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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    EASY WAYS TO MAKE MEALS MORE NUTRITIOUS


    Lisa Cantkier


    • Journal of Gluten Sensitivity Summer 2014 Issue


    Celiac.com 10/04/2016 - I have been following a gluten-free diet since being medically diagnosed with celiac disease as a toddler. My food choices have certainly evolved over the years. Many life experiences have influenced this evolution, including the loss of loved ones to cancer, experiencing my own health struggles resulting from celiac disease, and many surprising things I have learned from studying holistic nutrition.


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    If I had to put everything I have learned over the years into one sentence, it would be, "Every bite matters." Those are words I live by now. After all, an overwhelming number of health experts agree that over 90% of our immune system exists within our gastrointestinal tract, so what we eat means more than ever. As a celiac with specific nutritional requirements, and being someone at risk of various deficiencies, this mantra can literally make or break me. I am always searching for new ways to maximize the potential of my food choices.
    Here are some of my favourite ways to turn everyday eating into meals that pack a greater nutritional punch.

    1. Avoid pre-packaged foods, particularly with long ingredient lists. Virtually all packaged foods contain preservatives, among other unhealthy things we can live without. The words "packaged" and "preservative" go hand in hand. That means you are getting unwanted ingredients in your food. Also, avoid products that contain ingredient names that look unfamiliar to you. Unfamiliar ingredients usually equate with unhealthy additives, preservatives and chemicals. Try to avoid processed/refined foods, and foods that are high in sugar and high on the glycemic index. Instead, select local, in season, whole foods.
    2. Choose organic when possible. When you choose foods that are organic, you are not only helping the eco-system in many ways, you are also helping your gut in more ways than you'd think. Organic foods are clean and free from harmful chemicals, pesticides, genetically modified processes, antibiotics and anything that is unnatural—from start to finished product. I find organic foods taste significantly better as well.
    3. Wipe out white rice, refined flours and crusts. For example, make your own gluten-free flours by grinding mineral-rich seeds such as sunflower seeds or pumpkin seeds. Bake homemade pizza and lasagna with a layered eggplant base (you'll need to cook the eggplant first). Replace nutrient poor, refined white rice with nutrient-dense quinoa. Make a wrap with seaweed or collard greens.
    4. Kick sugar to the curb. Use natural sweeteners lower on the glycemic index, such as stevia or organic coconut palm sugar to replace refined table sugar that has been stripped of its minerals and nutritional value. Although maple syrup and honey are not considered low glycemic, they certainly have more minerals and health benefits than white, refined table sugar. Organic honey is preferable.
    5. Pick quality protein and heart healthy omega 3 fats. Adding lean, quality protein and heart healthy omega 3 rich fats to your meals and snacks will help you absorb nutrients better, and help balance your blood sugar levels, which is good for you in the short-term and long-term.
    6. Reach for raw. Increase your intake of raw, nutrient-rich vegetables (especially cruciferous and sea vegetable varieties) and fruit in a wide range of colours to receive the benefits of an assortment of vitamins. Grab more green, such as kale, broccoli and spinach. Try juicing to conveniently get more veggies into your diet.
    7. Make your meals super. Add super-foods rich in antioxidants such as chia seeds, hemp hearts, flax seeds, gogi berries and other kinds of berries to cereals, stews, soups and sauces. A variety of colors will ensure you are consuming a variety of vitamins.
    8. Be mindful of your B's. Iron and B-vitamin deficiencies are extremely common among celiacs, even those who follow a gluten-free diet. Try to eat foods high in these nutrients. Foods high in B-vitamins include leafy greens, beans, eggs, fish, nuts and poultry. Foods high in iron include red meat, poultry, squash, pumpkin seeds, beans and various nuts.
