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      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    GLYPHOSATES AND GLUTEN-RELATED DISORDERS


    Maria Larkin, M.Ed, RDN/LD


    • Journal of Gluten Sensitivity Autumn 2015 Issue - Originally published October 19, 2015


    Celiac.com 02/16/2016 - About two years ago, as a result of two comprehensive review articles written by research scientists, Anthony Samsel and Stephanie Seneff, the term "glyphosates" made media headlines.


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    Based on more than 200 citations, their reviews concluded that long term exposure to glyphosates via ingestion (in food and water) and/or inhalation seems to parallel the incidence and clinical features of celiac disease and may contribute to a number of diseases including autism, cancer, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, infertility, depression, inflammatory bowel disease, Multiple Sclerosis, cancer, allergies, eosinophilic esophagitis (EOE), obesity, and kidney disorders.

    In case you don't already know, glyphosate (an organophosphate) is the active chemical ingredient in Monsanto's trademarked herbicide called RoundUp, which in the last 15 or more years has become very popular and is used throughout the world. It is largely used in "no-till non-organic production systems" as a desiccant (drying agent) for many genetically engineered (GE) food crops, especially those considered "RoundUp Ready" such as corn, soy, canola, cotton, sugar beets and alfalfa. RoundUp Ready foods are genetically engineered to resist being killed by RoundUp.

    While wheat is not a genetically engineered food crop, RoundUP is used on all non-organic wheat crops to produce a greater yield and reduce any rye grass weeds. The glyphosates in the RoundUp kill weeds by disrupting the shikimate pathway in the plant.

    I once used RoundUp to kill some weeds in my yard thinking that it was safe and nontoxic. It was thought then that humans and animals could not be affected by this weed-killing herbicide because humans and animals don't possess the shikimate pathway, only plants and bacteria do.

    That was until Samsel and Seneff set me straight. The bacteria in the human gut, which outnumbers the cells in our body, do have shikimate pathways. Glyphosates suppress the enzyme necessary for the shikimate pathway to produce aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine. This happens in plant cells, too, where reduced levels of other amino acids have been discovered including serine, glycine and methionine.

    What does this mean for we humans? These amino acids are precursors to neurotransmitters (found in the gut and in the brain). Tryptophan alone is necessary for the production of serotonin, "the happy hormone." An impaired supply of serotonin frequently found in celiac disease causes depression. Impaired serotonin receptors in the gut sets the stage for inflammatory bowel disease.

    So besides blocking the shikimate pathway for the production of nutrients in foods, glyphosates seem to reduce the overall bioavailability of nutrients in the foods we eat. I have been a regular advocate for taking a daily multi vitamin and mineral, contending that the food we eat may lose nutrients from farm to table. Low and behold, Samsel and Seniff's review substantiated my contention. They cite two studies, which showed multiple mineral depletions in soybean crops treated with glyphosates. The depleted nutrients in the soybeans mirrored those frequently found in celiac disease, including cobalamin (B12), iron, molybdenum, selenium and sulfur. The authors hypothesize that the association between celiac disease and autoimmune hypothyroid disease may be due to a selenium deficiency.

    Samsel and Seniff suspect that chelation in the gut due to glyphosate ingestion may further account for deficiencies in cobalt, molybdenum and iron in these foods. This confirms yet another contention of mine that a single nutrient can indeed disrupt a whole system. The chelation of cobalamin in the gut is suspected to contribute to neurodegeneration and heart disease; the synergistic dynamic of molybdenum deficiency altering the body's supply of sulfate can have the consequence of cancer, anemia and insulin resistance. The authors purport that glyphosates disruption of the sulfur transport in the body is "the most important consequence of glyphosate's insidious slow erosion of health."

    The health of the human intestinal tract is affected by glyphosate ingestion and inhalation. Citing a study on the effects of glyphosates on predatory fish, Samsel and Seneff's review showed that glyphosates cause damage to the intestinal mucosal folds and microvilli similar to what is seen in celiac disease. Beneficial gut bacteria are killed, allowing the pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria to proliferate, producing a state of bacterial dysbiosis (microbial imbalance). With reductions in the beneficial Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus bacteria, the breakdown of both gluten and phytase are impaired, leading to the inability to digest gluten. The pathogenic bacteria such as E. Coli and C. Difficile can lead to kidney failure and inflammation. These authors argue that other digestive pathologies, such as pancreatitis, fatty liver disease and EOE are due to impaired CYP function in the liver. Could there also be a link between the high rates of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and gut dysbiosis caused by glyphosate disruption of these enzymes?

