• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    72,025
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    Summersun
    Newest Member
    Summersun
    Joined
  • Announcements

    • admin

      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
  • 0

    LECTINS ARE TOXINS


    Betty Wedman-St Louis, PhD, RD


    • Journal of Gluten Sensitivity Summer 2015 Issue - Originally published July 16, 2015


    Celiac.com 12/01/2015 - Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins which promote inflammatory responses like Crohn's disease, systemic lupus, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. They were discovered over 100 years ago and cause leaky gut and gastrointestinal dysbiosis yet the push for a plant-based diet focusing on legumes as meat alternatives has overlooked the damage lectins cause to the gut. Legumes offer inferior nutrition compared to animal proteins so toxicity needs to be considered when recommending food choices.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    As carbohydrate binding proteins, lectins are difficult to digest and irritate the brush border of the small intestine. Consequently, the tight junctions of the microvilli are damaged by prolamin and agglutinins which can lead to numerous disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and autoimmune diseases. Lectins are also a major contributor to leptin resistance which contributes to obesity.

    As described in The Handbook of Plant Lectins: Properties and Biomedical Applications (John Wiley, 1998), foods that contain these toxic lectins are members of the pea family and include peanuts, pigeon peas, soybeans, kidney beans, mung beans, lima beans, lentils, fava beans, chickpeas, carob, green and yellow peas. Green beans, snow peas and snap peas are usually well tolerated once the gut has been healed since they are immature protein sources with minor amounts of lectins.

    Lectins are found in other foods including grains and pseudo-grains. Grains are seeds from grasses—barley, oats, rice, rye, millet, wheat, teff, corn, kamut, spelt and possibly wild rice. Many gastroenterologists believe that the detrimental affects of lectins in grains are a factor in the development of celiac disease. Genetics and frequent consumption possibly play a critical role in the severity of sensitivities to these foods.

    Pseudo-grains are seeds from broadleafed plants—amaranth, buckwheat, chia, and quinoa. These seed products were geographically limited to specific populations and only available on a limited basis seasonally. But modern agriculture has greatly increased the consumption of these pseudo-grains because they can be labeled “gluten-free” because US standards allow any grain with less than 20 ppm gluten to be called gluten-free.

    Omitting toxic lectins—prolamins and agglutinins—from the diet is critical for gut health. Prolamins are predominately found in the seeds of plants. Gluten is the most widely known source of prolamins. They get their name from the high content of the amino acid proline. Research studies have shown that the prolamins in quinoa, corn and oats can cause damage to the digestive tract in people with celiac disease, yet these grains are frequently included in a gluten-free diet.

    Aggltinins are named for their ability to cause clumping of red blood cells. The most recent example of how this toxic lectin works is the bioterrorism threat caused from ricin. Ricin is the compound in castor beans that is so toxic that only tiny amounts are needed to cause death. Agglutinins are found on the seed coatings of grains and pseudo-grains and serve to protect the seed from fungus growth. Genetically modified crops—wheat, corn, soybeans—have higher amounts of agglutinins to insure higher yields.

    A leaky gut is harmful to the innate and adaptive immune systems. Toxic lectins cause inflammation and induce cytokine production. As few as five soaked, uncooked kidney beans can lead to gut distress for the raw foodies while 1 tablespoon of peanut butter leads to peanut agglutinins entering the bloodstream soon after consumption.

    Paolo Zatto and Pamela Zambenedetti from Padova, Italy studied lectins, microglia and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as reported in Lectins and Pathology, 2000. The microglia of 10 AD brains stained intensely for agglutinins. Their research concluded that the glycation reaction seen in AD from lectins may serve as a significant factor in amyloid plaque development and disease progression.

    Bacteria overgrowth in the gut is associated with a wide variety of diseases- septicemia, pulmonary infections, enteropathies. Adhesion of pathogenic bacteria to epithelial cells in the gut can be a critical first stage in the infectious disease process. Michele Mouricout and Bruno Vedrine of Limoges, France described how lectins cause adhesion of numerous bacterial strains to intestines, brain tissues, urinary tract, lung and corneal cells. Their research is reported in Lectins and Pathology, 2000 illustrates the mosiac effect of how agglutinins cause tissue damage.