    9. Savour the Season. Now that Spring is here, there is no reason why you can't visit your local farmer's market or farm for fresh, in season produce. Imagine the goodness lost when produce is packaged, shipped, sitting on store shelves and even cooked. Those steps, not to mention the time involved strip plant based foods of their nutritional value, and they leave a significant footprint on the environment. Consider creating your own veggie garden so you can take advantage of food that goes from soil to plate.

    Now that I've got you thinking differently, instead of reaching for what's inside the box, think outside the box and experiment with healthy whole foods. You might not love everything you introduce to your palate, however, you won't know until you try. One thing is certain—your gut will thank you.



    Image Caption: Image: CC--Craig Dugas
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    Lisa Cantkier
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    Tina Turbin
    Celiac.com 05/17/2016 - The paleolithic diet, or paleo diet which happens to be gluten-free, has been growing increasingly popular among athletes and health advocates, but it has a history dating back to the mid-1970's as a means of preventing diseases and health conditions such as autoimmune diseases and cancer, when investigations were made of the eating patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors.
    The paleo gluten-free diet, the "biologically appropriate" diet, is named for the Paleolithic era, which extended 2.5 million years ending in 10,000 B.C. with the advent of agriculture and animal husbandry. It's comprised of the foods our human ancestors consumed during this period, namely wild-caught fish, grass-fed meats, fruits, vegetables, roots, and nuts. Any "modern" foods introduced from the agricultural era forward such as grains, dairy, sugar, and processed foods are eliminated.
    People all over have found the paleo gluten-free diet is an effective answer for weight loss, optimizing health and fitness—and building muscle tone. According to research, pre-agricultural humans were free of the diseases of the civilized world such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, and autoimmune diseases. Modern studies, including clinical studies, have shown as well that the paleo diet and the restoration of the lifestyle conditions of our ancestors, such as exercise, have resolved numerous diseases.
    The theory behind the diet, supported by extensive archeological and anthropological evidence, is based on the premise that modern humans do best on paleolithic nutrition because human genetics have largely remained the same since the pre-agricultural era and thus our genetic makeup is best suited to the ancestral human diet.
    If you're looking to build muscle tone, meet with a qualified health practitioner to see if the diet is for you. I think you'll find that whatever your reason for starting the paleo diet and lifestyle, whether to optimize your fitness routine, lose weight, alleviate autoimmune disease symptoms such as celiac disease, or increase your longevity, eating in the biologically appropriate way for our bodies not only has the power to change your body and your health, but your quality of life.
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    In fact, one of the best known proponents of the paleo diet, Robb Wolf, former biochemist and author of The Paleo Solution, regards the diet as performance-enhancing and trains world-class athletes at his gym in Chico, California.
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    Monique Attinger
    Celiac.com 06/07/2016 - The world of nutrition is currently obsessed with "super foods". Super foods are loosely defined as foods that are extremely high in nutrients – particularly antioxidants and vitamins – and which everyone is heartily advised to add to their diet.
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    Get Your Fiber
    The preponderance of processed foods in our diets can often leave us with hardly any fiber in our diet! Many gluten-free options are very low in fiber, and this can affect gut health. Fiber is not a direct nutrient for us per se – but it is a needed component that contributes to better gut flora and better health overall.
    Insoluble fiber adds bulk to the stool and promotes regularity. Most of us are not getting enough of this fiber, and as a result, can develop poor motility and constipation.
    Given that many whole grains are not good alternatives for those on a gluten-free diet, and the bran of many grains are actually high in oxalate, how can we get more healthy insoluble fiber? The good news is that one nutritional powerhouse is not only full of healthy insoluble fiber – it's also a plant source of Omega 3's. So a great solution to lack of insoluble fiber is flax seeds.
    Flax seeds can be eaten whole – but to really get the best benefits from this super food, it's best to grind your flax. Keep whole flax seeds in the freezer to preserve their freshness, and don't grind until just before using them. The recommended daily serving (which will also provide some soluble fiber) is two tablespoons.
