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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    COLORADO CHEF DAMIAN CARDONE BRAGS ABOUT ENDANGERING THE HEALTH OF UNSUSPECTING GLUTEN-FREE DINERS


    Wendy Cohan

    Celiac.com 04/01/2011 - On March 10th, Chef Damian Cardone boasted on Facebook that he delights in feeding diners who specifically requested gluten-free meals a variety of gluten-filled dishes instead. He states on his Facebook page that he does not believe in gluten intolerance and that it’s “all in their disturbed little heads.” Clearly, chef Cardone did not attend a reputable institution of culinary arts, where classes in food allergies are now standard, and guest lecturers who are specialists in celiac disease and gluten intolerance are frequently invited to speak to students. Hopefully in the future, dining will be safer, gluten-free guests will be accommodated with creativity and courtesy, and uneducated, malicious food workers like Mr. Cardone will be unable to find employment in the food industry.


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    I am also very surprised by Mr. Cardone’s naiveté, in assuming none of the diners who ate at his establishment would take legal action, and that there would be no repercussion. We are a litigious society, and I certainly hope that once word gets out in the gluten-free community, and make no mistake—it will—that legal action will be taken. I must also assume that Mr. Cardone is not aware of the current correctional institutional residence of a certain bread baker in North Carolina, who also knowingly sold gluten-containing items marketed as “gluten-free” to unsuspecting consumers. When these consumers became ill, they reported this to health authorities, who investigated. Their investigation quickly led to charges, and the conviction of the criminal involved. Most criminals are not very intelligent, and that’s why they are eventually caught, so I hope that Mr. Cardone keeps this in mind. If for no other reason than to save his own skin, this Colorado “Chef” should immediately give up any participation in the food preparation industry. His behavior is not intelligent, and he is not worthy of diners’ trust. This brings up another interesting line of thought regarding food service.

    Does Mr. Cardone break any other rules? Does he wash his hands after using the bathroom, blowing his nose, or touching raw meat? Does he believe in food-borne illnesses such as Salmonella, E. coli outbreaks, or Clostridium? Does he feed soft cheeses to pregnant women, who may suffer miscarriage due to Listeriosis?

    People can, and do, die from complications related to celiac disease, which now affects an estimated 1 in 100 people in the U.S. Non-celiac gluten intolerance may affect up to 12% of the population. That means that on a night when he plated 100 dinners, not uncommon for a mid-size restaurant, that 12 of those dinners had the potential to cause a negative reaction in the consumer. Mr. Cardone is apparently unaware that most reactions to gluten are not, in fact, gastrointestinal. Neurological reactions to gluten far outnumber gastrointestinal reactions. Neurological reactions can include: contributing to abnormal behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, foggy or disturbed thinking, ataxia (disturbances in gait and coordination), tremors, exacerbating and triggering MS symptoms, muscle weakness, fatigue, depression, bipolar disorder, and even schizophrenia. I personally know and have helped to treat gluten-intolerant patients with all of these disorders. So, Mr. Cardone was partially right. For many patients, it is “all in their heads”, but that doesn’t mean that the symptoms aren’t real, and that they are not caused by ingesting gluten. In fact, Mr. Cardone’s disturbed behavior may be caused by consuming a diet filled with gluten. Perhaps he deserves our compassion, and he needs a medical checkup—Pronto!

    I am a foodie—a former prep, pantry, line-cook, and pastry chef. I have spent years working at many of the finer dining establishments in Boulder and Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Does Mr. Cardone think that I would willingly have given up making and eating my own gluten-filled homemade croissants, danish, challah, bagels, black forest cake, salmon-en-croute, beef wellington, spanakopita, and baklava if I didn’t have to? Celiac disease nearly killed me, and it caused me over a decade of severe pain, none of which was located in my gastro-intestinal tract. In my restaurant days, I had what I thought was “a cast-iron stomach”, never once experiencing a bout of diarrhea, bloating, indigestion, heartburn, or gas related to my dietary intake. But, eventually my health deteriorated, and eventually I was diagnosed with celiac disease, and all of my extra-gastrointestinal symptoms have subsided on a 100% gluten-free diet. It scares me to think that anyone would deliberately sabotage my health by substituting foods containing gluten for my specially requested gluten-free meal. I certainly hope there aren’t any copycats out there, who are stupid enough to engage in such risky and criminal behavior. Intentionally inflicting harm on anyone is a crime.

