• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    77,466
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    3sth3rcho
    Newest Member
    3sth3rcho
    Joined
  • 0

    Stir Fry with Cauliflower Rice (Gluten-Free)


    Melissa Reed


    • Use different proteins to change the flavor profile in this gluten-free stir-fry recipe.


    Image Caption: Image: CC--Lablascovegmenu

    Celiac.com 09/08/2017 - When you or a loved one has celiac disease there is often a plethora of dishes made with rice. Tired of plain old rice in most of your meals? Try cauliflower rice instead! Stir fry is easy and quick to make for company, family meals, dinner, during the week or weekend. It's even delicious for lunch.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    Use different proteins to change the flavor profile. This stir fry can use protein of choice such as tofu, mung beans, beef, seafood, pork or chicken. Fun to mix it up and use cauliflower rice instead of the usual brown or white rice! I used pork for this recipe. It was eaten so fast there were no left overs in our house.

    Ingredients:

    • Thick pork chop boneless, cut into small cubes (or other protein about 1 lb.)
    • Riced cauliflower (buy pre-made packaged or use your food processor to pulse fresh uncooked chopped head of cauliflower into rice size pieces)
    • 1 carrot, peeled and chopped
    • 1 small onion, peeled and chopped
    • 1 celery rib, strings removed and chopped
    • 1.5 lbs. chopped veggies like mix of mushrooms, snow peas, bell peppers and water-chestnut (*fresh or frozen)
    • 1 garlic clove, crushed, peeled and minced
    • ½ inch piece of fresh ginger root, peeled and minced
    • 1 cup gluten-free vegetable broth
    • 2 tbs gluten-free soy sauce or gluten-free Tamari sauce
    • 1 tbs sugar
    • 1 tbs gluten-free rice wine vinegar
    • 1 tsp gluten-free corn starch
    • 2 tbs cooking olive oil for stir fry
    • ¼ cup fresh green onion sliced thin or fresh cilantro leaves for garnish, optional
    • Salt and pepper to taste

    Directions:

    First make the sauce: mix the broth, gluten-free soy sauce, sugar, rice wine vinegar and cornstarch in a bowl with a whisk or fork, combine well. Let sit aside while cooking.

    Heat oil to stir fry in a wok or large fry pan over medium-high heat. When oil is very hot add the protein, I used chopped pork. Brown the protein. Season lightly with salt and pepper then remove cooked pieces and set aside on a plate with a paper towel to drain any excess oil off.

    Next, add the bell peppers, onion and celery then stir occasionally until tender. Add the remaining vegetables and add the cauliflower rice. Stir fry for 2 minutes, stirring in the garlic and ginger. Stir frequently for about another 30 seconds to a minute.

    Add the cooked protein back to the pan or wok. Stir with other ingredients to mix well. Then pour the sauce (give it a quick stir before adding) into the pan and let bubble to thicken a minute and remove from heat. Let set a minute or two and then serve in bowls with the green sliced onion or cilantro leaves, sprinkled on top as garnish.

    Note: Can reserve the cauliflower rice to the side; cook it separate and serve the veggies and meat mixed with sauce- served over the plain cauliflower rice instead.

    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    There are no comments to display.



    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoji are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   5 Members, 1 Anonymous, 322 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams
    This recipe comes to us from "Carriefaith" in the Gluten-Free Forum.
    Ingredients:
    1 package of plain (non breaded) chicken strips
    3-4 cloves of garlic, minced
    1 small lemon, juice only
    4-5 green onions, diced
    1 yellow onion, diced
    1 cup of water
    1 McCormick all-vegetable bouillon (vegetable, chicken, or beef)
    ½ cup - 1 cup of VH Sweetn Sour Dip
    Directions:
    Cook chicken, garlic, onions, water, lemon juice and bouillon until the water is evaporated. Add sauce and cook until the chicken is done. Serve.