    According to the Mayo Clinic, the right fiber goes much further than just regularity. If you increase soluble fiber, it can help reduce both blood sugar and cholesterol. Soluble fiber creates a gel-like material in the gut, and some research indicates that it may help to feed our gut bacteria.
    The benefits of soluble fiber are well known when it comes to cholesterol. The recommended food to get more soluble fiber is oats. However, whole oats are high in oxalate, and the oat bran has confusing test data.
    The solution? Psyllium! Pysllium is the medicinal ingredient in the popular product, Metamucil. Psyllium contains both soluble and insoluble fiber – and research on it shows that it can help to reduce cholesterol as well as normalize blood sugar. You can add it to baked products (but adjust the liquids), or sprinkle on foods. It's virtually tasteless – although you might find it does add some thickness or texture to liquids or foods.
    Fruits and vegetables are also good sources of both soluble and insoluble fiber and many are lower oxalate. Cabbages, lettuces, onions, cucumbers (with the skin) red bell peppers, orange, mango and grapes are all good low oxalate sources of fiber in your diet.
    Fruits
    There is no shortage of healthy options in fresh fruits that are also low oxalate, but the blueberry holds a special place among even the healthiest fruits.
    Research shows that blueberries are one of the most antioxidant rich foods available, and are included in most lists of super foods. Blueberries are one of the highest rated foods on the ORAC scale. The ORAC scale was developed by researchers at Tufts University, and is the measure of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (hence the abbreviation ORAC). What this really means for you is that the higher something ranks on the ORAC scale, the more antioxidants you are getting.
    Blueberries are stars on this scale, with an ORAC value of 4,669 per 100 grams, according to Superfoodly.com. Wild blueberries rank higher than cultivated ones – but you can't go wrong with any blueberry.
    Another fruit that ranks very high in ORAC is the lowly cranberry. While very tart (and difficult to eat raw), cranberries are second only to blueberries in antioxidant levels. To reduce the acidity of the fruit, and make them more palatable, cook with water and some honey. Cranberries are very easy to cook and make a lovely side dish for fattier meats like lamb. They aren't just for turkey anymore! Consuming these tangy fruits also help to contribute to bladder health.
    For nutrition on the go, turn to golden seedless raisins. While dark raisins are tasty treats, the golden seedless variety is both lower in oxalate and higher in antioxidants. In fact, golden seedless raisins actually have a higher ORAC score than fresh blueberries! Combine that with convenience and portability, and you have an easy way to get more antioxidants in your day. Raisins also make a great treat for kids, because of their sweetness.
    Is the apple a super food? Yes it is! Easy to purchase and pack for lunch, this popular fruit is full of quercetin, which protects cells from damage and is often recommended for those with allergies. Not only is it full of healthy antioxidants, it also has twice the fiber of other commonly eaten fruits, including peaches, grapes and grapefruit, according to the site EverydayHealth.com.
    Veggies
    When looking at veggies, many of the foods that are considered most healthy are also very high in oxalate. Everyone talks today about how healthy the sweet potato is for us: but did you know that a ½ cup of sweet potato can have over 90 mg of oxalate in it? For people trying to eat a low oxalate diet, a single serving would be more oxalate than they should consume in a whole day!
    However, while avoiding high oxalate foods, you do need to eat color and variety to get your needed nutrition. If you want a lower carbohydrate, orange veggie – consider the kabocha squash. Not only does this lower carb, low oxalate veggie work as a substitute for many recipes that require sweet potato, it also has a very good nutrient profile. Self Nutrition Data lists Vitamin A and Vitamin C as well as a good serving of Folate, in addition to good amounts of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium.
    Of course, you want other colors in your veggies as well – and green leafy veggies are particularly known for their nutrition. While spinach would be a bad choice because of extremely high oxalate, you have lots of other greens to choose from. Focus on lower oxalate varieties of kale, including purple kale. The website, The World's Healthiest Foods, lists kale as a food that can lower cholesterol (if steamed) as well as lower your risk of cancer. Of course, kale is part of the cruciferous vegetable family, and these foods have many anti-cancer benefits. Kale is an excellent source of Vitamin K (your blood clotting factor), as well as vitamin A, vitamin C, manganese, copper, B6 and others.
