezer that can be pulled out and given to Lucinda so she is not left out. The photograph technique is especially helpful when there are new cafeteria workers or substitute teachers or other personnel who may not know a child's food allergy situation like someone who interacts with the child every day might.
    The Lester B Pearson schools' Food and Nutrition Policy is based in Canada's Food Guide and Policy on Health Eating and Active Living. All schools in Canada are to adhere to the same set of standards. This means that a celiac child living in Vancouver should be just as safe eating at school as one in Ottawa or one in Halifax. Having national standards that are uniformly enforced helps to make all children safe. Making sure that children's food consumption is safe for all of them, especially in public institutions like schools, is part of their human rights according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. It is the responsibility of adults who are in local parent organizations to be in charge of the oversight and safety of all children and to think through food risk and safety policies.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6