    Even though lectins have been identified for decades, little interest has been shown by biological and medical science. Since they are so widely distributed in foods consumed daily, lectins may finally become recognized as partners in the pathogenesis of diseases like cancer. Galectin-3 (gal 3) galactoside-binding lectin is found on the surface of most cancer cells and has been reported to promote angiogenesis. Lectins are not oncogenes but they help in cancer progression once initiated. Some are implicated in adhesion while others cause metatasis.

    Isn't it about time that nutrition science took a closer look at the lectin levels in foods consumed daily and customize the diet for lectin sensitivity to better manage inflammation and auto immune diseases? The higher intact of GMO food in the diet, the more lectins are consumed. Without food labeling of GMOs, consumers will continue to be misled and many will remain sick.


    Image Caption: Image: CC--pawel pacholec
    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    I am very disappointed that this blog, which used to be evidence-based, is now spouting pseudo-science. "Leaky gut syndrome" and the "toxicity" of lectins are hypotheses that have been around for a long time (more than two decades), but are not supported by any evidence in vivo. Legumes, consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet, are a good source of folate (an reasonably OK source of other B vitamins), zinc, iron, calcium, and magnesium, and fiber. Legumes are a staple in the so-called "blue zones" (areas of longevity).

     

    Food options are already severely limited for celiacs because so many things contain gluten. Aiming to exclude another major group of ingredients for no good reason would just degrade the quality of life and the enjoyment derived from eating and sharing meals for celiac patients even further.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    I am very disappointed that this blog, which used to be evidence-based, is now spouting pseudo-science. "Leaky gut syndrome" and the "toxicity" of lectins are hypotheses that have been around for a long time (more than two decades), but are not supported by any evidence in vivo. Legumes, consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet, are a good source of folate (an reasonably OK source of other B vitamins), zinc, iron, calcium, and magnesium, and fiber. Legumes are a staple in the so-called "blue zones" (areas of longevity).

     

    Food options are already severely limited for celiacs because so many things contain gluten. Aiming to exclude another major group of ingredients for no good reason would just degrade the quality of life and the enjoyment derived from eating and sharing meals for celiac patients even further.

    Leaky gut syndrome isn't pseudo-science, just do a search of medline, you will find many scientific papers that discuss it, for example:

    http://reference.medscape.com/medline/abstract/22179430

     

    The toxicity of lectins is also not in doubt:

    http://search.medscape.com/medline-search?newSearch=1&queryText=lectins+toxicity

     

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    This article is just what I needed. Still trying to put the pieces of the puzzle together. Thank you!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Rocketrhonda

    Posted

    This is the first time I have read anything about lectins in relationship to leaky gut and celiac disease. I am 64 and have had gut issues all my life. In my 40's I was tested and results indicated severe leaky gut syndrome. I also have two copies of HLA DQ-8. Giving up gluten only moderately improved how I felt. On my own, using a food diary, I figured out that soy, lentils, peanuts, cashews, dried peas, navy beans, small white beans, etc. had to be eliminated from my diet to improve my gut health. Interestingly, the joint pain I had endured all my life is gone. I still eat oats, rice, and gluten-free bread in moderation and don't have negative gut or joint effects. I'm very active, working out, doing sprint triathlons, long distance bike rides and suffer no ill effects. Thank you for this informative article! Keep the information coming, please.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    Thank you for this informative article. I was not aware of the damage that can be caused by eating lectin-containing products. I am a very sensitive celiac and in the past noted that when I ate certain foods (containing lectin) that I did not feel well. Peanuts, kidney beans, rice, and quinoa, buckwheat and chia all give me symptoms ranging from bloating to stomach pains, tiredness, and mild chest tightness which I notice when I hike. Eliminating these items from my diet has also eliminated these symptoms. I am hoping that continued abstinence will rid me of a persistent skin rash as well.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest pasquale