    When dining out, I call ahead, I speak politely to my waitperson and often ask them to communicate with the chef, I eat what I’m served without complaint, I give verbal thanks, and I tip extraordinarily well when my request for a safe, gluten-free meal is accommodated. But Mr. Cardone does not want guests like me in his restaurant. That is his loss, but it is not and never will be his right, to purposefully inflict pain and suffering on other human beings, people who are paying him money to serve them safe food. He is guilty of so many crimes it’s difficult to fathom, and I certainly hope that his days of freedom to continue poisoning diners will end soon.

    Luckily, the gluten-free community has many other options, and gluten-free diners will learn to avoid any establishment in which Mr. Cardone has any affiliation. Even though Mr. Cardone does not deserve any compassion, I would never wish for him, or anyone, to be diagnosed with celiac disease. It’s just too painful…

    Author's Note:
    Thank you to Chad Hines for spreading the word about this occurrence. Mr. Cardone live in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, where he works as a private chef, and also at the Italian restaurant "Florindo's" in Glenwood Springs, Colorado.


    Image Caption: Chef Damian Cardone
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    I've been following this story closely, and it turns out as of 3/15 he's no longer working at Florindo's and no longer lives in CO. He's rumored to have moved to NJ but there's nothing concrete yet that I've seen.

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    Guest Colette ledoux

    Posted

    I am shocked how little attention this has received from the mainstream media. Many outraged celiacs have fired off emails to media outlets, and I personally sent an email to Gawker, without response. It behooves me to see the drivel they call "newsworthy", and yet a whole group of people are completely ignored, as if this is after all, no big deal. How sad, how sad....

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    This chef has been fired from the above listed restaurant! This article serves as a ever present fact that eating anywhere but your own kitchen when dealing with any food issues in your diet is a potential nightmare!

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    Guest John McDevitt

    Posted

    Having a daughter and grandchildren with some gluten intolerance, this really raised my ire.

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    All chefs are arrogant. Some are dangerously narcissistic and without the ability to empathize. I was told by people in the industry many times to never ever order anything special because that is begging for trouble--you will be punished for questioning the chef's control. He WILL put anything on your plate he pleases. That's what gets him off. That's his pathetic little world of control.

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    Guest Dave Baird

    Posted

    All in their head? I have DH (dermatitis herpetiformis) and Gluten attacks my skin (actually my imune system attacks the cells that received the gluten). I get very itchy skin and then the blisters come. That's not in my head although it can end up on my head. I also have celiac so I have the double whammy!

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    Obviously Mr. Cardone can think for the individuals who order in his restaurant. NOT. This reminds me of a former colleague, who thought it was all in my head. Guess what? He's been diagnosed as gluten sensitive, and has to eat gluten-free.

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    Guest Heather

    Posted

    In doing some research on this article, it should be said that this man did not work as a chef at Florindo's, he worked as a waiter. He apparently was a disgruntled ex-employee out to take revenge on the owners. The owner is the one and only chef. Too bad for the restaurant as it is privately owned and has taken a big hit by this story. I wish this had been pointed out in the article.

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    Guest admin

    Posted

    In doing some research on this article, it should be said that this man did not work as a chef at Florindo's, he worked as a waiter. He apparently was a disgruntled ex-employee out to take revenge on the owners. The owner is the one and only chef. Too bad for the restaurant as it is privately owned and has taken a big hit by this story. I wish this had been pointed out in the article.

    I can't speak for Florindo's, but even as a waiter Mr. Cardone could easily have not written down the very important words "gluten-free" on orders that he was taking...so to me it does not matter whether he was a waiter or a cook, he should not have been working in the restaurant industry.

