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    DNA Tests Show Fraud and Contamination Common in Herbal Products


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 12/16/2013 - Numerous popular herbal products may be contaminated or may contain unlabeled substitute ingredients and fillers, meaning that they are not what their labels claim. According to the World Health Organization, adulterated herbal products are a potential threat to consumer safety.


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    Photo: CC--Ed YourdonThese revelations came to light after a group of Canadian researchers conducted an investigation into herbal product integrity and authenticity, with hopes of protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination.

    Using a test called DNA barcoding, a kind of genetic fingerprinting that been effective in uncovering labeling fraud in other commercial industries, the researchers found that nearly 60% of herbal products tested were not what their label claimed them to be, and that pills labeled as popular herbs were often diluted or replaced entirely, sometimes with cheap fillers that could be dangerous to consumers.

    In all, the researchers tested 44 herbal products from 12 companies, along with 30 different species of herbs, and 50 leaf samples collected from 42 herbal species.

    The researchers were Steven G. Newmaster, Meghan Grguric, Dhivya Shanmughanandhan, Sathishkumar Ramalingam and Subramanyam Ragupathy. They are variously affiliated with the Centre for Biodiversity Genomics, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario (BIO) at the University of Guelph, the Bachelor of Arts and Science Program at the University of Guelph in Guelph, Ontario, Canada, and with the Plant Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bharathiar University in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Their laboratory also assembled the first standard reference material (SRM) herbal barcode library from 100 herbal species of known provenance that were used to identify the unknown herbal products and leaf samples.

    The team recovered DNA barcodes from most herbal products (91%) and all leaf samples (100%), with 95% species resolution using a tiered approach (rbcL + ITS2).

    Nearly 60% of the products tested contained DNA barcodes from plant species not listed on the labels. That means they were not what the label said they were.

    Furthermore, even though 48% of the products contained authentic ingredients, one-third of those also contained contaminants and/or fillers not listed on the label.

    The air data showed clearly that most herbal products tested were not what their labels claim, while most of the rest were poor quality, and often contained unlabeled, possibly dangerous, product substitute, contamination and fillers.

    They note that selling weak, ineffective, or mislabeled herbal supplements reduces the perceived value of otherwise helpful products by eroding consumer confidence.

    The study team recommends that the herbal industry embrace DNA barcoding to ensure authentic herbal products by effectively documenting raw manufacturing materials.

    They suggest that the use of an SRM DNA herbal barcode library for testing bulk materials could provide a method for 'best practices' in the manufacturing of herbal products, and note that this would provide consumers with safe, high quality herbal products.

    What do you think? Should herbal products and supplements be tested, authenticated and verified? Share your thoughts below.

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    Guest Diana Thompson

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    This article seems to me to cause one to think they should suspect all herbal products. I recommend that people do buy products that are independently tested which are available.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    This article seems to me to cause one to think they should suspect all herbal products. I recommend that people do buy products that are independently tested which are available.

    Certainly if this report is true, then your recommendation is even more important.

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    Absolutely. Also, company reputation can also account for their reliability since their good name is at stake as well...

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    This study leaves a lot of questions unanswered. While it says the products are from Toronto area and the United States, it says nothing on the country of origin of the products. I would guess products from outside the United States and Canada would be more likely to be contaminated as would products from companies that smaller no-name brand companies. As well they tested only 12 companies and there are dozens of mainstream and hundreds of smaller companies so clearly more research is needed. The rate of contamination found in this study seems much higher than that found by Consumerlab.com an online herbal and supplement testing company that independently tests products for contamination and containing what the label says they do, but part of that could be the testing method used. I do think that requiring herbal companies to do independent testing using this method or similar is far preferable to banning the selling of supplements. Consumers should know they getting what they buy. In the mean time I would buy from established companies like Gaia that have a system in place to trace herbs from the source to finished products, including product verification tests.

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  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. He has covered Health News for Examiner.com, and provided health and medical content for Sharecare.com. His work has appeared in Antioch Review, Blue Mesa Review, CALIBAN, Hayden's Ferry Review, Huffington Post, the Mississippi Review, and Slate, among others.