    Don't forget your other brassicas while you are focusing on kale! The cruciferous veggies also support our bodies natural detox processes, which is very valuable in today's world where we are exposed to many environmental toxins. Broccoli is another low oxalate brassica that is good for you, whether you are eating the mature broccoli heads, or feasting on broccoli sprouts. Note that broccoli sprouts do have an edge over their more mature cousins – they might just taste better, and given that they can be added to a sandwich for some satisfying crunch, might be easier to work into your daily diet. Research gives the sprouts a further edge in cancer risk reduction and some research indicates they may actually help to prevent stomach cancer.
    Another excellent leafy green is the lowly turnip green. Turnip greens are very high in calcium, and are even lower in oxalate than kale. A cup of cooked turnip greens will also get you more than 100% of the RDA for vitamin K. In addition, you'll get vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, copper, manganese, calcium, and vitamin E. Each serving will give you 15% of your daily requirement for B6.
    When thinking of deep red veggies, go for red cabbage. This versatile veggie is very low in oxalate, and that lovely red color means that it has even more protective phytonutrients, according to World's Healthiest Foods, than its green sibling! One serving of red cabbage delivers more than four times the polyphenols of green cabbage.
    Fats and Oils
    You can't read on super food nutrition anywhere and not run into the avocado. A great source of healthy monounsaturated fat, the avocado has also been linked to reduced risk of cancer, as well as lowered risk of heart disease and diabetes. While we think of avocados as a fatty food, they are actually a good source of fiber, with 11 to 17 grams of fiber per fruit! You'll also get a dose of lutein, an antioxidant recommended for eye health.
    Web MD says that lutein is a potent antioxidant, which is found in high concentrations in the eye. The combination of lutein and zeaxanthin (another antixodant) help to protect your eyes from damaging, high energy light. Some research indicates that a diet high in lutein and zeaxanthin may reduce the risk of cataracts by as much as 50%.
    Coconut oil is another excellent fat that can benefit our bodies in a host of ways. Doctor Oz lists a number of benefits, including supporting thyroid health and blood sugar control. This may be related to the form of saturated fat that is found in coconut oil, called lauric acid. Lauric acid is a medium-chain triglyceride. This kind of fat actually boosts immune system, and has antibiotic, antiviral and antifungal properties. It may also be a tool in your weight loss arsenal. A study in 2009 actually showed the eating 2 Tablespoons of coconut oil daily, allowed subjects to lose belly fat more effectively. Even better news for those who are following a low oxalate diet: both avocado and coconut oil have zero oxalate!
    Nuts, Seeds and Legumes
    Unfortunately, many foods in this category are high oxalate – and so won't qualify for our super food list. While you might be able to have a couple of walnut halves, or a similar amount of pecans, nuts are generally just to high to have in servings of more than 3-5 pieces.
    However, if you are looking for a superfood in this category, look no further than pumpkin seeds! Pumpkin seeds are an excellent source of vegetable-based protein, and are another portable food. A great snack for the health conscious can be made with raisins and pumpkin seeds – both are low oxalate, and the protein of the pumpkin seeds will help you to stay fuller longer. According to LiveStrong.com, a handful of pumpkin seeds will give you over 8 grams of protein. At the same time, pumpkin seeds are low in sugar, and provide you with fiber as part of the carbohydrate in them. You will also get vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin K, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese, zinc, potassium, copper and phosphorus in that small and compact package!
    If pumpkin seeds don't qualify as a super food, it's hard to say what would!
    When it comes to legumes, many are stars for protein, but one of the best options is the red lentil. Lentils in general are easier to prepare than other types of legumes – they do not require the soaking and preparation time that many legumes do. At the same time, they are powerhouses of nutrition, with molybdenum, folate, fiber, copper, phosphorus and manganese all at more than 50% of your daily requirement. One cup of cooked lentils will also give you 36 % of your daily need for protein, according to World's Healthiest Foods. And all this nutrition is provided in a food that is virtually fat free and low in calories. You cannot go wrong!