    Silka Burgoyne
    It's Chinese New Year and spring rolls are a must have for atraditional Chinese dinner. After a spring roll is deep fried, the skinturns golden, and the color and the shape of the spring roll representa "gold bar."  Serving spring rolls during Chinese New Year is done topresent "gold" to guests and wish all the guests luck in making moremoney in the coming year. And yes, everyone cares about moneynowadays..and Chinese people sometimes do care about money way toomuch! In a more traditional Chinese spring roll, the fillings oftencontain pork and shrimp along with shredded vegetable. As for me, Iopted for vegetarian version, and tofu is used as protein. I have oftenbrought my version of spring rolls to potluck dinners and everyoneoften asks me for the recipe. I am finally going to share it here.
    Atypical spring roll wrapper is made with wheat--to make a gluten-freeversion you need to use Vietnamese rice paper wraps instead. Thegluten-free version is healthier since it's not fried. My version ofthe spring roll does not use the traditional ingredients that my momwould normally use in Hong Kong or my Vietnamese friend would do in amore traditional Vietnamese spring roll or summer roll.
    People often think that it's time consuming to make spring rolls. In reality, you will be surprised how easy it is.

    Preparation Time: 20-30 minutes
    Cook Time: 15 minutes
    NOTE:It is the best to prepare the fillings and let it cool and drained anyliquid from the filling before wrapping. The heat and the moisture willpotentially break the wrapper.  Also, you can use any kind of vegetablefor the fillings. But make sure to chop it up finely.
    Ingredients:

    1 package of spring roll wrapper or rice paper wrapper 1 package of rainbow slaw or brocolli slaw (It can be found in salad session in supermarket) 1 package of Tofu Cutlet or 5-spiced tofu or spice tofu or extra firm tofu - cut into 1" strip 2 cups of bean sprouts 1 package of Chinese Pickled Vegetable (Zhacai) or 1/2 cup of dill pickles - it's optional - cut into 1" strip 2 tablespoon of gluten-free soy sauce 1 teaspoon of kosher salt 1 tablespoon of Chinese cooking wine or red wine 1/2 teaspoon of white pepper 1/2 teaspoon of sugar 2 teaspoon of  sesame seeds oil 2 tablespoon of cooking oil, prefer olive oil 1 teaspoon of rice vinegar (dipping sauce) 1 tablepoon of gluten-free soy sauce (dipping sauce) Some sesame seed oil (or hot oil if you prefer spicy) Fillings:

    Heat Wok without any oil, cut the tofu and pickles into 1" strip and wash all vegetables and drain them. When the wok is hot, cook beansprouts and stir it until they are heated through, about 2 minutes.Note: Make sure to keep stirring to prevent sticking on the wok. Removefrom wok and set aside. Put oil in the wok and gentlymove the wok left and right to let the oil coat the bottom, put inrainbow slaw and tofu and stir them for a minute, then add pickles andstir for another minute.  Add soy sauce, wine, salt, sugar, white pepper and stir ituntil the seasonings are well blended into the vegetables; about 3-4minutes. Make sure not to overcook the filling, you would like thevegetables still a little crunchy. Add the bean sprouts into the wok and stir until they areheated through, about 1 minute or so. Taste the fillings and add moresalt if necessary. Turn the heat off and add the sesame seed oil and stir the oil into the fillings. Put the fillings into a drainer and cool off. Gluten Free Version:
    Fill a large shallow bowl with warm water, put rice paper into theshallow bowl one at a time; otherwise, they will stick together.When the rice paper is soft about 15 second, remove from bowl and drainthe water off of it. Lay 1 rice paper wrapper in a dry cloth and put 2 spoonfulsof the fillings in the middle of the wrapper; make sure not toover-stuff the wrapper, you would need to leave 1.5" on each sides inorder to wrap the spring roll. Fold up the bottom of the wrapper. The bottom of the wrapperis the part that is closest to the filling. Fold this up over thefilling and press down slightly. Fold both sides to the center so that the edge of both sides meet in the middle Hold the sides and roll the spring up until the end of the wrapper  Combine rice vinegar, soy sauce and sesame seed oil in a dipping bowl and serve immediately Happy Cooking!