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    Wendy Cohan
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    The Connection Between Bladder Symptoms And Gluten Sensitivity - A Collection Of Personal Experiences*
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    …”The main help came from W.’ssuggestion to try to eliminate wheat-barley-rye (gluten).The Elmiron was getting close it it’s maxwithout constantly abusing the situation with gluten…about three months ago Istarted eliminating gluten-carrying grains, “wallah” absolutely the mostsignificant change started happening about 3 or 4 days from the last day ofgluten.  How much better am I now sincethen – about 500% better (close to where I was when I first noticed the IC,even though I didn’t know what was happening – close to TWENTY YEARS AGO).  I am still of the opinion that some kind ofcritters have and maybe still play a part of this.  I have taken every kind of antibiotic, with alittle success now and then, but not enough to kill it.” “It took about 3 months to seemild improvement, about a year to see moderate improvement, and about 2 yearsto feel much better.  I am not 100percent symptom free, but most of the time I am a very manageable level ofsymptoms, and when I flare (from diet or sex) it is very short lived.I am down to one Elmiron a day (from theoriginal dose of 3) and I also do a gluten and sugar free version of the ICdiet, which I also think has helped me a lot.” “I have had IC for 30 yearspretty severely.  It was only this pastyears that I got tested …and found out I had a severe wheat-gluten allergy tothe point that I cannot ingest one bite of anything with wheat or gluten…theysaid my whole digestive tract was inflamed…Over the years I knew I was wheat,dairy, and sugar intolerant but these (latest) tests are more specific and letyou know the levels.  I feel muchstronger and have many days when I am symptom free.  I finally feel different.” “I have started cutting wheat andgluten out of my diet, its been about 2 weeks now.  I, like M., have IBS.  I am feeling better every day.I am following a diet very similar toyours.Thank you for posting it again!” “I have had IC for over adecade.  I have been on a gluten freediet for over 6 years and that has been the only thing that has given me anyrelief from the IC.  I no longer take anymeds at all – haven’t even been to a doctor for the IC in several years.Glad to hear someone else is seeing thebenefits of the gluten-free diet for IC and getting the word out.  I would definitely suggest anyone with ICgive it a try.  It definitely gave me mylife back." “Where have you been for the lasttwenty plus years?You may have saved mylife.I have described these symptomsfor years to doctors and never got an answer that sounded even close to whatwas happening.  Just “try these antibiotics”once in a while at the beginning (there was minimal change), but more and morethe antibiotics got more and more expensive with less and less effect if any atall, it even included the kill-all antibiotic – kills everything except me…Went to nerve doctor ($2,500 plus, pelvic x-rays (2 or 3 types).One of the urologists… never said anythingbut “prostatitis” over and over again. 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    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:
    BMJ 2012; 345. doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e8450