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    Guest Deanna

    Posted

    All chefs are arrogant. Some are dangerously narcissistic and without the ability to empathize. I was told by people in the industry many times to never ever order anything special because that is begging for trouble--you will be punished for questioning the chef's control. He WILL put anything on your plate he pleases. That's what gets him off. That's his pathetic little world of control.

    Your view point seriously scares me. All chefs are NOT arrogant and your opinion is clearly skewed. My daughter has celiac and we have had numerous positive experiences. Your opinion is yours and yours only.

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    All chefs are arrogant. Some are dangerously narcissistic and without the ability to empathize. I was told by people in the industry many times to never ever order anything special because that is begging for trouble--you will be punished for questioning the chef's control. He WILL put anything on your plate he pleases. That's what gets him off. That's his pathetic little world of control.

    Actually, not all of us appreciate when people such as yourself make such broad strokes of stereotype. From the way you wrote this I would assume you also feel that all blacks are drug dealers, all Asians are bad drivers, and all Hispanics are lazy. As a Chef I always took GREAT pride in taking care of the needs of my customers. Maybe, just maybe, you should spend some time working in a restaurant in order to see for yourself before you go relying solely on the word of "a friend in the industry".

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    Guest Earli

    Posted

    In doing some research on this article, it should be said that this man did not work as a chef at Florindo's, he worked as a waiter. He apparently was a disgruntled ex-employee out to take revenge on the owners. The owner is the one and only chef. Too bad for the restaurant as it is privately owned and has taken a big hit by this story. I wish this had been pointed out in the article.

    Heather, thanks for setting the record straight. This all goes to prove that anybody can say anything on the social networking sites and it will be believed at 'face' value. Too bad Ms Cohan did not do a little research before printer in rebuttal.

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    Guest Cindy

    Posted

    After eating what was supposed to be a gluten-free meal recently, I became violently ill, fainting 4 or 5 times between the car and the bathroom. Had I hit my head on the concrete stairs going into my house, or on the sink, tub, or toilet in the bathroom, I would have been seriously injured, but my husband prevented me from doing so. And had I been injured, I would definitely be suing the restaurant that served me, either accidentally or intentionally, gluten in my meal.

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    Guest Jennifer

    Posted

    Thank you Heather, for pointing that out...it needs to be reported accurately, or it becomes about misinformation. No he shouldn't be working in the food industry, but it should also be reported that the restaurant itself offers gluten-free selections and is celiac-friendly. I live here, and live with celiac, and hate to see one of the places that offers delicious alternatives take the hit because of an ignorant server. It's the man, not the place.

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    Guest Tallulah

    Posted

    I am still stunned after reading this article. Thank goodness Mr. Cardone got fired...let's hope he is never able to work in the food industry again. What a jerk. What goes around, comes around...

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    Guest ColoradoSue

    Posted

    Another very big reason why I don't go out to eat anymore. Even with restaurants that "guarantee" gluten free menu's, they cannot guarantee that their employees will follow the guidelines!!!! I have been fortunate to have 94% control on my diet. I wish I could say it is 100%. With idiots like this in the public sector, I will never be.

    I must also mention that well-meaning friends and family members who also don't or won't accept this very serious health condition are also just as big a problem. Despite my best efforts at education over and over again, invariably one's feelings are hurt because the meal or fruit cake that was made especially for me is left alone or behind. I will still continue to hand out gluten free recipes, or bring my own food. However, I have noticed that invites to eat at other homes, (etc.) have dwindled to nothing. Lucky Me! Which, frankly, is ok. I'm too tired just trying to live with celiac disease (and all of the other health issues) and all of the pain and destruction that continues. I just turned 58 on the 10th. Had I'd known this going to be the rest of my life, I would have taken up sky diving long ago! Peace be with thee!

    PS: I do wish that Mr Cardone is diagnosed with celiac disease.