    Jefferson Adams
    Throughout southeast Asia, street vendors prepare cheap, delicious noodles on the spot. Place an order and watch the cook's hands become a blur of ingredients dancing in a hot wok. A flash of alchemy and heat turn oil, meat, vegetables, and noodles into a piping hot delicacy that can be enjoyed just about any time of day. One day, after nursing a hankering for Asian-style noodles, I discovered spaghetti-style rice noodles at my local Asian grocery store. I picked up some sesame oil and some veggies, hit the butcher for a pork chop, and the rest, as they say, is history.  Well, actually, there was a bit of experimentation first, but that's a story for another time. Right now, you are about to enjoy delicious, healthy, cheap gluten-free noodles.
    Ingredients:
    Rice Noodles (Spaghetti style)
    ¼ cup Sesame Oil
    ½ pound Pork, cubed
    ¼ cup Cilantro, chopped
    ½ cup Scallions, chopped
    1/4 Onion, wedged and sliced
    1 Clove Garlic, minced
    ½ cup Sweet Red Pepper, chopped
    ½ cup Carrot, chopped
    ½ cup Broccoli
    1 cup Collard, Chard or similar Greens, chopped
    1 teaspoon Sugar
    1 sprig of Mint (optional)
    Splash of Rice Vinegar
    Directions:
    First, you'll need some rice noodles that are about as thick as regular spaghetti.
    Boil about 3 quarts of water, and chop some sweet red bell pepper, carrots, garlic, onion, scallion, broccoli, and some kind of greens, like collard greens.
    Also, you'll need some cilantro, a pinch of sugar and maybe some mint.
    Slice and cube the pork chop (use any kind of meat you like, or make it vegetarian style).
    Put the rice noodles a dish that can take heat, and cover them with hot water for a few minutes until they soften up a bit. When they are flexible, but still firm, strain them, but don't rinse them.
    When the noodles dry out a bit, use a fork and scissors to cut them in half.
    Heat some sesame and/or olive oil in a frying pan on high heat.
    When the oil starts to smoke, add the carrots, the peppers, stir 10 seconds, add garlic, meat, and broccoli.
    Toss quickly over a high heat for one minute.
    Add rice noodles and continue to toss or stir rapidly for 30 seconds.
    Add greens and fish sauce and toss or stir rapidly for another 30 seconds.
    As pan dries up a bit, add a splash of chicken broth and a pinch of sugar.
    Stir or toss for 15 seconds.
    Pour into large bowl, garnish with cilantro, a splash of rice vinegar and serve.


    Jefferson Adams
    Stir-fries invite a blending of flavors and textures, so I always make it a point to look for ingredients that will compliment one another, and deliver loads of flavor. This dish is warm and filling and goes great over rice or gluten-free noodles. The roasted chilies and peppers heighten the soft texture of the mushrooms. This dish is also excellent when served chilled.
    When shopping for ginger, look for firm pieces free of any soft spots. Fresh ginger keeps for about a week. Make sure shitakes have thick caps and the fissures (the white underside) are white.
    Ingredients:
    1 cup sliced shitake mushrooms
    1 cup sliced oyster mushrooms
    1 cup sliced button mushrooms
    1 red bell pepper
    2 finely sliced red chilies
    1 jalapeño pepper
    3 cloves minced garlic
    2 tablespoons freshly grated ginger
    1 teaspoon chili flakes
    1 tablespoon olive oil
    2 tablespoon sesame oil
    Directions:
    Slice and seed the red pepper, chilies and jalapeño. Arrange on a broiler pan and coat with olive oil. Roast until skins have charred. Remove, cover and let steam for 10 minutes. Scrape black skins off, chop and set roasted vegetables aside.
    Heat sesame oil in a large wok or frying pan. Add garlic and ginger and fry for 2 minutes.
    Add shitake mushrooms and cook for 2-3 minutes then repeat with oyster mushroom and button mushrooms, cooking about 2 minutes each time.
    Toss in roasted peppers, chilies, and chili flakes and serve.