    Posted

    Leaky gut syndrome isn't pseudo-science, just do a search of medline, you will find many scientific papers that discuss it, for example:

    http://reference.medscape.com/medline/abstract/22179430

     

    The toxicity of lectins is also not in doubt:

    http://search.medscape.com/medline-search?newSearch=1&queryText=lectins+toxicity

    Well let's see...diagnosed with celiac 12 years ago, no gluten, okay a little adjustment and I was on my way. After reading your article it appears just about everything I enjoy and eat on a regular basis I should be eliminated or drastically reduced. As a flexitarian I enjoy everything (in moderation). No problems with digestion, GI tract etc. If you are having problems you should look at eliminating those foods they may be the cause, but I would caution those who are gluten-free and are healthy not to change a thing and enjoy your journey...

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    Thank you for this article!

    After I eliminated lectins from my diet I felt much better, but I didn't know the reasons.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    Well the first five years of being gluten free I got food poisoning symptoms and was violently ill three or four times. Each time I had consumed beans, field peas, black eyed peas, etc. I went to the allergist and was tested specifically for black eyed peas because that was the last incidence and I had eaten at home. Tests were negative for allergies.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites


    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoticons maximum are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   7 Members, 1 Anonymous, 1,010 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    admin

    The term gluten in reference to the cohesive, elastic protein mass remaining after starch is washed from a dough goes back to Beccari in 1745. Strictly speaking, gluten is found only in wheat because it is difficult to wash a cohesive protein mass even from rye, the closest relative to wheat, let alone from barley or oats or anything else. Unfortunately, a misuse of the term by the corn industry has become common in recent years. It has become fairly common to call corn storage proteins corn gluten. Personally, I think there is no justification for such usage. Corn may contain prolamins, as does wheat, but not gluten.
    When it comes to celiac disease, a similar corruption of the term has become very common. There are certain related proteins in wheat, rye, and barley that give rise to particular peptides during digestion that are capable of triggering the responses typical of celiac disease. Only in the case of wheat can these be strictly considered to be derived from the gluten proteins. But for lack of a suitable term, patients and their physicians began speaking of gluten-free or gluten-containing foods. People ask me, How much gluten is there in quinoa? I have to translate this into, Are there any harmful peptide sequences in the proteins of quinoa? There is nothing in quinoa that is like gluten prepared from a wheat flour dough, which has an unusual, perhaps unique, viscoelastic character.
    In any case, as far as we know, corn does not seem to cause harm to celiac patients. Corn has not been studied in the extensive way that wheat has in relation to celiac disease, but for 40+ years patients and their physicians have seemed to agree that corn is OK. The sequences in the corn zein (prolamin) fraction are suspicious, but they do differ in an apparently crucial way from the protein sequences of the wheat gliadin (prolamin) fraction. There have been no modern biopsy-based studies of the effects of purified corn proteins on the celiac intestine as there have been for wheat, but the mass of evidence still seems to point in the direction of corn being safe for celiac patients.

    admin

    Celiac.com 10/30/2006 - Triticum monococcum wheat is also known as Einkorn wheat and small spelt, but do not confuse it with common spelt which is not the same thing. Einkorn is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat, and recent studies have shown that it appears to lack gliadin toxicity and may be a safe wheat alternative for those with celiac disease. In the most recent study the researchers conclude that data show a lack of toxicity of triticum monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients. If this is the case it appears that this grain is non-toxic to those with celiac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov;41(11):1305-11.
    Lack of intestinal mucosal toxicity of Triticum monococcum in celiac
    disease patients.
    Pizzuti D, Buda A, DOdorico A, DInca R, Chiarelli S, Curioni A, Martines D.
    Abstract:

    Objective. The treatment of celiac disease is based on lifelong withdrawal of foods containing gluten. Unfortunately, compliance with a gluten-free diet has proved poor in many patients (mainly due to its low palatability), emphasizing the need for cereal varieties that are not toxic for celiac patients. In evolutionary terms, Triticum monococcum is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of T. monococcum on small intestinal mucosa, using an in vitro organ culture system.
    Material and methods. Distal duodenum biopsies of 12 treated celiac patients and 17 control subjects were cultured for 24?h with T. aestivum (bread) gliadin (1?mg/ml) or with T. monococcum gliadin (1?mg/ml). Biopsies cultured with medium alone served as controls. Each biopsy was used for conventional histological examination and for immunohistochemical detection of CD3?+?intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and HLA-DR. Secreted cytokine protein interferon-? (IFN–?) was measured in the culture supernatant using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay.
    Results. Significant morphological changes, HLA-DR overexpression in the crypt epithelium and an increased number of CD3?+?IELs, found after bread gliadin exposure, were not observed in celiac biopsies cultured with T. monococcum gliadin. In contrast, with bread gliadin, there was no significant IFN-? response after culture with monococcum gliadin. Similarly, biopsies from normal controls did not respond to bread or monococcum gliadin stimulation.
    Conclusions. These data show a lack of toxicity of T. monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients.
    Note: Celiac.com strongly advises against celiacs including these grains in their diet until more testing and research is done to verify their safety.
    Einkorn Breadmaking Sites:
    Cereal Chem. 73 (2):208-214
    Breadmaking Quality of Einkorn Wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum).
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/backissues/1996/73_208.pdf
    Cereal Chem. 76 (5): Pub. no. C-1999-0804-01R
    Einkorn Characterization for Bread and Cookie Production in Relation to
    Protein Subunit Composition.
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/abstracts/1999/0804-01r.asp

    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 09/10/2007 - Sorghum is a cereal grain with poised for development as a major crop for human nutrition. The flour made from white sorghum hybrids is lightly colored, and offers a bland, neutral taste that leaves no trace of unusual colors or flavors when added to food products. These features make sorghum favorable for use in wheat-free food products. While sorghum is considered as a safe food for celiac patients, primarily due to its relationship to maize, no direct studies have been made regarding its safety for individuals with celiac disease and gluten intolerance.
    Thus, further study was warranted to clearly demonstrate the safety and tolerability of sorghum for celiac patients. A team of researchers set out to determine the safety and tolerability of sorghum flour products in adult celiac patients
    The team consisted of Carolina Ciacci, Luigi Maiuri, Nicola Caporaso, Cristina Bucci, Luigi Del Giudice, Domenica Rita Massardo, Paola Pontieri, Natale Di Fonzo, Scott R. Bean, Brian Ioerger and Marco Londei.
    Study participants who consumed sorghum-derived food product for 5 days straight experienced no gastrointestinal or other symptoms and the level of anti-transglutaminase antibodies was unchanged at the end of the 5-day medical challenge.
    Sorghum protein digests produced no morphometric or immunomediated alteration of duodenal explants from celiac patients.
    In both in vitro and in vivo challenge, sorghum-derived products show no toxicity for celiac patients. Sorghum can thus be regarded safe for people with celiac disease.
    Clinical Nutrition, 24 August 2007
    health writer who lives in San Francisco and is a frequent author of articles for Celiac.com.