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/17/2014 - With Halloween 2014 looming like a goblin, the search for gluten-free and gluten-safe candy selections in underway.
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    Gluten-free and Gluten-safe Candy List for Halloween 2014:
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    Act II Popcorn Balls Adams & Brooks Fun Pops Scooby Doo Ingredients free of: peanuts, tree nuts, egg, milk, wheat/gluten, soy Albert's Gummy Eyeballs Albert's Iced Halloween pops (lollipops) Alien Pop, Baseball Pop, Basketball Pop, Boo Pop, Carousel Pop, ColorBlaster Pop, Football Pop, Happy Heart Pop, Hoppin' Pop, Lickin' Lips Pop, Lolliday Pop, Lollinotes, Pop-A-Bear, Soccer Pop, Alien Glow Pop, Buggin' Glow Pop, Burstin Bits, and Ghostly Glow Pop Almond Joy - All Except ALMOND JOY PIECES Candy Almond Joy fun size bars Altoids (except for Altoids Smalls Peppermint) Amanda's Own Confections Chocolate shapes and chocolate lollipops Annie's Organic Bunny Fruit snacks Applehead, Grapehead, Cherryhead B
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    Palmer Peanut Butter Cups – does contain peanuts Pay Day peanut caramel bar snack size Peanut M&M’s Pearson’s Bun candy – maple and roasted peanuts Pearson’s Mint Patties, Pearson’s Nut Goodies Pearson's Salted Nut Rolls Peeps Jack–o–lanterns, Ghosts, Peeps Pumpkins and Chocolate Mousse Cats – “Gluten Free” Pez candy – All PEZ products are “Gluten Free” Pop Rocks Popcorn Expressions Kettle Corn Snack Bags Pixie Stix Pure Fun Halloween Pure Pops R
    Rain Blo Bubble Gum Eyes of Terror Raisinets Razzles candy gum Red Hots Reese's Fast Break candy bars and snack size Reese's Peanut Butter Cups snack size and miniatures – Except REESE'S Peanut Butter Cup Unwrapped Minis and Seasonal Shaped Items Reese's Pieces Reese's Select Peanut Butter Cremes Reese's Select Clusters Reese's Whipps Riviera Spooky Candy Rings Rolo chocolate covered caramels – Except ROLO Minis S
    Sidewalk Chalk Sixlets Skeleton Pops (lollipops) Skittles includes Original, Sour, Wild Berry, Fizzl’d Fruits, and Crazy Core, including fun-size Smarties – (the small pastel–colored candies sold in rolls and made by Ce De). Also Candy Money, Candy Necklace, Easter Smarties, Giant Smarties, Giant Smarties Pops, Love Hearts, Mega Smarties, Smarties in a Pouch, Tropical Smarties, Smarties Double Lollies, Smarties Mega Lollies, Smarties Parties, Smarties Pops, and X-TREME Sour Smarties. Manufacturer states: These products contains NO: gluten, milk, egg, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, peanuts, or soy. (US only, NOT gluten-free in Canada). Snickers Snickers Fudge bar Sno-Caps Sno-Cone Soda Pop Sour Patch Spooky Candy Rings (eyeballs, Frankenstein heads and other shapes on rings) Starburst Fruit Chews and fun-size Starburst Gummibursts and Sour Gummibursts Sugar Babies Sugar Daddy Caramel Pops Super Bubble bubble gum Surf Sweets Gummy Worms Surf Sweets Gummy Swirls Surf Sweets Gummy Bears Surf SweetsFruity Bears Surf Sweets Jelly Beans Surf Sweets Sour Worms Surf Sweets Sour Berry Bears Swedish Fish Sweethearts conversation hearts Forbidden Fruits (candy packaging of The Twilight Saga, New Moon the movie) Sweet’s Candy Corn Taffy T
    TIC TACS Tootsie Caramel Apple Pops Tootsie Pops – original and mini Tootsie Rolls Midgies and snack bars Topps - Baby Bottle Pop, Ring Pops, Push Pops, Ring Pop Gummies, Bazooka Gum, Bazooka Gum Nuggets Transformers Candy Mix – gummy shields, fruit chews, candy shields, gum rocks Twist and Glow, Twist and Glow Heart, Twist and Glow Pumpkin W
    Warheads – Extreme Sour hard candy and Sour QBZ chewy cubes Warheads Sour Chewy Cubes Warheads Super Sour Spray, Sour Dippers, Double Drops Wonka Bottlecaps Wonka Chocolate Laffy Taffy Wonka Giant Chewy Nerds Jelly Beans Wonka Giant Pixy Stix Wonka Gobstopper Everlasting Wonka Gobstopper Chewy Wonka Fruit Tart Chews Wonka Fun Dip and Fun Dip Sour Wonka Laffy Taffy Ropes Wonka Mix–Ups Wonka Monster Mix–Ups – SweetTarts Skulls and Bones, Spooky Nerds, Howlin’ Laffy Taffy Wonka Nerds – carry a cross contamination warning on the Spooky Nerds orange and fruit punch flavors Wonka Pixy Stix Wrigley's Gum X
    X–scream Mouth Morphers Fruit Gushers Y
    York Peppermint Patties York Peppermint Patties Pumpkins Z
    Zed Candy Skulls and Bones With all these selections, finding some good, gluten–free candy should be a snap. As always, be sure to read labels, as some ingredients can vary.
    **WARNING! THESE UNSAFE CANDIES CONTAIN OR MAY CONTAIN GLUTEN:
    AIRHEADS
    Packaging states that Airheads are: “Manufactured in a facility that processes wheat flour.” Airheads.com FAQs state that: “Airheads do not contain gluten; however, they are processed in a facility that uses wheat flour, so the company does not guarantee that Airheads are gluten-free. Airheads Xtremes Rolls contains wheat flour ANNABELLE’S
    Abba Zabba – contains: peanuts, soybean oil and soy lecithin, wheat/gluten Big Hunk
    Package statement: “made in a facility that uses milk, egg, tree nuts, wheat and peanuts” Look