    As an added benefit, some studies have found that eating high fiber foods like red lentils may reduce the risk of heart disease. The more fiber, the lower the risk of heart disease.
    Fish
    We are always hearing that we need to have more fish in our diets. It seems sometimes that not a week goes by when we are not hearing that we should be eating less meat, and getting less fat – with the suggestion that more fish would benefit us.
    When you think of the super food of fish, you have to think of salmon. Salmon is a fatty fish, and it's one of the best sources available for omega-3 fatty acids. In today's world of processed foods, omega-3's are one of the nutrients that we don't get enough of.
    Your best bet with salmon is to get wild-caught fish. Farmed salmon do not have the same nutrient profile, which may be related to the kind of food they are fed. Along with the decreased nutrient profile, studies have indicated that farmed salmon contains significantly higher concentrations of a number of contaminants (including PCBs, dieldrins, toxaphenes, dioxins and chlorinated pesticides) than wild caught salmon.
    World's Healthiest Foods states that a 4 ounce piece of Coho salmon will get you 55% of your daily requirements for omega-3 fats. On top of that, you'll get more than 50% of your daily requirement for vitamin B12, vitamin D, selenium, vitamin B3, protein and phosphorus, as well as other B vitamins and minerals.
    Omega-3 fatty acids will provide you a host of benefits, from reduction of inflammation, to better brain function. Omega-3 fat is also heart healthy, and can contribute to a reduced risk of heart attack, stroke, high blood pressure and other cardiovascular disease. Research indicates that eating salmon at least 2 to 3 times a week will give you the best benefits.
    Spice it up
    Spices can be a bit tricky, if you want to keep your oxalate low. Many spices – while tasty – are very high in oxalate!
    A great example of this is turmeric. A staple in most curry recipes, turmeric is extremely high oxalate – so while it has a reputation as a super food, it would not be a good choice if you are trying to keep your oxalate low.
    So what is your option if you love to eat foods spiced with turmeric? Well, the easiest approach is to stock your spice rack with a health food store supplement; cook with curcumin extract! While it may seem a bit odd at first, if you buy a curcumin extract (which is the extract from turmeric), you can get the flavor and leave the oxalate behind.
    While not technically a "food" when you cook with a supplement, you certainly get all the benefits of the original super food – turmeric – without the downside of oxalate.
    Another highly beneficial spice is cinnamon. Research clearly shows how helpful cinnamon is for managing blood sugar. However, ground cinnamon is an extremely high oxalate spice. So how can you get the flavor you want, while avoiding the oxalate?
    One solution is to cook with a cinnamon extract that you buy at the health food store! One brand known to be low oxalate is Doctor's Best. It is a dry extract in capsules – simply break open the capsules and use the contents in your dish. This allows you to get all the therapeutic benefits of the extract as well as the taste.
    You can also cook with essential oils and culinary oils – but use them carefully. Essential oils can be very strong and can irritate the tissues of the mouth and digestive tract. One drop of good quality essential cinnamon oil will replace as much as 1 tablespoon of ground cinnamon. Culinary oils are made for flavoring – follow the directions on the product that you buy. Either way, you will get the taste – and you avoid the oxalate.
    Enjoying Your Food!
    As with anyone who wants to eat a healthy diet full of super foods, the trick is to focus on the best nutrition, and get lots of variety. While some foods may not be as "super" as others, if you are making colorful meals, with healthful selections from across the spectrum, you'll be doing your body a favor with flavor!
    Where Does Oxalate Go?
    Once you have eaten oxalate, you have to excrete it through urine, feces or sweat. But what happens if you don't? A study on rats was able to trace where in the body a dose of oxalate remained. The scientists used a special carbon molecule – carbon 14 – in the oxalate they gave to the rats, so that they could find the oxalate wherever it went in the body.