    Heather Curtis
    Celiac.com 10/26/2009 - With the ever-increasing awareness of celiac disease comes an expanding market of gluten-free options.  The days of lengthy supermarket trips spent pouring over labels has given way to the tiny oasis of the “gluten-free” section is many grocery stores. 
    While this section is still limited in many respects, the food production industry as a whole has become aware of the need to cater to the expanding gluten-free community.  Gluten-free snacks, prepackaged meals, and baking supplies are no longer elusive, and the variety is continually expanding.  While rice, potato, and corn flours are common strongholds in a Celiac’s kitchen, there is now a new wave of flavorful flours from Peru making their way into the United States.
    Many Peruvian heritage grains, dating back to pre-Incan times, have been found to be naturally gluten-free and incredibly nutritious.  The first wave of these grains and flours to hit the U.S. market come to us from Zocalo Gourmet.  Marching to shelves are kaniwa, mesquite, purple corn, and sweet potato flours.  Each has a distinct flavor and “personality” that is sure to delight any gluten-free baker and reinvigorate their favorite recipes. 
    Kaniwa is a species of goosefoot, closely related to quinoa.  This tiny grain is packed with protein and has an Earthy taste that lends itself well to breads, pancakes, and muffins.   
    Mesquite is also protein rich and imparts a warm, sweet, slightly smoky taste on foods while enhancing the flavors of cinnamon, chocolate, caramel, and coffee.  Adding mesquite flour to your favorite recipes will transform their flavor and put a completely new spin on your old favorites.
    Purple Corn can be used in any recipe calling for traditional corn meal or flour while providing an antioxidant boost. Although similar in nutrition to yellow corn, purple corn contains substantial amounts of phenolics and anthocyanins, among other phytochemicals, which gives the corn its vibrant color. Its main colorant is cianidin-3-b-glucosa which is a known antioxidant. The high anthocianin content does not degrade with heat exposure.
    Sweet Potato is a velvety flour that holds moisture well, imparts a subtle sweetness on baked goods, and is incredibly versatile. 
    With these flours come more complete flavor and nutritional profiles for the gluten intolerant.  To learn more about these flours and how they can be used check out:
    http://www.zocalogourmet.com/products/floursgrains2.html
    and
    http://zocalogourmet.blogspot.com/ 
     