    Contains: milk, peanuts, soy lecithin, eggs, wheat/gluten Rocky Road, Rocky Road Mint, Rocky Road Dark
    Contain wheat/gluten U-No
    Contains: milk, almonds, soy lecithin, wheat/gluten AMERICAN LICORICE CO.
    Sour Punch Sticks, Twists, Bits, Bites, Straws – contains wheat/gluten Red Vines – all varieties, including Black, Natural and Fruit Vines – contains wheat/gluten BEE INTERNATIONAL
    Zombee Bloody Bites (glow in the dark plastic fangs with oozing candy blood bags) Zombee Candy Corn (in a tall tube with plastic pumpkin lid) Package statement: “Made in a facility that also processes milk, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts.” BRACH'S
    All Brach's candy should be considered NOT gluten–free! Please be careful, as I have seen Brach's candies included on gluten-free safe lists! CADBURY ADAMS
    Sour Patch Xploderz CHUCKLES
    Chuckles Ju Jubes CVS
    Candy Corn, Autumn Mix, Candy Pumpkins Ingredients free of: wheat/gluten, milk, tree nuts, peanuts Package statement: “This product was packaged in a facility where other products containing peanuts, tree nuts, milk, wheat, soy and egg are also packaged.” FARLEY'S AND SATHERS
    Harvest Mix and Candy Corn – This product is made by Brach’s. All Brach’s candies are considered to contain gluten. See Brach’s blistings. Heide candies – Jujyfruits, Jujubes, Red Raspberry Dollars, Red Hot Dollars Wild Cherry, Heide Gummi Bears Super Bubble and Super Bubble Blast Trolli Gummi Bears, Trolli Sour Brite (Frite) Crawlers “Packaged on equipment that packages products containing traces of milk, wheat, egg, peanuts, tree nuts and/or soy protein.” FERREROFerrero Rocher Chocolates  FLIX
    Bag of Boogers Gummies - “Manufactured in a facility that processes gluten (wheat), milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts and soy.” FRANKFORD
    Frankford Fun Size Mix (Peanut Butter, Caramel and Crispy Chocolate Covered Candies) Crispy Candies SpongeBob Gummy Krabby Patties GOETZE
    Goetze’s Caramel Creams, Cow Tales – Contain wheat flour, milk, and soy. HARIBO
    Black Licorice Wheels Brixx Fruity Pasta Konfekt and Pontefract Cakes Red Licorice Wheels Sour S’ghetti HERSHEY
    Hershey Snack Sized Bars - ALL
    Kit Kat – contains wheat
    Reese's Minis
    Reese’s Peanut Butter Pumpkins
    Twizzlers – contains wheat
    Whoppers – contains barley malt and wheat flour
    Hershey’s Bliss (Milk Chocolate, Milk Chocolate with Almonds, Milk Chocolate with Meltaway Center, White Chocolate with Meltaway Center, Milk Chocolate with Raspberry Meltaway Center, Dark Chocolate) – No gluten ingredients, but not on Hershey’s official gluten-free list.
    Hershey's Good & Plenty
    Hershey’s Mr. Goodbar fun size
    Hershey’s Twizzlers, Flavored Twists
    IMPACT CONFECTIONS
    Warheads Sour Twists – contain wheat/gluten, milk MARS and WRIGLEY
    Milky Way – contains barley malt Twix – contains wheat NESTLE
    Butterfinger Crisp or Butterfinger Stixx – contains wheat flour Crunch – contains barley malt, and is “made on equipment that also processes wheat.” Hundred Grand Bar – contains barley malt,and is “made on equipment that also processes wheat.” Wonka Oompas and the Wonka Bar are NOT gluten–free. PALMER
    Palmer Bag of Boo’s fudge bars Palmer Tricky Treats (mix of Googley Eyes, Boneheads, and Pumpkin Patch chocolate candies) Palmer Trick or Treat Mix Palmer Peppermint Patties RUSSELL STOVER'S – Russell Stover's products are produced on equipment that also processes peanuts, tree nuts, eggs and wheat gluten.WONKA
    Wonka Bar Wonka Chewy Runts Wonka Chewy Spree Wonka Giant and Mini Chewy SweeTarts Wonka Nerds Wonka Oompas Wonka Runts Wonka Runts Chewy Wonka SweetTarts Wonka Sweetarts (regular) Wonka Sweetarts Chew Wonka Sweetarts Chewy Twists Wonka Sweetarts Giant Chewy Wonka Sweetarts Mini Chewy Wonka Shockers Wonka Sweetarts Gummy Bugs – contains wheat/gluten Wonka Sweetarts Rope – contains wheat/gluten Wonka Sweetarts Shockers Wonka Tart N Tinys Wonka Tart N Tinys Chew Wonka SweetTarts Boo Bag Mix  Additional information and lists of gluten-free safe and unsafe Halloween candies can be found at:
    About.com Celiaccentral.com Celiacfamily.com DivineCaroline.com Surefoodliving.com Foodallergyfeast Medpedia Glutenfreefacts Here is a partial list of major candy manufacturers and how to contact them:
    Adams & Brooks – 213-749-3226 American Licorice Co. – 866-442-2783 BEE International – 619-710-1800 Ferrara Candy Company – 888-247-9855 Ferrero Rocher – 732-764-9300 FLIX – 847-647-1370 Gimbal’s Fine Candies – 888-841-9373 Goetze’s Candy Company – 410-342-2010 Hershey's – 800–468–1714. Here's a link to Hershey's official gluten-free list. Impact Confections – 303-626-2222 Jelly Belly – 800–522–3267 Just Born – 888–645–3453. Here's a link to Just Born Gluten-free FAQs Kraft Foods – 877-535-5666 Mars Chocolate – 800–627–7852 Necco – 781–485–4800 Nestle USA – 800–225–2270 Palmer – 610 372-8971 Pearson's – 800–328–6507 PEZ – 203.795.0531 Pop Rocks – 770-399-1776 Tootsie Roll – 773–838–3400