  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/16/2018 - Summer is the time for chips and salsa. This fresh salsa recipe relies on cabbage, yes, cabbage, as a secret ingredient. The cabbage brings a delicious flavor and helps the salsa hold together nicely for scooping with your favorite chips. The result is a fresh, tasty salsa that goes great with guacamole.
    Ingredients:
    3 cups ripe fresh tomatoes, diced 1 cup shredded green cabbage ½ cup diced yellow onion ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro 1 jalapeno, seeded 1 Serrano pepper, seeded 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 2 garlic cloves, minced salt to taste black pepper, to taste Directions:
    Purée all ingredients together in a blender.
    Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. 
    Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper, as desired. 
    Serve is a bowl with tortilla chips and guacamole.

    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 06/15/2018 - There seems to be widespread agreement in the published medical research reports that stuttering is driven by abnormalities in the brain. Sometimes these are the result of brain injuries resulting from a stroke. Other types of brain injuries can also result in stuttering. Patients with Parkinson’s disease who were treated with stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, an area of the brain that regulates some motor functions, experienced a return or worsening of stuttering that improved when the stimulation was turned off (1). Similarly, stroke has also been reported in association with acquired stuttering (2). While there are some reports of psychological mechanisms underlying stuttering, a majority of reports seem to favor altered brain morphology and/or function as the root of stuttering (3). Reports of structural differences between the brain hemispheres that are absent in those who do not stutter are also common (4). About 5% of children stutter, beginning sometime around age 3, during the phase of speech acquisition. However, about 75% of these cases resolve without intervention, before reaching their teens (5). Some cases of aphasia, a loss of speech production or understanding, have been reported in association with damage or changes to one or more of the language centers of the brain (6). Stuttering may sometimes arise from changes or damage to these same language centers (7). Thus, many stutterers have abnormalities in the same regions of the brain similar to those seen in aphasia.
    So how, you may ask, is all this related to gluten? As a starting point, one report from the medical literature identifies a patient who developed aphasia after admission for severe diarrhea. By the time celiac disease was diagnosed, he had completely lost his faculty of speech. However, his speech and normal bowel function gradually returned after beginning a gluten free diet (8). This finding was so controversial at the time of publication (1988) that the authors chose to remain anonymous. Nonetheless, it is a valuable clue that suggests gluten as a factor in compromised speech production. At about the same time (late 1980’s) reports of connections between untreated celiac disease and seizures/epilepsy were emerging in the medical literature (9).
    With the advent of the Internet a whole new field of anecdotal information was emerging, connecting a variety of neurological symptoms to celiac disease. While many medical practitioners and researchers were casting aspersions on these assertions, a select few chose to explore such claims using scientific research designs and methods. While connections between stuttering and gluten consumption seem to have been overlooked by the medical research community, there is a rich literature on the Internet that cries out for more structured investigation of this connection. Conversely, perhaps a publication bias of the peer review process excludes work that explores this connection.
    Whatever the reason that stuttering has not been reported in the medical literature in association with gluten ingestion, a number of personal disclosures and comments suggesting a connection between gluten and stuttering can be found on the Internet. Abid Hussain, in an article about food allergy and stuttering said: “The most common food allergy prevalent in stutterers is that of gluten which has been found to aggravate the stutter” (10). Similarly, Craig Forsythe posted an article that includes five cases of self-reporting individuals who believe that their stuttering is or was connected to gluten, one of whom also experiences stuttering from foods containing yeast (11). The same site contains one report of a stutterer who has had no relief despite following a gluten free diet for 20 years (11). Another stutterer, Jay88, reports the complete disappearance of her/his stammer on a gluten free diet (12). Doubtless there are many more such anecdotes to be found on the Internet* but we have to question them, exercising more skepticism than we might when reading similar claims in a peer reviewed scientific or medical journal.