    What they found is that if the oxalate was not excreted from the body, it was stored everywhere:
    68% in the bones 9% in the spleen 8% in the adrenal glands 3% in the kidneys 3% in the liver 8% in the rest of the body These results are in direct opposition to conventional medical thinking, that oxalate only affects the kidneys. It clearly shows us that the whole body – but particularly the bones, key glands and detoxification organs – are all affected. This is another good reason to reduce the amount of oxalate in your diet!
    Is Spinach Really That Bad For You?
    A relatively simple study in the late 1930's looked at rats fed a diet that was only adequate in calcium. To bring the levels of calcium up, the rats were given spinach, equaling about 8% of their diet. While most of us think of spinach in terms of iron, it is also relatively high in calcium. The results of the study were shocking:
    47. A high percentage of rats died between the age of 21 days and 90 days 48. The bones of the rats were extremely low in calcium (despite adding it to the diet through the spinach) 49. Tooth structure was poor and dentine of the teeth poorly calcified 50. For these animals, reproduction was impossible. Researchers concluded that not only did spinach not supply the needed calcium (because of the oxalate), but the spinach also rendered the calcium from other foods unavailable. What we know now is that oxalate is a mineral chelator – and rather than delivering minerals, it was robbing them from the rats.
    Getting Your Vitamin K
    Vitamin K is a very important nutrient. Life Extension indicates that new research from 2014 links vitamin K to longevity. In fact, the highest intakes of vitamin K reduced the likelihood of dying from any cause by 36%! So, you definitely want to get vitamin K in your diet.
    However, most of us think that we need to eat high oxalate greens – like spinach – in order to get good amounts of vitamin K. Nothing could be further from the truth! Kale, collards and turnip greens are all higher in vitamin K than spinach, and they have a fraction of the oxalate.

    Jennifer Nyce
    Celiac.com 06/28/2016 - My latest obsession is creating new quinoa recipes, since my eight year old daughter absolutely loves it! Her favorite is warm quinoa with crumbled turkey sausage, broccoli, and lots of cumin. She also loves it with oil and balsamic vinegar. I like it cold with chopped veggies, garlic, and fresh squeezed lemon juice. Just a few weeks ago I tried amaranth for the first time. It seems to be the new craze these days. It cooked up very similarly to quinoa, and had a similar taste and texture. I would say the only noticeable difference is that amaranth does not get as fluffy when cooked. It seems like it would be great in soup! Now for a little history.
    Amaranth is estimated to have been domesticated between 6,000 and 8,000 years ago, and was a staple food crop of the Aztec's. The common name, amaranth, represents over sixty different plant species called amaranthus.(1) The amaranth plant is a full, broad leafed plant that has vibrant colors. Amaranth's name comes from the Greek name, amarantos, meaning "one that does not fade." This is due to the plant retaining its vibrant colors even after harvesting and drying. The amaranth plant can contain up to 60,000 seeds.
    Amaranth is gluten-free and it contains about thirty percent more protein than rice, sorghum, and rye.(2) Amaranth flour can be made from the seeds and is a excellent replacement for those suffering from celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.
