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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    CAN GLUTEN-SNIFFING DOGS HELP PEOPLE WITH CELIAC DISEASE?


    Jefferson Adams


    • Can gluten-sniffing dogs make life better for sensitive celiac patients?


    Celiac.com 07/12/2017 - Humans rely on powerful canine noses to do so many things, including sniffing for drugs, bombs and even cancer.


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    Now, some dogs are being trained to serve their masters by sniffing out gluten.

    Trained to help some of the 3 million Americans who have celiac disease, gluten sniffing dogs can be a tremendous boon to their owners, especially those who are highly sensitive.

    One such person is Evelyn Lapadat, a 13-year-old Indiana girl with celiac disease that leaves her with joint pain, stiffness and fatigue when she eats even tiny amounts of gluten.

    Now, thanks to Zeus, her Australian shepherd, Evelyn rarely has an issue with gluten. That's because Zeus has been trained to sniff out even tiny amounts of gluten in food. Zeus stays by Evelyn's side throughout the day at school, checking her hands and sniffing her food.

    Zeus has learned to raise his paw if he smells gluten. If the food is safe, then Zeus turns his head.

    “I haven't gotten sick in a really long time and it's like a really big relief,” Evelyn said.

    Maybe one day dogs like Zeus will be much more common.

    See more at NBCNews.com



    Image Caption: Zeus, an Australian Shepherd like the one pictured here, has learned to warn its owner if food contains gluten. Photo: CC--Paul Schadler
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    Guest Wendy Lapadat

    Posted

    Hi, I'm Wendy (Ev and Zeus' mom). He was trained thru Nosey Dog Detection Partners- trainer Kathy Watters. It took 10 mos of training and he started at age 4 mos!

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    Destiny Stone
    Celiac.com 05/27/2010 - People don't generally think that the food they feed their pets not only affects their pets, but also impacts their lives as well. Going gluten-free in my house also meant going gluten-free for my pets. Your pets can't tell you if something is wrong. Just like my doctors had no idea that my problems were related to gluten, my veterinarian certainly would never suggest that my dog is gluten-intolerant! It is up to us as pet owners to realize that reoccurring health problems in our pets, could be an indication of  food intolerance's.
    Deciding to put my pets on a gluten-free diet was not a hard decision to make. My two year old lab/mix, Maya was constantly getting eye infections, which my vet disregarded as environmental allergies. The problem was she had allergies year round and was getting eye infections once a month-which we treated with antibiotics, and benadryl. My vet did not recommend dietary changes for my dog, but I took charge and decided to try a gluten-free diet anyway.
    Since putting Maya on a gluten-free diet, she has not had a single eye infection. She still has mild seasonal allergies, but nothing like she had when she was eating gluten-based dog food. Through my research I found that the first ingredient in dog and cat  food should be meat-which makes sense since they are carnivores. However, most pet food I found (including my previous “grain-free”pet food) listed the first ingredients as a grain; either oats, wheat, barley or rice.
    I recently had my cat tested for parasites. The results were that he had parasites from grain based foods. The vet told me that the parasites were harmless, but as long as I fed my cat grain-based foods, he would continue to test positive for intestinal mites. I switched his food to gluten-free immediately following his vet visit.  Since switching to a gluten-free/grain-free food for my pets, I have seen a huge improvement in all my pets overall health an well-being.
    Aside from the obvious health benefits for my pets, gluten-free food is also better for you. Now that my pets are all eating gluten-free diets, I no longer have to worry so much about possible cross-contamination from touching their food. I can now get slobbery kisses from my dogs worry free. I also no longer worry about washing my dog and cats food dishes in the same sink or with the same sponge as I use for my other dishes.
    Research  is the most important thing to do when looking for a gluten-free pet food.  There are quite a few grain-free options on the market, but be careful, 'grain-free' does not necessarily mean 'gluten-free'; contacting the manufacturer can help to dispel any concerns. Most commercial pet stores do not carry gluten-free pet food options. I found more gluten-free options at the mom and pop pet store I usually frequent. I did a lot of Internet research and talked to my local pet store endlessly to find the right product for my pets. However, you may need to special order your pet food through your pet store, or online. It is also important to introduce new foods to your pets gradually. It is always advised to mix your old food with the new food when first introduced. Ask your veterinarian what the best practice is for introducing new foods to your pets.
     It is also important to find out about product recalls, so as to avoid buying products that have been contaminated. The following link for the FDA  has current and updated information regarding product recalls for pet food and pet food products.

