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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    DID PIZZA HUT DISCRIMINATE AGAINST MOM AND CELIAC SON?


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 01/20/2012 - Candi Smithson says her 2-year-old son, Preston, has severe allergies that present him from eating certain breads and dairy items, among other things. Celiac disease prevents Preston from eating anything containing gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye and barley.


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    Pizza HutPreston also is allergic to certain milk proteins, making things like butter and other dairy products hazardous to his health.

    Smithson claims that the local pizza Hut in Muskogee, Oklahoma discriminated against her by asking her and her son to leave the restaurant. Smithson told reporters that she was in Muskogee as part of a home-schooling group to see replicas of the Niña and Pinta ships, which had been cruising the Arkansas River in recent weeks. Smithson, another parent and four children, including Preston, stopped at Pizza Hut to have lunch.

    Smithson told reporters from NewsOk.com that, before going into Pizza Hut, she had first stopped at McDonald's to get Preston a hamburger without the bun, and some french fries, which is safe for Preston to eat.

    She brought that food with her into Pizza Hut, where she planned to order pizza for the other kids. But before the group could place an order, Smithson said a waitress told her that she could not be in the store with the McDonald's items.

    Smithson told reporters that she explained the situation, but that the waitress remained unmoved.

    “I explained why I was bringing in the food, but she said it didn't matter,” Smithson said. Smithson then asked to speak to the manager. She says that the manager, who was reportedly unavailable for comment, was also unsympathetic to the situation.

    According to Smithson, the manager basically said, "We can't have this food in here, so we're going to have to ask you to leave,'” Smithson said. “I was really shocked ... we bring food into restaurants all the time, and this has never happened before.”

    Smithson told reporters that Pizza Hut had no signs indicating a no-outside-food policy, and added that the restaurant lost out on five paying customers by demanding the hamburger and fries be discarded.

    Indeed, a Pizza Hut official, who spoke to reporters on the condition he remain unnamed, says he knows of no company policies that would prevent paying customers from eating outside food in a Pizza Hut restaurant.

    According to reporters, calls to Pizza Hut's corporate offices seeking comment on this story went unreturned.

    Smithson says the actions of the Pizza Hut manager violated her son's rights as a person living with a disability. She claims food allergies that interfere with “major life activities” are considered disabilities.

    Marca Bristo, who helped craft the original Americans with Disabilities Act during the late 1980s, agrees with Smithson. Bristo served as chairman of the National Council on Disability, a position she was appointed to by former President Bill Clinton.

    Bristo said the Americans with Disabilities Act, enacted in 1990, was amended in 2008 to broaden what are considered “major life activities.” She said the changes were necessary because “the courts had narrowed the definition of the law” up to that point.

    Eating is listed as major life activity in the amended act, which went into effect Jan. 1, 2009.

    When asked about Candi Smithson's ordeal, Birsto said, “I do think she is right to challenge this." There are some ambiguities in the law, but, basically, Bristo says, "…if a food allergy affects life activities, it's got to be considered a disability and should fall under the act.”

    Still, Smithson insists she's not looking for money. “I just want the policies changed,” she told reporters. “That way, when he gets older, he won't have to deal with things like this.”

    Has anything like this happened to you or anyone you know?  Should restaurants be flexible when paying customers need to bring in outside food for reasons concerning allergies or food sensitivities? Let us know your thoughts.

    The story was originally reported by NewsOk.com.

    Source:


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    Guest Wendi Brant

    Posted

    She is oblivious to the fact that the burger and French fries both contain gluten. It even states that on the McDonald's website! She should really research what her son can safely eat!

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    Did they bother to check with the health department. You can't bring food into any eating establishments in Michigan. I tend to bring in disposable packages of dressing BUT I never bring in food nor do I expect them to allow it.

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    If her son is allergic to milk, he shouldn't be eating McDonald's fries. She needs to check the ingredient list.

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    Pizza Hut was wrong to kick the woman and her son out, under the circumstances. I have celiac and I'm allergic to corn and sulfites. I have taken my own foods from home, into some restaurants. I was never told to leave, and was treated with kindness and respect by the staff. Pizza Hut should be ashamed of the treatment given to those people, by their employees.

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    Guest Robena Lasley

    Posted

    I have been diagnosed as gluten sensitive plus numerous other food sensitives. It is extremely hard to safely eat in restaurants. I feel bringing outside food into a restaurant should definitely be allowed as we are very limited in our choices. I am a paying customer as I always order something, plus my husband also eats a normal meal, so can't imagine why we should be told to leave. I would love to eat normally like other people do, but unfortunately that is impossible. I am proud of the young mother standing up for her sons rights to be somewhat normal. Go Mom!

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    As a celiac, I absolutely agree with Smithson's actions. There have been instances where it was necessary for me to bring my own food while dining with others. I have two siblings who also have celiac disease and travel extensively with their jobs. If a restaurant cannot accommodate them during a business meeting or function, what are they to do?

     

    My son has type I diabetes and must carry a sport sack with his glucose meter, emergency glucagon kit, and snacks. When we enter theme parks or sporting events, and his bag is searched, we are exempted from the "no outside food" rule because he must always have a source of carbohydrate on hand to treat low blood sugar. It's really not any different for those with food allergies - one must eat. Period.

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    You should ABSOLUTELY be allowed to; that was very inconsiderate and insensitive for them to do that!! If they can't offer something other than gluten and dairy then they need to make exceptions. Shame on them!!

