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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    VITAMIN K2 FOR HEALTHY BONES AND ARTERIES


    Betty Wedman-St Louis, PhD, RD


    • Journal of Gluten Sensitivity Autumn 2016 Issue


    Celiac.com 10/18/2016 - Vitamin K was discovered in 1929 and named for the German word koagulation with Herrick Dam and Edward A. Doisy receiving the Nobel Prize for their research in 1943. But Vitamin K is a multi-functional nutrient.


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    Vitamin K1 or phyloquinone is found in green leafy vegetables like spinach and used by the liver for blood coagulation within 10 hours.

    Vitamin K2 or menaquinone (referred to as MK-4 through MK-10) comes from natto (fermented soybeans), organ meats, egg yolks, and raw milk cheeses. It circulates throughout the body over a 24 hour period and is synthesized in the human gut by microbiota according to the Annual Review of Nutrition 2009. Aging and antibiotic use weakens the body's ability to produce K2 so supplementation needs to be considered.

    The Rotterdam Study in the Journal of Nutrition 2004 brought into focus the role of K2 as an inhibitor of calcification in the arteries and the major contributor to bone rebuilding osteocalcin- NOT calcium supplementation that many health professionals had recommend. The study reports K2 resulted in 50 percent reduction in arterial calcification, 50 percent reduction in cardiovascular deaths, and 25 percent reduction in all cause mortality. K1 had no effect on cardiovascular health.

    Dennis Goodman, M.D. in Vitamin K2- The Missing Nutrient for Heart and Bone Disease describes why most western diets are deficient in K2. Dietary awareness of Vitamin K has focused on anti-clotting since warfarin was approved as a medicine (in 1948 it was launched by the Germans as rat poisoning) and President Eisenhower was administered warfarin following his heart attack. Little attention was paid to any other nutritional importance this essential fat-soluble vitamin could provide.

    Menaquinones (K2 or MK) are rapidly depleted without dietary intake of natto or animal sources needed for repletion which results in bone health issues, especially in menopause. Without it, the body does not use calcium and Vitamin D3 to activate osteoblasts to rebuild bone. Menaquinones cause cells to produce a protein called osteocalcin which incorporates the calcium into the bone. Without it, calcium moves into the artery wall and soft tissues of the body leading to hardening of the arteries and osteoporosis.

    The benefit of K2 is not new research. In 1997 Shearer presented the roles of vitamins D and K in bone health and osteoporosis prevention in the Proceedings of Nutrition Society. The Osteoporosis International meeting in New Zealand 2013 re-emphasized this nutrient's importance proclaiming the best treatment for osteoporosis is achieving a strong peak bone mass before 30 years old and increasing Vitamin K2 food sources in the diet throughout life.

    The richest food source of K2 is the Japanese fermented soybean natto, which is produced with Bacillus natto, a bacterium that converts K1 to MK-7. Fermented cheeses like Swiss and Jarlsberg contain Mk-8 and Mk-9 which can be converted to K2 at a 20 to 40 percent lower rate than from natto, but more appealing to the western taste buds. Grass-fed beef and egg yolks are the most common source of K2 in the American diet.

    For those who have not acquired a taste for fermented soybeans or natto, my nutrition mentor, Adelle Davis, had it right when she recommended eating liver once a week. Celiacs need to be sure that their diets include ample red meats, eggs and fermented cheeses or yogurt or else dietary supplementation with Vitamin K2 (MK-4) is recommended. Without it, bones can become soft tissues and arteries "turn to stone" or calcified.

    A Chart of Vitamin K levels in Foods can provide insight into food choices for menaquinone compared to Vitamin K1. It was adapted from Schurgers et al. Nutritional intake of vitamins K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone) in the Netherlands. J Nutr. Environ. Med. 1999.

     

    Food K1 MK-4 MK-7,8,9
    Meats 0.5-5 1-30 0.1-2
    Fish 0.1-1 0.1-2  
    Green Vegetables 100-750    
    Natto 20-40   900-1200
    Cheese 0.5-10 0.5-10 40-80
    Eggs (yolk) 0.5-2.5 10-25  

     

    The American Heart Association and many medical professionals who advocated no organ meats or red meat and egg yolks, deprived Americans of primary sources of Vitamin K2 which is essential for bone and cardiovascular health.



    Image Caption: Image: CC--Jessica Spengler
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    Guest Nechama

    Posted

    Amazing new info for me. However I do not eat soy, hard cheeses and whole eggs (omelets etc), only as an ingredient within a food. So, I guess, the chicken livers are my only source of good "K". Replies welcome.

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    Guest Barbara

    Posted

    Great article, but I have a somewhat odd question. Would someone who has had a heart transplant be advised to take this? My husband just had one last month and has to avoid things that may have live bacteria, such as raw honey or anything unpasteurized, due to the high doses of immunosuppressives he now takes. He was diagnosed with osteopenia and would really like to take the K2 to try to build his bones. Thanks so much for any input!

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    Posterboy
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    References:
    https://pellagradisease.wordpress.com/  http://blogs.creighton.edu/heaney/2013/11/18/pellagra-and-the-four-ds/ https://pellagradisease.wordpress.com/ http://glutenfreeworks.com/blog/2010/06/23/niacin-vitamin-b3-deficiency-in-celiac-disease/ Prousky, Jonathan E. Is Vitamin B3 Dependency a Causal Factor in the Development of Hypochlorhydria and Achlorhydria? Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 4, 4th quarter 2001, pp. 225-37. http://www.orthomolecular.org/library/jom/2001/articles/2001-v16n04-p225.shtml http://blogs.creighton.edu/heaney/2013/11/18/pellagra-and-the-four-ds/ International Journal of Celiac Disease. Celiac Disease: Intestinal, Heart and Skin Interconnections. 2015, 3(1), 28-30 doi:10.12691/ijcd-3-1-6 (http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijcd/3/1/6/) International Journal of Celiac Disease. Two Exceptional Complications Revealing Celiac Disease: Ischemic Cardiomyopathy and Pellagra. International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2015, 3(1), 31-32 doi:10.12691/ijcd-3-1-5. (http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijcd/3/1/5/)

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