    FDA Pet Food Recalls Gluten-Free Pet Treats
    Many pet treats contain wheat as the first ingredient. When shopping for gluten-free pet treats, the best place to look is in products that are made entirely of meat. Dried chicken or duck strips for example are a wonderful gluten-free option. However, watch out for are any added filler ingredients-it's best to buy products with no fillers. Caution is also important when it comes to the manufacturing of  your pet food. I bought 100% pure duck strips for my dogs, but they both got diarrhea shortly after eating a couple of the treats. After looking more closely at the product, I realized that the ingredients were manufactured in China. I immediately tossed those treats and bought new treats that were made in USA-my dogs no longer have any problems. Trader Joe's also  carries some inexpensive gluten-free dog treats. However, if you do a Google search for gluten-free pet treats, you will see an endless list of possibilities. Making your own gluten-free dog treats is pretty easy. The following link will take you to some easy gluten-free pet treat recipes.
    Gluten-Free Pet Treat Recipes Gluten-Free Pet Supplies
    Some of the other, less obvious sources of gluten in your pets life can be found in the supplements and care products that you use. Check the ingredients for hidden "gluten" and contact the manufacturers whenever necessary. Keep your hands clean before and after applying any medications or products to your pets that contain gluten. I recently bought some pad moisturizure for Maya's cracked paws and realized the ingredients contained tocopherols -which could contain gluten. Before applying greasy gluten to your pets paws (which would be like asking them to finger-paint with gluten all over your home), contact the manufacturer to determine if all ingredients are gluten-free.Hairball Medicine
    I was using a fur ball gel for my cat. The gel requires me to administer it by putting a big glob on my cats paw, so he can lick it off. After reading the ingredients more carefully, I realized that I was putting a big glob of glutenous gel directly on my cat, and incidentally, on myself. If you use a fur-ball gel or any supplements that require you to get them on your hands, you will want to make sure they are gluten-free, or at least clean your hands thoroughly after using. Of course, if you are anything like me and you don't want to get gluten anywhere on your body, use a paper towel. Paper towels have been a blessing for me. I often use paper towels to create a barrier between me and possible gluten contamination. Simply put the hair ball gel on a bunched up paper towel and apply the gel to your pet-the gluten glob never has to touch your skin. There is also  a hairball gel capsule that you can give to your pets (mine refuses to eat them, but many pets like them), which doesn't involve you getting messy with a glutenous gel. Also, brushing your pet regularly will reduce the likelihood of them getting fur-balls. So find the right brush for your pet and try to incorporate brushing into your daily routine.
    Shampoos and Soaps
    Many pet shampoos and soaps, like people shampoos and soaps, contain gluten. Try to find a shampoo or soap that doesn't have any gluten ingredients if possible.  I use a tea-tree castile soap on my pets. Castile is naturally gluten-free and  is a gentle alternative to some of the harsh pet shampoos and soaps with unpronounceable ingredients I usually find on the market. If you can't use a gluten-free shampoo, make sure to rinse your pets very well and wash your hands thoroughly after bathing your pet.
    Toothpaste
    Most veterinarians recommend brushing your pets teeth at least three times per week. If you cannot brush their teeth for any reason, you should get their teeth cleaned professionally 1-2 times per year. Professional cleanings are much more expensive than brushing at home, so yes, I brush my pets teeth. Many pet toothpaste gels contain gluten. Obviously, finding a gluten-free toothpaste is ideal, however if that is not an option make sure to wash your hands thoroughly after coming into contact with any gluten containing products.
    Gluten-Free Quick Check:

    Use gluten-free pet food Use a gluten-free toothpaste Make homemade gluten-free pet treats Use a gluten-free hairball gel Wash your hands often