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    Guest Celiac

    Posted

    While it's clear that this man is *likely* less of a$$ and more of an angry uneducated man simply wanting revenge on his former bosses (thanks to the posts that clarified the source of the story), this serves as a great reminder for those of us with celiac and/or food allergies to not eat out. It is NOT the job of restaurant staff to ensure that your meal is gluten-free or safe. They simply can't. All it takes is ONE worker who doesn't know/care/pay attention and your meal is no longer safe. There is no way the food industry can keep up with everyone's different needs. If you have celiac and/or deadly food allergies, eat out at your own risk, IMHO. I am less worried about those with "gluten intolerance" because most of them won't sustain actual damage to their bodies, risk a hospital trip. etc. They may be fine eating out (they just may get sick), but celiacs and those with gluten induced neuro disorders, DH, etc. should never eat out at all unless they personally know and trust the chef. Even then it is always a risk. I hate hate hate having celiac and deadly food allergies, but this is my life now. I can't ever be normal again no matter what I want. A lunch bag that goes everywhere with you should be your best friend.

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    Such behavior is incredibly unprofessional at best. Whether your customer requires gluten-free food due to a food intolerance, or refuses to eat anything red because it upsets his chakkra spirits, you do your best to satisfy their needs, because THAT'S WHAT THEY ARE PAYING YOU FOR!

    This man shouldn't be allowed to work for McDonalds!

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    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
    That’s where the story takes a dangerous turn….about 3:15am. I awoke to the TV blaring loudly, along with the lights shining brightly. Our power was back on! I proceeded to walk throughout the house turning everything off at exactly the same time our neighbor, who was told to evacuate our street, saw me through our window, assuming I knew that our hillside was ablaze with flames. Flames that were shooting 50 feet into the air. I went back to bed and fell fast asleep. The fire department was assured we had left because our house was dark and quiet again. Two hours had passed.  I suddenly awoke to screams coming from a family member yelling, “fire, fire, fire”! Flames were shooting straight up into the sky, just blocks from our house. We lived on a private drive with only one way in and one way out.  The entrance to our street was full of smoke and the fire fighters were doing their best to save our neighbors homes. We literally had enough time to grab our dogs, pile into the car, and speed to safety. As we were coming down our street, fire trucks passed us with sirens blaring, and I wondered if I would ever see my house and our possessions ever again. Where do we go? Who do we turn to? Are shelters a safe option? 
    When our daughter was almost three years old, we left the West Coast and relocated to Northern Illinois. A place where severe weather is a common occurrence. Since the age of two, I noticed that my daughter appeared gaunt, had an incredibly distended belly, along with gas, stomach pain, low weight, slow growth, unusual looking stool, and a dislike for pizza, hotdog buns, crackers, Toast, etc. The phone call from our doctor overwhelmed me.  She was diagnosed with Celiac Disease. I broke down into tears sobbing. What am I going to feed my child? Gluten is everywhere.
    After being scoped at Children's Hospital of Chicago, and my daughters Celiac Disease officially confirmed, I worried about her getting all the nutrients her under nourished body so desperately needed. I already knew she had a peanut allergy from blood tests, but just assumed she would be safe with other nuts. I was so horribly wrong. After feeding her a small bite of a pistachio, which she immediately spit out, nuts would become her enemy. Her anaphylactic reaction came within minutes of taking a bite of that pistachio. She was complaining of horrible stomach cramps when the vomiting set in. She then went limp and starting welting. We called 911.
    Now we never leave home without our Epipens and our gluten free food supplies. We analyze every food label. We are hyper vigilant about cross contamination. We are constantly looking for welts and praying for no stomach pain. We are always prepared and on guard. It's just what we do now. Anything to protect our child, our love...like so many other parents out there have to do every moment of ever day!  
    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
    That is when I knew we had to be prepared. No more winging it. We couldn’t take a chance like that ever again. We were “lucky” one too many times. We were very fortunate that we did not lose our home to the Los Angeles wildfire, and only had minimal damage from the severe storm which hit our home in Illinois.
      
    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764