    Glyphosates disruption of CYP enzymes in the liver occurs with celiac disease. These enzymes are involved in detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign chemical substances), so theoretically a reduction of CYP enzymes slows detoxification. Vitamin D3 and cholesterol synthesis and regulation of retinoic acid are also a part of the CYP enzyme system. It has puzzled me at times, that some of my patients do not respond to high dose vitamin D supplementation. The concept that glyphosates effect on CYP enzyme inhibition results in inadequate vitamin D activation in the liver could be a mystery solved. CYP enzymes are also important in bile acid production, gallbladder and pancreatic function. Samsel and Seneff hypothesize that glyphosate "disrupts the transport of sulfate from the gut to the liver and pancreas", resulting in bile acid insufficiency and gall bladder disease. Excess retinoic acid as a result of glyphosate exposure is similarly found in celiac disease and has been linked to reproductive disorders.

    How can we avoid glyphosate exposure? The obvious answer is not to use this herbicide to kill weeds in your yard. In the best interest of health, eat organic foods as much as possible, avoid the "the dirty 15" and genetically engineered foods. Check out your local farmer's market and buy from certified organic farmers. Eat animal products fed with non- genetically engineered foods. If you eat wheat, choose organic wheat. Glyphosates cannot be washed off of food, and there is yet no known way of detoxifying glyphosates from the body. The authors suggest eat garlic or soak in an Epsom salts bath to ensure adequate sulfur intake. Sea salt is a natural way to include minerals in your diet along with eating vegetables.

    Maria Larkin, M.Ed, RDN/LD owns Better Gut Better Health, LLC, a nutrition counseling practice in Durham and Portsmouth, NH. She is a registered dietitian and functional medicine provider, specializing in gastrointestinal concerns, food allergies and sensitivities. Website: www.bettergutbetterhealth.com.

    References:

    • Samsel, A. and Seneff, S. Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases. Entropy, 2013: 15 (4): 1416-1463.
    • Samsel, A. and Seneff, S. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 2013: 6 (4): 159-184.

    Image Caption: Image: CC--Mike Mozart
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    Great article. Thank you! You may not know that the Clean 15 and the Dirty Dozen are unreliable at best. The statistics are aggregated from the USDA records, based on USDA tests for pesticide residues on produce. The USDA does not conduct ANY tests for glyphosate residue. The USDA cites the cost of the tests as being prohibitive. Glyphosate based herbicides are the most widely used herbicides in the world. They are sprayed on grains as well as vegetables such as peas, beans, lentils and asparagus, on sugar cane, peppermint and spearmint and more. The presence of glyphosate has also been documented in processed foods such as Kellogg's Froot Loops, a Kashi cereal and SunChips, at worrying levels high enough to kill good gut bacteria. The 3rd patent on glyphosate is as an antimicrobial/antibiotic. The IARC/WHO classified glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen in 2015 because it causes cancer in laboratory animals and likely causes cancer in people, too. Glyphosate has the potential to harm on many levels. If you'd like references, please email. I tried to post but links are not allowed. Thank you again!

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    Guest Peter Olins

    Posted

    The chart used by Samsel/Seneff in their Interdisciplinary Toxicology paper was for a DIFFERENT CONDITION, not celiac disease incidence in the general population! I can't believe they haven't removed this figure by now. In any case, celiac disease prevalence had already peaked before the recent increased use of glyphosate on crops such as soy and corn.

     

    There is no evidence whatsoever that the minute traces of glyphosate in our diet are sufficient to inhibit cytochrome C P450 enzymes. However, phenolics (such as the resveratrol in wine) are actually present at relevant levels in our diets.

     

    Likewise, there is no evidence of an effect on human gut bacteria or chelation of metals, except at levels thousands of fold higher than we are exposed to. In fact, a glass of orange juice has a far greater potential chelating activity, and anyone who is calcium deficient (as are many celiacs) will know that chelated metals are actually more bioavailable.

     

    The fourth Samsel/Seneff paper tries to correlate glyphosate use with cancer incidence statistics, but the authors are are curiously unaware that cancers can take decades to develop, rather than being instantly triggered by an environmental stimulus!

     

    The bottom line: these authors fail to realize that correlation is not the same as causation. They could easily have avoided the embarrassment of their four papers on glyphosate by involving someone with relevant scientific experience.

     

    I don't mean to sound personal, Maria, but I strongly urge you to do more research before promoting inflammatory material in articles such as this. Otherwise you risk causing more harm than good—which I'm sure is not your intention.