    Jefferson Adams
    02/01/2011 - Imagine having a dog that was specially-trained to sniff out even the tiniest amounts of gluten in food and warn you ahead of time. There are scores of people with celiac disease severe enough that the slightest trace of gluten can make them painfully ill. Hollie Scott is one of them. Scott is a University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine student is also lucky to have her dog Elias is a champion Beauceron and a gluten-detecter extraordinaire. The handsome Beauceron comes from a 400-year-old breed that became almost extinct serving as messenger dogs in Europe during two world wars. Even though he is just only 2 years old, Elias is the first male Beauceron to receive the title AKC Grand Champion. His full title is: GCH CH Elias Mes Yeux Vigilants RN. But Elias' regular job is working as a gluten-detection service dog for his twenty-two year old owner, Scott, a first-year student in the program.
    To become so accomplished at gluten-detection, Elias spent weeks in Slovenia undergoing intense gluten-detection training, and now he can detect and warn her away from anything containing gluten, hot or cold, in all its many forms. Teaching a dog to be alert to the scent of gluten is more challenging than other scent-detection training, precisely because gluten comes in so many forms. When it's time for Elias to do the sniff test for Scott, she places a cover with holes over the item, and the dog takes a sniff. If Elias smells gluten, he tries to pull the item away from her; if it's safe, he just looks away. To help Elias keep his edge, Scott tests him daily with known gluten-containing foods, and adds in products she hopes are gluten-free.
    Scott was diagnosed with celiac disease about two years ago after spending much time "in and out of hospitals" She's now acutely vigilant about checking labels and trying to avoid cross-contamination. "You can't drop your guard for even a minute," says Scott, who likens an attack to "a really extremely bad case of stomach flu" from which her body doesn't recover fully for nearly three weeks. That's where Elias works like a charm.


    Tina Turbin
    Celiac.com 02/07/2011 - Maintaining a diet completely free of gluten can be a challenge for celiac disease patients, especially when it comes to avoiding cross-contamination. Currently there is only one treatment for celiac disease, an autoimmune reaction caused by exposure to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye—and this treatment is the elimination of gluten from the diet. Despite our best efforts, gluten can sneak its way into our food, making us quite ill. While home testing kits are available to test food for gluten, these can be an inconvenience when dining out and can only detect 10 ppm of gluten or more. A recent article published by USA Today has made waves in the gluten-free world, making us aware of another method of testing for gluten—using gluten-detecting dogs.
    The article featured Hollie Scott and her dog, two-year-old Elias, a Beaceron who is also an AKG Grand Champion. Hollie Scott is a celiac whose reaction to gluten is particularly serious; even just the tiniest amount of the substance in her food can give her the symptoms of a severe stomach flu for several weeks. Scott attends the University of Missouri, where her dog attends classes and social functions with her and keeps her company at restaurants and on buses, trains, and airplanes.
    Elias was trained in Slovenia over the course of many weeks for his gluten detection training. Now he has the capability of detecting gluten in all sorts of hot and cold foods.  According to USA Today, “Teaching a dog to be alert to the scent of gluten is much more complicated than most scent-detection training, because gluten comes in so many forms.” Gluten can appear in bread and cereal products and can be processed in many different ways. It can also appear in less obvious products as binders or thickeners, in foods such as salad dressing and even in products such as Play-doh and lipstick.
    How does Elias do his job? Scott places a cover punctured with holes over the item while Elias sniffs it. Scott also practices with him on a daily basis, giving him gluten-containing items to test for her. When Elias detects gluten, he pulls the item away, and if there’s nothing to worry about, he looks away. Getting a gluten-detection dog may not be an option for many of us celiacs, but vigilantly reading labels, contacting companies, and clearly communicating with servers, chefs, and hosts can greatly reduce the risk of cross-contamination. Another option is a testing kit such as EZ Gluten® by ELISA Technologies, which is sensitive enough to detect 10 ppm in your food. Unfortunately, as USA Today says, “even hyper-vigilance isn't a 100% guarantee.” If you are particularly sensitive to gluten, as is Scott, getting a gluten-detection dog may be a smart idea. Perhaps in the future, gluten-detection dogs may be more widely used.
    With an increase in research and awareness, we have not only witnessed an increase in celiac disease diagnosis, but also several advancements, for instance the availability of products such as home gluten testing kits, home celiac testing kits, and gluten-digesting enzyme formulas, which have all contributed toward making gluten-free living less of a challenge. Gluten-detecting dog training is yet another advancement, which I hope will have a positive impact on the lives of severe celiac cases such as Hollie Scott.  
    Resources:

    ELISA Technologies: EZ Gluten® http://www.elisa-tek.com/ez%20gluten.htm Gluten Free Society: Gluten Detecting Dogs http://www.glutenfreesociety.org/gluten-free-society-blog/gluten-detecting-dogs/ Two Little Cavaliers: Gluten Detection Dog  http://blogs.dogtime.com/two-little-cavaliers/2011/01/gluten-detection-dog USA Today: Pet Talk: Show dog knows his business, and his gluten http://www.usatoday.com/yourlife/pets/dogs/2011-01-11-pettalk11_ST_N.htm 