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    I too was asked to take my "outside food" which was a salad from Perkins, outside at a Paradisio restaurant . The manager was very rude to say the least.

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    This has happened to me several times. The restaurants say it has to do with food safety codes. They don't want to be liable if someone get sick eating someone else's food in their establishment. Seems like quite a stretch to me and it is very frustrating. I think it is also to prevent people from abusing it and bringing in outside food and not paying for food there, since they still have to pay the rent and utilities on the facility and it would take up a seat of a paying customer.

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    Guest Olivedreci

    Posted

    This is not the case in which these people were bringing their food from another restaurant to eat it at Pizza Hut Restaurant, this was one child form a group of people and the mother explained to the waitress why she was bringing his food in. If pizza Hut made hamburgers without feelers I can see why they did not like somebody bringing in a hamburger from another place. I think it is better for Pizza Hut's business to let the child eat his hamburger with the group who are getting Pizza Hut pizza. Just by reading this, I think their judgment was out of place and bad for business, I certainly will not be visiting a Pizza Hut unless they change this stupid attitude.

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    Guest Charles

    Posted

    I was at a restaurant in D.C. two weeks ago to see a friend's concert. When I couldn't find anything on the menu to eat I asked to speak with the manager on duty. After explaining my diet restrictions to the manager I asked if she'd be willing to accommodate me. She actually laughed at me and said, "maybe you should've gone to another restaurant."

     

    Conversely, I was at a local Austin Grill last summer where the manager actually customized a meal for me. Shortly after my order was submitted the manager told me they didn't actually stock an important ingredient for my meal but would make a special trip to the grocery store to obtain it if I wanted. I was dumbfounded! I told him it wasn't necessary to go out of his way, but he insisted.

     

    Although these two experiences are extreme, my point is this - it's hard enough living with any disability, much more so when you're disability involves having to scrutinize anything and everything that goes into your body as with celiac disease. What most people don't realize however, is that celiac disease affects not just what you eat or drink! Everything must be considered in light of whether it may or may not cause immediate distress and/or contribute to some future consequence. As a celiac you have to scrutinize everything from medications (as well as vitamins & supplements) prescribed to address the symptoms originating from celiac disease, to common household items such as soaps, shampoo's, deodorants, lotions, etc, etc...ad nauseam.

     

    Advances in awareness of celiac disease notwithstanding, much more should be done to improve the quality of life for people who suffer (in whatever degree) from this life-altering disease; including legislation prohibiting discrimination such as Candi Smithson & her son encountered at Pizza Hut!

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    Waah, waah, waah. Get over it, already. Just get the food to go and eat in the car, or better still, don't eat at Pizza Hut ever again. I have celiac, and that is my problem - - Not McDonald's, Not Pizza Hut's - - but MY PROBLEM!!! It is not like they refused service on the grounds of race, color or failed to have handicap accessible areas. It seems that people are always looking for reasons to be upset these days for every little problem they encounter.

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    Guest Brent Bielema

    Posted

    This one is really bizarre -- because McDonald's is owned by the same company (Yum Brands) as Pizza Hut! Papa John's and Happy Joe's (local restaurant chain) both have gluten-free pizza so let's get the Hut to do the same -- and let parents be parents!

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    Guest Kirbette

    Posted

    I just read last week that McDonald's French fries have wheat and eggs in their starting agent. This mother should probably think twice about feeding her 2 year old son these fries if he is gluten-free.

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    Guest Debora Hanson

    Posted

    Well done! I hope you send this to the major network morning news and talk shows - I bet one of them would cover it.

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    Guest Lynn Cassidy

    Posted

    I live in OK and am very sorry you were treated in that way when all you were trying to do was keep gluten from the one child that it would make sick. It is difficult enough for a Granny (72) to start out on this but I hope we can find a pizza place who will allow the one child to bring in what he can eat. Shame on you Pizza Hut.

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    I have brought food into other chains and explained that my son had celiac disease and couldn't eat most of their food. The staff and manager were totally understanding. They understood that I would be paying for 3 other people and didn't want to lose our business, plus word of mouth and social media could cripple a chain by stories like this one.

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    When I first saw the overview I thought "why would she take her child to Pizza Hut if he can't eat there" but when I read that she had gotten him something to eat elsewhere and that was a problem with the restaurant I could NOT believe it!

     

    I've been out to restaurants with groups of people from my office and I take my own food because I can't there. And I haven't had an issue yet. I think Pizza Hut owes her at least an apology.

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    Guest Candice

    Posted

    Interesting! I agree with the parent that her son should not be discriminated against. It is difficult to eat at most restaurants and to have this happen is sad.

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    I and my husband were asked to "not eat" at Applebee's once when I simply asked if the mashed potatoes had any added starches and had brought my own "pure" butter to use on the potato. I was told that Applebees " prefers not to have people in their restaurants with food allergies"

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    I have never assumed I could just bring food in to another restaurant....I always call ahead! We celiacs need to remember that the 'world' of food vendors is still getting up to speed. you all should have stayed and eaten at McDonald's so your son wouldn't have to feel singled out.

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    Great article.

     

    I wonder if there are state food laws that have to do with this. Like whatever food place has a license so no food can be brought in from outside or it would violate the law. That law is true in many states.

     

    There has to be more. I can't imagine why a restaurant would kick someone out... especially after the person explained the situation.

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    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6