    Yvonne Vissing Ph.D.
    Celiac.com 03/23/2016 - Often when people hear that someone is "going gluten-free," they think that just means people are not eating wheat. This kind of thinking focuses on the obvious—since gluten is in foods it means watching what is eaten. They may associate this change in diet with some biological process or disease issue. In the world of the general public, they're not really sure what "gluten" is and they're not totally convinced that eliminating it will improve health. But for those of us who make a commitment to going gluten-free, it is far more than just eliminating certain food products. It is a personal transformation of self. What people don't often talk about is it being a psychological and social change as well.
    In many ways, making a commitment to seriously go gluten-free is an act of Zen. The Urban Dictionary defines Zen as "a state of focus that incorporates a total togetherness of body and mind. Zen is a way of being. It also is a state of mind. Zen involves dropping illusion and seeing things without distortion created by your own thoughts." What I've found is that going gluten-free requires thoughtful practice, observing the body, monitoring the mind, and seeking knowledge that one integrates into regular practice. The result is the personal expression of insight into daily life.
    Going gluten-free isn't just about eating. It is also about personal discipline. It has a lot to do about how we think and how we live. When we started going gluten-free we thought it was just going to entail a dietary switch. What we've learned over the last decade is that going gluten-free is an act of Zen. Our journey into becoming gluten-free started because health issues forced us down that path. We didn't willingly choose to go there. We would have been content with gorging on Texas toast, pasta, and Oreos for the rest of our lives. But if we did, we would have been chronically sick. The Universe pushed us onto the gluten-free road. At first, we did not go gracefully. We stumbled and fell and made a mess of going gluten-free. Going gluten-free seemed miserably hard and terribly inconvenient. We couldn't find products that tasted good, and those we found were expensive and weren't necessarily healthy (the amounts of eggs, butter or oil in many of them were mind-boggling). We spent too much money on poor-tasting products that were very difficult to find. We griped and complained. We felt alienated and imprisoned. Going out to eat was life-threatening because most restaurants didn't cook dishes that were safe, or if they did they cooked them in an environment in which they could be cross-contaminated. The idea of having to eat awful-tasting food and not being able to go out to eat for the rest of one's life was dreadful and depressing. Eating is one of the joys of life, and feeling like one was never going to be able to eat delicious food again felt like a fate worse than death. Going gluten-free seemed doomed to be an act of suffering. Sometimes, it is only through making a mess of our lives that we figure out how not to.
    Such is the case with our going gluten-free. What we didn't realize until later was that we had created this negative reality in our minds. You can go gluten-free smoothly, effortlessly, inexpensively, and easily with no disruptions in your daily lives. It need not be a big deal. This process may take a bit of time. The secret in this transformation has little to do with the gluten-free foods available. It has more to do with what is going on in our heads.
    Years of diligent practice, trial-and-error, patience and persistence, and learning have helped us to transform our perception of going gluten-free into an easy, inexpensive, and delicious way of eating. It has also fostered a different relationship with what we eat, why we eat, and how we eat. It has changed our relationship with food itself, how it is prepared, and how it is consumed.
    Thinking you can eat anything you want and not get sick is illusion for people who must go gluten-free. It requires mind-over-matter self-control when we're hungry and desire foods that may not be safe. Giving in to that longing for a certain cookie or a bite of Grandma's homemade lasagna can make a person with celiac very sick. Being mindful of why that food item creates desire in us is a useful mental exercise. Certain foods evoke memories and emotions that are more delicious than the foods themselves. We can still enjoy the memories without eating foods that aren't good for us.
    Food is very social and relational. Eating something served that isn't safe in order to please or not to appear rude, when it has a high likelihood of making us sick, isn't being kind to oneself. There have been times we've gotten annoyed when what-should-be-safe food has been contaminated. On the surface, it shouldn't be a big deal to redo the dish. But the symbolic message conveyed by serving someone with celiac glutened food is more problematic because it reflects that the server didn't really care about our needs. What happens to our relationships with family, friends, or certain establishments who go out of their way to make sure we can eat good foods, safely, in a no-big-deal manner? We care for them all the more. Frankly, we secretly want to see what goes on in the kitchen and read the ingredients on a product and not just take a waiter's declaration that "I'm sure it's gluten-free" to be an accurate reflection of reality until we are sure that what they say accurately reflects how actively sensitive they are to the needs of others who have dietary needs that are different from their own. Issues of trusting others, and trusting ourselves, is part of the gluten-free process. Helping to teach those who didn't understand the importance of being gluten-free in a constructive and thoughtful manner is much better than getting angry at them and refusing to eat with them again.
    Going gluten-free requires mindfulness. It gives us a relationship with our food as well as with others. Eating whole and healthy foods is better for us. Taking time to understand what's in our food really matters. Cooking ingredients in a thoughtful, less-hurried way creates lovelier dishes. Consuming them with gratitude and in communication with others makes them even more delicious. We want to know where the food came from, how it was cooked and what it was cooked with, and details of the dish's preparation. Were those oats grown next to a wheat field? Did these nuts get processed on machines that also processed other items that contained glutens? Were there croutons on the salad that you just picked off? Asking questions in a non-combative way is an art. Learning to read labels and knowing the list of unsafe ingredients must be transformed from being a big deal to it being just another routine step in an ordinary day. Learning how to shop, cook, clean, serve and eat are all actually complicated steps that require attention to detail. It is in the transformation of managing all these details into a smooth, seamless and calm process that going gluten-free becomes Zen.
    It took us a long time to realize that going gluten-free successfully has more to do with what's going on in our heads than what's going on in the kitchen. Look upon going gluten-free as a Zen experience, in which you have to change one pattern of behavior for a new, better one. You, like we, may find you have to change attitudes toward eating in general and eating gluten foods in particular—and you will be all the better for it.
    We'd love to help you to learn more about our approach to going gluten-free. Check out our book, Going Gluten-free, which is available from Amazon and NorLights Press, and let us know how your journey is going!