    Amaranth flour has a unique chemical composition with a predominance of albumins and globulins and a very small prolamins content with total absence of alpha-gliadin. This makes it very comparable to wheat protein(2). It also has a relatively high content of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, and fiber and an almost perfect amino acid profile. It's particularly high in lysine, which is abundantly lacking in wheat and corn.(3)
    Another benefit of amaranth is that it is a natural source of folic acid, and in some countries, amaranth is used alleviate birth defects. Amaranth is not a true grain, as it does not come from the Poaceae family, but is considered a pseudo-cereal like it's relative quinoa. Both amaranth and quinoa belong to a large family that also includes beets, chard and spinach.(3)
    Quinoa is a broad-leafed plant that produces a small seed. It's a member of the Goosefoot family that is native to South America.(4) Quinoa is considered a complete protein that contains all nine of the essential amino acids necessary to human physiology, and it is the only plant-based source for these nutrients.(5) Quinoa cooks up like a grain, but it is actually a seed, and is an excellent source of protein for vegans and people following a gluten-free diet. According to the American Journal of Gastroenterology, it is also safe for celiac patients.(6)
    Like amaranth, quinoa can be ground into a flour and used in cooking or baking. Quinoa is rich in manganese which is vital to activating enzymes crucial to metabolizing carbohydrates and cholesterol. It is also essential to bone development. Quinoa is rich in lysine, an essential amino acid, and helps with the absorption of calcium and the production of collagen and is low on the glycemic index.(5)
    Both amaranth and quinoa are great gluten-free options, both as a flour or grain substitute, and have a nutty taste and texture. They readily absorb the flavors they are cooked with, but are also tasty on their own. They can be made hot or cold, combined with other foods, added to soups or baked goods, and made into hot porridge or cereal. They are both versatile, easy to work with, and have a high nutritional content. If you're looking for an easy, healthy, gluten-free option, why not try amaranth or quinoa? It's a staple in our home!
    References:
    www.wholegrainscouncil.org Vopr Pitan. 2014;83(1):67-73., Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities. Howard, B. C. (August 12, 2013), Amaranth, Another Ancient Wonder Food, But Who Will Eat It?, Retrieved from www.nationalgeographic.com. Laux, M. (June 2012). Iowa State University. Agricultural Marketing Resource Center. Retrieved from www.agmrc.org. Norek, Danna. (June 15, 2010), Quinoa Gives the Perfect Protein Source to Vegetarians and Vegans. Retrieved from www.naturalnews.com. Victor F Zevallos PhD1, L Irene Herencia PhD2, Fuju Chang MD, PhD3, Suzanne Donnelly PhD1, H Julia Ellis PhD1 and Paul J Ciclitira MD, PhD1 (January 21, 2-14). Gastrointestinal Effects of Eating Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in Celiac Patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2014; 109:270–278.

    Jean Duane
    Celiac.com 04/21/2017 - Adults who have gluten sensitivities cohabitating with non-gluten sensitive adults may have a lot of unanswered questions that need to be asked. Dramatic changes in one family member's diet can have profound effects on a household (Bacigalupe & Plocha, 2015). Numerous studies document how parents and children handle everyday living when the child has food intolerances, but very few studies focus on adults living with food sensitivities. Wouldn't you like to know how other adults with food sensitivities adapt and manage over the long haul? Questions like: Does the person with the sensitivity live in fear of cross-contamination? Does the household employ methods to ensure s/he is safe? If so, what are those methods? Do the non-sensitive members of the household feel resentment? Or have they grown weary of compliance over the long haul? How adherent is the sensitive adult? Is it worth a little risk for a little pleasure once in a while? What do these cohabitating adults do to exist gracefully? These questions will be asked in a forthcoming study (on Celiac.com), and the results will be shared with viewers/readers.
    Food allergies affect 15 million Americans (FARE, 2015), which means that adults with food sensitivities have gone from being rare to more commonplace as the population ages (Norling, 2012). Dietary restrictions due to disease will soon become common in many households and this can be problematic because severe dietary constraints are positively associated with diminished family social activities (Komulainen, 2010). Studies indicate that adults cohabitating, when one has food sensitivities and others do not, could potentially result in problems between members of the household creating feelings of uncertainty and potentially less adherence to the diet.