    There are many reports in such journals connecting brain and neurological ailments with gluten, so it is not much of a stretch, on that basis alone, to suspect that stuttering may be a symptom of the gluten syndrome. Rodney Ford has even characterized celiac disease as an ailment that may begin through gluten-induced neurological damage (13) and Marios Hadjivassiliou and his group of neurologists and neurological investigators have devoted considerable time and effort to research that reveals gluten as an important factor in a majority of neurological diseases of unknown origin (14) which, as I have pointed out previously, includes most neurological ailments.
    My own experience with stuttering is limited. I stuttered as a child when I became nervous, upset, or self-conscious. Although I have been gluten free for many years, I haven’t noticed any impact on my inclination to stutter when upset. I don’t know if they are related, but I have also had challenges with speaking when distressed and I have noticed a substantial improvement in this area since removing gluten from my diet. Nonetheless, I have long wondered if there is a connection between gluten consumption and stuttering. Having done the research for this article, I would now encourage stutterers to try a gluten free diet for six months to see if it will reduce or eliminate their stutter. Meanwhile, I hope that some investigator out there will research this matter, publish her findings, and start the ball rolling toward getting some definitive answers to this question.
    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
    5. Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H, Giraud AL. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009 Oct;132(Pt 10):2747-60. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
    6. Galantucci S, Tartaglia MC, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Filippi M, Agosta F, Dronkers NF, Henry RG, Ogar JM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain. 2011 Jun 11.
    7. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    8. [No authors listed] Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48
    9. Molteni N, Bardella MT, Baldassarri AR, Bianchi PA. Celiac disease associated with epilepsy and intracranial calcifications: report of two patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Sep;83(9):992-4.
    10. http://ezinearticles.com/?Food-Allergy-and-Stuttering-Link&id=1235725 
    11. http://www.craig.copperleife.com/health/stuttering_allergies.htm 
    12. https://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/73362-any-help-is-appreciated/
    13. Ford RP. The gluten syndrome: a neurological disease. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Sep;73(3):438-40. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    14. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/14/2018 - Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a rare complication of celiac disease that has high death rates. To diagnose RCDII, doctors identify a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). 
    However, researchers really don’t have much data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. Such data could provide useful comparison information for patients with RCDII, among other things.
    To that end, a research team recently set out to try to get some information about the frequency and importance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. The research team included Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, and Govind Bhagat.
    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and the Department of Medicine at the Celiac Disease Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA. Their team analyzed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active celiac disease, 172 celiac disease on gluten-free diet, 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without celiac disease. 
    Clonal TCR-GRs are not infrequent in cases lacking features of RCDII, while PCPs are frequent in all disease phases. TCR-GR results should be assessed in conjunction with immunophenotypic, histological and clinical findings for appropriate diagnosis and classification of RCD.
    The team divided the TCR-GR patterns into clonal, polyclonal and prominent clonal peaks (PCPs), and correlated these patterns with clinical and pathological features. In all, they detected clonal TCR-GR products in biopsies from 67% of patients with RCDII, 17% of patients with RCDI and 6% of patients with gluten-free diet. They found PCPs in all disease phases, but saw no significant difference in the TCR-GR patterns between the non-RCDII disease categories (p=0.39). 
    They also noted a higher frequency of surface CD3(−) IELs in cases with clonal TCR-GR, but the PCP pattern showed no associations with any clinical or pathological feature. 
    Repeat biopsy showed that the clonal or PCP pattern persisted for up to 2 years with no evidence of RCDII. The study indicates that better understanding of clonal T cell receptor gene rearrangements may help researchers improve refractory celiac diagnosis. 
    Source:
    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023