    Betty Wedman-St Louis, PhD, RD
    Celiac.com 04/12/2016 - Vitamin B12 is a group of cobalt containing compounds described by Alan R. Gaby, M.D. in Nutritional Medicine called cobalamins. Methylcobalamin is the coenzyme form of B12 that is critical for human health. Hydroxocobalamin is a more stable form of B12 but it first needs to be converted to an active form before use in metabolism.
    Vitamin B12 is important in DNA synthesis, red blood cell formation, homocysteine metabolism and the production of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). Adequate B12 is essential for proper neurological and immune function.
    The importance of Vitamin B12 in health and anemia management began during the Depression era when animal protein foods were limited in the American diet. Three physicians who reversed pernicious anemia in dogs were awarded the 1934 Nobel Prize for medicine. Dr. George Hoyt Whipple and two other physicians fed the dogs and humans 1/2 pound of fresh liver per day as a means to control anemia.
    Animal proteins—meat, poultry, fish, eggs—are the sources of Vitamin B12 for humans. Plants do not need or produce B12. How B12 gets into your blood is a complex dance of stomach acids and intrinsic factors that starts with pepsin in the stomach splitting off the B12 from the protein compound. The intrinsic factor made by the parietal cells of the stomach attaches to the B12 to be shuttled to the ileum where receptors pull it into the blood.
    Once in the blood, B12 is picked up by transcobalamin to be carried to cells throughout the body. Any excess is stored in the liver or excreted in the urine.
    If inadequate intrinsic factor is available—loss from aging or proton pump inhibitor use—B12 deficiency symptoms such as macrocytic anemia, neurological disorders and psychiatric symptoms (memory loss, depression, confusion, paranoia) may occur. Severe B12 deficiency can result in intestinal damage, hyper-pigmentation of the skin, hypotension, and immune dysfunction.
    The Institute of Medicine indicates that only 2 to 4 mcg Vitamin B12 is needed daily. The average American diet contains 5-15 mcg per day according to NHANES studies. Vegetarians and infants breastfed by vegan mothers are at greatest risk of developing B12 deficiency.
    Other factors increase the risk of developing Vitamin B12 insufficiency. Achlorydria secondary to gastritic, gastric bypass surgery, and ileal resection for Crohn’s disease need assessment due to malabsorption. Apathy abounds throughout the medical community despite the 2009 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics indicating 1 out of every 31 people over 50 being B12 deficient. With increasing numbers of gastric bypass patients and Crohn’s resections, this deficiency could be significantly higher.
    Adverse symptoms can first be noted with the CBC test indicating large RBC or macrocytosis—a folate and B12 deficiency. Other symptoms may include balance problems, numb hands and feet, leg pains, early onset dementia, pre-Parkinson’s-like disease, infertility and depression.
    Many physicians are poorly educated on Vitamin B12 importance since it is a vitamin and easy to treat. Treatment with methylcobalamin injections with few definitive ways to test efficacy seems to be a primary factor. A complete medical history assessing for gut inflammation, celiac disease, GERD, recent nitric oxide use in surgery, and genetic factors like MTHFR should trigger a closer look at B12 adequacy even with a normal homocysteine (HCY) plasma test. High levels of B12 on standard blood analysis usually indicates poor absorption and not intoxification of Vitamin B12. Elevated B12 results >800pg/ml frequently indicate PPI use or low stomach acid malabsorption. Lab results <350pg/ml may still be inadequate for a patient with celiac disease, gluten enteropathy or gastric bypass surgery, so supplementation should be considered.
    Medications matter when considering Vitamin B12 status. Below are common drugs that impair absorption:
    Antacids- maalox, MOM, Mylanta, Tums Histamine blockers- Zantac, Tagamet, Axid, Pepcid Proton Pump Inhibitors- Prevacid, Prilosec, Nexium,. Omeprazole, Acidhex Colchicine Questran Metformin, Glucophage Celexa, Effexor, Elavil, Nardil, Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft, Wellbutrin Ativan, Librium, Valium, Xanax Viagra, Cialis, Levitra Compazine, Haldol, Risperdal, Tegretal Vitamin B12 supplementation is probably the safest medical treatment available. Many people need B12 injections to show improvement in their symptoms. Effectiveness of injections depends more on frequency of administration than on amount given with each injection. Those who improve with injections rarely improve with oral or sublingual products no matter how large the dose because the routes of administration are not capable of achieving high enough absorption levels.
    Treatment with Vitamin B12 needs to be continued for life. Until more research on efficacy and safety of oral B12 is available, intramuscular daily or weekly injections should be considered a standard of care, especially in celiac disease and those with gastric bypass surgery.
    A 20 page handout on Digestive Wellness is available for $15 from Dr. Betty Wedman-St Louis, 17920 Gulf Blvd, Ste 606, St. Petersburg, FL 33708. It includes information on how GMO foods destroy health which will be covered in a future article.