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/09/2012 - These handy tips will help you to better navigate the challenges of gluten-free living in both dorm rooms and shared housing. Having the right tools, and adopting some wise practices will help you eat gluten-free week-in and week-out, without breaking your bank account, or risking gluten exposure.
    Having a few tools can help your efforts come together much more easily, and keep your eating consistent over the semester.
    Helpful tools:
    Rice Cooker Small Crock Pot Microwave Blender Fridge/freezer (even a miniature one will come in handy) Resealable freezer bags Sharpie permanent marker Shop wisely by making lists
    What's the old saying? Proper prior preparation prevents poor performance? Nowhere is this more true than with a gluten-free diet. Planning your meals in advance can save you time, money, stress, and, of yes, the pain of an adverse reaction to gluten. This practice starts with shopping, and shopping starts with planning.
    Make lists and use them. Check out Asian, Mexican, and other ethnic markets in your area. They often have good, gluten-free food at reasonable prices.
    Cook your food in advance
    You can make the most of your smart shopping practices by planning and preparing your meals in advance.
    Consider spending one day each week, or at least a good block of time, cooking and prepping food. Just a few hours of gluten-free cooking can prepare you to sail smoothly through the week ahead. Use all the tools at your disposal. Use your crockpot, use your rice cooker, your freezer bags, and your markers.
    Keep your own shelf and label your foods
    Package and label the food you make, then store it in your fridge or freezer. By packaging and labeling food, your housemates are less likely to "accidentally" eat it. If they do, you'll likely be on top of the situation.
    Keep gluten-free dry goods on hand
    Having a drawer full of gluten-free food that does not require a fridge or freezer is also helpful. Good items to have include microwaveable rice, gluten-free pretzels, crackers, chips tuna fish, fruit snacks, and beef jerky.
    Gluten-free Condiments
    Keep a collection of spices and sauces to help keep your snacks from getting boring. Good things to keep on hand include honey, gluten-free tamari, mayonnaise, ketchup, mustard, and hot sauce.
    Cover the Basics
    Make sure you keep simple items that are rich in protein and carbohydrates on hand, so that you won’t go hungry and will always have gluten-free food available.
    Avoid the Dining Hall
    Unless your dining hall is one of the more progressive campus dining halls that offer a variety of good, reliable gluten-free foods, you should avoid it.
    Some good foods to prepare in advance or keep on hand include:
    Fried rice - Frying rice is a good way to use leftover food, and it's easy to pack and take with you to campus. Try it with lots of veggies, meat, eggs, and any other items that seem tasty.
    Grilled or roasted chicken, or other meats cut into small slices - These are great items to add to your fried rice, or to your pasta sauce.
    Stews, soups or casseroles - Stews, soups and casseroles freeze easily and age well. They can be prepackaged and frozen ahead of time. They can be easily thawed in the bag by placing them in the microwave, or in lukewarm water.
    Sauces - Making sauces in advance and freezing them can cut your food prep time during the week. They can give you plenty of room for adjustment and broaden your options. Ideas include: Pasta sauce, pizza sauce, sweet and sour sauce, teriyaki sauce,
    Pizza - Use your favorite gluten-free pizza crust to make gluten-free pizza. Then place it in individual bags, label and freeze. If you have hungry roommates with boundary issues, consider numbering the bags to keep track of them.
    French toast - Making French toast with your favorite gluten-free bread is a great way to have a quick, reliable breakfast ready to go.
    Fruit - cutting up fruit and putting it in bags for the week ahead is a great way to be ready to make quick breakfast smoothies, or to have a great fruit salad ready to go.
    Yogurt and kefir are also good to have on hand. They are excellent for making fruit smoothies, or for giving you much needed protein and fat with that fruit smoothie.
    Dessert items - Chocolate chip cookies, brownies, and cakes are a great way to enjoy dessert when you want it without being forced to choose from the often dismal gluten-free selection at the local coffee shop, or the over-priced frozen section of your local grocery store.
    Lastly, compile a list of reliable local eateries where you can get good, safe gluten-free food when you are in a pinch, or need to dine on the spur of the moment.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6