    Regimented dietary requirements affect the quality of life when virtually every bite of food must be scrutinized before consumption. For some households, compliance may fall on the shoulders of the person who cooks. The cook in the household, caregivers, and everyone sharing the same kitchen, must be actively involved in protecting the person with the sensitivities keeping gluten-containing crumbs off the counter, out of condiment jars, thoroughly cleaning utensils, etc. (Crowley, 2012; Bollinger, 2005; Merras-Salmino et al., 2014). Of course, those living with sensitivities know there is a lot more to staying "clean and safe." Family members who share a home with someone with pervasive food sensitivities must express empathy to ensure harmony and compliance (Komulainen, 2010). However, compliance comes with a price -- every meal must be planned and cooked using alternative ingredients to avoid accidental ingestion. This takes diligence, education and ability to accomplish meal after meal (Jackson et al., 1985) especially when allergies are to ubiquitous foods such as dairy, soy, gluten or corn.
    Dietary restrictions can cause misgivings on the part of the other family members, who may feel deprived of their favorite foods, compromised with recipe adaptations, or forced to unwillingly comply with the other person's diet. On the contrary, the person with food sensitivity may feel pressure not to comply with the diet in order to conform to the other adult's culinary demands. In the Jackson et al. study, forty percent of people with Celiac disease did not comply with the diet because it was too difficult (1985). The relationship between the cohabitating adults may be further complicated as trust issues develop between the sensitive adult and the cook, if the sensitive adult suspects foods that make them sick are creeping into their diet. Other food-sensitive adults report non-adherence because it is "too much trouble" and causes "social isolation" (Coulson, 2007). Non-adherence for those with sensitivities can lead to reactions, anaphylactic shock and even to death (Lee et al., 2003). Even those who do not react immediately risk long-term illness with non-compliance.
    In my twelve years experience working with people in this arena, I have observed that dietary adherence in the household seems to go through phases. The first phase is what I'm calling the "transition" stage when a person is newly diagnosed, and everyone in the household is learning the new rules. The second stage is the "status quo" stage where cohabitants understand, and hopefully comply. Finally, the third stage is what I'm terming as 'turbulent' when other adult household inhabitants are feeling weary of compliance, may have doubts about the other's sensitivities, or even rebel. This stage may be triggered by an event that disrupts the "status quo", such as a holiday where traditional foods are expected, and where their gluten-free substitutions may not be as satisfying to the other household members. It may be triggered when the food sensitive adult decides they may be reacting to different foods than they thought before, and want to experiment with dietary changes. Dynamics between cohabitants may become turbulent during these times. After the event, the household adjusts back to equilibrium until the next triggering event, which throws them into a different part of this phase-cycle, where they may cheerfully welcome a "transition," or react with "turbulence." This cyclical pattern seems to continue as cohabitants move in and out of phases as life-events occur. One of the goals of this survey will be to determine the validity of this cycle.
    I also want to test the hypothesis that a component of household compliance may also be associated with the status of the adult who has the dietary restrictions – whether the head of the home enjoys full household compliance, or if a subordinate adult must comply while others are eating the foods s/he are sensitive to. Another factor that may affect compliance is how the sensitive adult was initially diagnosed. Did a medical doctor conduct tests? Or did they read an article, and notice that they had symptoms consistent with gluten sensitivity and decide to go "gluten free?" Does the diagnostic process affect the compliance of the other adult members of the household? There are many factors that need to be assessed in order to help those of us who have food sensitivities who are living with other adults.
    This survey/study will focus on family interactions when dealing with dietary restrictions, with the potential to increase family member's compliance. It will seek to gain insight on the impact food restrictions for one adult has on the rest of the family. This study has social significance because family unity in the future may rely on developing constructs for compliance to address this emerging social problem.
    I'll collect data for this study and then share it with Celiac.com and the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity readers in order to create awareness by thoroughly examining the lifestyle of food sensitive people, shedding light on how social influences affect dietary adherence. As a PhD student at the University of Denver, and an adult with Celiac disease and a lifetime of other food allergies, living with another adult who has no food sensitivities, I know first-hand that it takes cooperation and commitment from everyone to ensure my health. I hope the study can help others improve their quality of life with the insight gained from conducting this study. I'll be launching this study on Celiac.com.
    Thank you to Scott Adams for allowing this study to be conducted on Celiac.com.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6