    Betty Wedman-St Louis, PhD, RD
    Celiac.com 07/18/2016 - Dietary phosphorus occurs naturally in dairy foods, animal meats, and legumes but according to the Institute of Medicine, high levels of phosphorus can be a contributor to cardiovascular, kidney and osteoporosis disorders.
    While phosphorus is considered an essential nutrient, the increased amounts found in processed foods via additives like anti-caking agents, stabilizers and leavening agents or acidifiers does not have to be stated on the nutrition label. Individuals following a gluten-free diet need to consider the health implications of phosphates found in processed foods eaten regularly in their diet. Reducing carbonated beverages is the best way to reduce phosphorus levels in the diet. Extra attention needs to be paid to the ingredient statement on foods.
    Ingredient statements may include these declarations: tri-calcium phosphate, tri-magnesium phosphate, disodium phosphate, di-potassium phosphate. Just because the label states "natural" or "organic" does not mean it is a healthy food for daily consumption. Fresh is best!
    Here is a guide to where phosphates can be found in gluten-free processed foods:
    Baked goods- cake mixes, donuts, refrigerated dough (pyrophosphates are used for leavening and as a dough "improver") Beverages- phosphoric acid in colas (acidulant), pyrophosphate in chocolate milk to suspend cocoa, pyrophosphate in buttermilk for protein dispersion, tri-calcium phosphate in orange juice for fortification, tetra-sodium phosphate in strawberry flavored milk to bind iron to pink color Cereals- phosphate in dry cereals to aid flow through extruder, fortification of vitamins Cheese- phosphoric acid in cottage cheese to set acidification, phosphate in dips, sauces, cheese slices and baked chips for emulsifying action and surface agent Imitation Dairy Products (non-dairy products)- phosphate as buffer for smooth mixing into coffee and as anti-caking agent for dry powders Egg Products- phosphate for stability and color + foam improvement Ice Cream- pyrophosphate to prevent gritty texture Meat Products- tri-phosphate for injections into ham, corned beef, sausage, franks, bologna, roast beef for moisture Nutrition Bars & Meal Replacement Drinks- phosphates for fortification and microbiological stability Potatoes- phosphate in baked potato chips to create bubbles on the surface, pyrophosphate in French fries, hash browns, potato flakes to inhibit iron induced blackening Poultry- tri-phosphate for moisture and removal of salmonella and campylobacter pathogens Pudding & Cheesecakes- phosphate to develop thickened texture Seafood- tri-phosphate in shrimp for mechanical peeling, pyrophosphate in canned tuna and crab to stabilize color and crystals, surimi (crab/sea sticks) tri-phosphate and pyrophosphate as cryoprotectant to protein {surimi contains gluten and is not recommended for gluten-free diets] Hyperphosphate levels can contribute to muscle aches, calcification of coronary arteries and skeletal issues. Many food companies do not provide phosphorus analysis information because it is not required on the label but here is a representative sample of phosphorus levels in some commonly consumed on a gluten-free diet.
    Peanuts (1 ounce) 150 mg
    Yogurt (1 cup) 300 mg
    M&M Peanuts (1.74 oz pkg) 93 mg
    Rice Krispies Cereal (1 cup) 200 mg
    Dietary recommendations for an adult for Phosphorus is 800 to 1000 mg.

  • Recent Articles

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center