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    I have mixed reviews on this. I first read it to be a complete study, but then realized it was just a research paper. It all adds up properly to me but not backed by research. What is it going to take for a legitimate organization to do this?

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    The chart used by Samsel/Seneff in their Interdisciplinary Toxicology paper was for a DIFFERENT CONDITION, not celiac disease incidence in the general population! I can't believe they haven't removed this figure by now. In any case, celiac disease prevalence had already peaked before the recent increased use of glyphosate on crops such as soy and corn.

     

    There is no evidence whatsoever that the minute traces of glyphosate in our diet are sufficient to inhibit cytochrome C P450 enzymes. However, phenolics (such as the resveratrol in wine) are actually present at relevant levels in our diets.

     

    Likewise, there is no evidence of an effect on human gut bacteria or chelation of metals, except at levels thousands of fold higher than we are exposed to. In fact, a glass of orange juice has a far greater potential chelating activity, and anyone who is calcium deficient (as are many celiacs) will know that chelated metals are actually more bioavailable.

     

    The fourth Samsel/Seneff paper tries to correlate glyphosate use with cancer incidence statistics, but the authors are are curiously unaware that cancers can take decades to develop, rather than being instantly triggered by an environmental stimulus!

     

    The bottom line: these authors fail to realize that correlation is not the same as causation. They could easily have avoided the embarrassment of their four papers on glyphosate by involving someone with relevant scientific experience.

     

    I don't mean to sound personal, Maria, but I strongly urge you to do more research before promoting inflammatory material in articles such as this. Otherwise you risk causing more harm than good—which I'm sure is not your intention.

    Thank you for your opinion (which mirrors mine). This article is short on science and big on speculation. It is immediately obvious that this writer has no scientific background. I like this website because it is usually good at separating scientific fact from myth. This article belongs in pseudo-scientific web sites like naturalnews.com and not in a serious site like this one. I am seriously disappointed with the editors for hosting junk science of this magnitude.

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    Guest Michael

    Posted

    The chart used by Samsel/Seneff in their Interdisciplinary Toxicology paper was for a DIFFERENT CONDITION, not celiac disease incidence in the general population! I can't believe they haven't removed this figure by now. In any case, celiac disease prevalence had already peaked before the recent increased use of glyphosate on crops such as soy and corn.

     

    There is no evidence whatsoever that the minute traces of glyphosate in our diet are sufficient to inhibit cytochrome C P450 enzymes. However, phenolics (such as the resveratrol in wine) are actually present at relevant levels in our diets.

     

    Likewise, there is no evidence of an effect on human gut bacteria or chelation of metals, except at levels thousands of fold higher than we are exposed to. In fact, a glass of orange juice has a far greater potential chelating activity, and anyone who is calcium deficient (as are many celiacs) will know that chelated metals are actually more bioavailable.

     

    The fourth Samsel/Seneff paper tries to correlate glyphosate use with cancer incidence statistics, but the authors are are curiously unaware that cancers can take decades to develop, rather than being instantly triggered by an environmental stimulus!

     

    The bottom line: these authors fail to realize that correlation is not the same as causation. They could easily have avoided the embarrassment of their four papers on glyphosate by involving someone with relevant scientific experience.

     

    I don't mean to sound personal, Maria, but I strongly urge you to do more research before promoting inflammatory material in articles such as this. Otherwise you risk causing more harm than good—which I'm sure is not your intention.

    I heard Stephanie Seneff speak and she said that "...diseases like celiac came out of nowhere." She is obviously ignorant of the history of celiac disease research and discovery. She made a false correlation between coincidental celiac awareness and glyphosate, and based on a series of about 50 hypotheses, tried to make it look like glyphosate causes celiac disease. I keep an open mind that theoretically glyphosate can cause symptomology mimicking celiac, and I certainly embrace her efforts to find faults with glyphosate.

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    Guest Michael

    Posted

    Another common misconception about celiac disease is that the small intestinal epithelial cells are the only self cell target of our immune system. While it is true that any organ or system in the body of a celiac can suffer due to the cascade of failures of enzymes to be made due to malabsorption and consequent malnutrition, any organ or system might become an autoimmune target, depending on your genetic vulnerability. I have a test result showing that my lymphocytes attack serotonin with great vigor.

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    Guest Diane RMD

    Posted

    I have mixed reviews on this. I first read it to be a complete study, but then realized it was just a research paper. It all adds up properly to me but not backed by research. What is it going to take for a legitimate organization to do this?

    As a research paper, it suggests a possibility that needs to be tested AND that lack of scientific proof that a product does not pose a hazard does not prove that there is no hazard -- the fact is, we don't really know yet.

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    I am curious - celiac was identified after world war II. I personally was diagnosed with acute infant onset celiac disease in 1955. Glyphosate wasn't introduced to the agricultural world till the 1970's. In reading the article, I could not see the direct link. I can't comment on other facets of the article, but in this case I do wonder about accuracy. I would be interested to read about more in depth and specific research.

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    Guest Benjamin

    Posted

    Thank you for this. I was diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis some 7 years ago. I was given a dilation and puffer steroids to help me swallow my food but the symptoms returned a year later. Only after learning about glysophate and trying to avoid it in my foods and liquids have I been able to reverse my symptoms. Not an easy task by the way because I live in South Africa where the application of Monsanto's Roundup (active ingredient glysophate) is widespread largely unchecked.

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    (iv) Catassi, C. and Fasano, A. 2008. Celiac disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24: 687-91.
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    (vi) Ferguson, A., Gillett, H., Humphreys, K., and Kingstone, K. 1998. Heterogeneity of celiac disease: clinical, pathological, immunological, and genetic. Intestinal Plasticity in Health and Disease. 859: 112-20.
    (vii) Constantin, C., Huber, W.D., Granditsch, G., Weghofer, M. and Valenta, R. 2005. Different profiles of wheat antigens are recognised by patient suffering from coeliac disease and IgE–mediated food allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 138:257-66.
    (viii) Vermeersch P, Geboes K, Mariën G, Hoffman I, Hiele M, Bossuyt X. Diagnostic performance of IgG anti-deamidated gliadin peptide antibody assays is comparable to IgA anti-tTG in celiac disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Jul 4;411(13-14):931-935.
    (ix) Ibid, reference 2
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    (xi) ibid reference 3
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    (xiii) Kurppa K, Ashorn M, Iltanen S et al. Celiac disease without villous atrophy in children: a prospective study. J Pediatr 2010;157:373–380
    (xiv) Kurppa K, Collin P, Viljamaa M et al. Diagnosing mild enteropathy celiac disease: a randomized, controlled clinical study. Gastroenterology 2009;136:816–823
    (xv) Mayo Clinic, news release, July 31, 2012
    (xvi) Rubio-Tapia A, Ludvigsson JF, Brantner TL, Murray JA, Everhart JE., The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;107(10):1538-44
    (xvii) Tuire I, Marja-Leena L, Teea S, Katri H, et.al. Persistent duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytosis despite a long-term strict gluten-free diet in celiac disease, Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;107(10):1563-9
    (xviii) Sanders DS, Aziz I. Editorial: non-celiac wheat sensitivity: separating the wheat from the chat! Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec;107(12):1908-12
    (xix) Ludvigsson JF, Montgomery SM, Ekbom A, Brandt L, Granath F., Small-intestinal histopathology and mortality risk in celiac disease, JAMA. 2009 Sep 16;302(11):1171-8
    (xx) Carroccio A, Mansueto P, Iacono G, Soresi M, et.al., Non-celiac wheat sensitivity diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge: exploring a new clinical entity, Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec;107(12):1898-906

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    Celiac.com 03/01/2017 - Do people who eat a gluten-free diet face an increased exposure to toxic metals like arsenic and mercury, and thus possibly higher rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer and neurological effects?
    That's a very possible scenario, according to a report published in the journal Epidemiology. Maria Argos, assistant professor of epidemiology in the UIC School of Public Health, and her colleagues searched data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for a link between gluten-free diet and biomarkers of toxic metals in blood and urine.
    Of the 7,471 people they surveyed between 2009 and 2014, they found 73 participants who reported eating a gluten-free diet.
    People on a gluten-free diet higher concentrations of arsenic in their urine, and mercury in their blood, than those who ate a non-gluten-free diet. In fact, arsenic levels for gluten-free eaters were nearly twice as high, and mercury levels were 70 percent higher.
    So, does a gluten-free diet pose an actual health risk? Do people need to make any immediate dietary changes?
    While noteworthy, Argos says the findings indicate the need for more studies, "to determine if there are corresponding health consequences that could be related to higher levels of exposure to arsenic and mercury by eating gluten-free."
    Argos points out that the EU has in place regulations for food-based arsenic exposure, while the United States does not. The question that needs to be answered if whether rice flour consumption increases the risk for exposure to arsenic. An answer to that requires further study.
    Source: University of Illinois at Chicago

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com