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    Bakery On Main started in the small bakery of a natural foods market on Main Street in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Founder Michael Smulders listened when his customers with Celiac Disease would mention the lack of good tasting, gluten-free options available to them. Upon learning this, he believed that nobody should have to suffer due to any kind of food allergy or dietary need. From then on, his mission became creating delicious and fearlessly unique gluten-free products that were clean and great tasting, while still being safe for his Celiac customers!
    Premium ingredients, bakeshop delicious recipes, and happy customers were our inspiration from the beginning— and are still the cornerstones of Bakery On Main today. We are a fiercely ethical company that believes in integrity and feels that happiness and wholesome, great tasting food should be harmonious. We strive for that in everything we bake in our dedicated gluten-free facility that is GFCO Certified and SQF Level 3 Certified. We use only natural, NON-GMO Project Verified ingredients and all of our products are certified Kosher Parve, dairy and casein free, and we have recently introduced certified Organic items as well! 
    Our passion is to bake the very best products while bringing happiness to our customers, each other, and all those we meet!
    We are available during normal business hours at: 1-888-533-8118 EST.
    To learn more about us at: visit our site.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/20/2018 - Currently, the only way to manage celiac disease is to eliminate gluten from the diet. That could be set to change as clinical trials begin in Australia for a new vaccine that aims to switch off the immune response to gluten. 
    The trials are set to begin at Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre. The vaccine is designed to allow people with celiac disease to consume gluten with no adverse effects. A successful vaccine could be the beginning of the end for the gluten-free diet as the only currently viable treatment for celiac disease. That could be a massive breakthrough for people with celiac disease.
    USC’s Clinical Trials Centre Director Lucas Litewka said trial participants would receive an injection of the vaccine twice a week for seven weeks. The trials will be conducted alongside gastroenterologist Dr. James Daveson, who called the vaccine “a very exciting potential new therapy that has been undergoing clinical trials for several years now.”
    Dr. Daveson said the investigational vaccine might potentially restore gluten tolerance to people with celiac disease.The trial is open to adults between the ages of 18 and 70 who have clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and have followed a strict gluten-free diet for at least 12 months. Anyone interested in participating can go to www.joinourtrials.com.
    Read more at the website for Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre.

    Source:
    FoodProcessing.com.au

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/16/2018 - Summer is the time for chips and salsa. This fresh salsa recipe relies on cabbage, yes, cabbage, as a secret ingredient. The cabbage brings a delicious flavor and helps the salsa hold together nicely for scooping with your favorite chips. The result is a fresh, tasty salsa that goes great with guacamole.
    Ingredients:
    3 cups ripe fresh tomatoes, diced 1 cup shredded green cabbage ½ cup diced yellow onion ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro 1 jalapeno, seeded 1 Serrano pepper, seeded 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 2 garlic cloves, minced salt to taste black pepper, to taste Directions:
    Purée all ingredients together in a blender.
    Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. 
    Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper, as desired. 
    Serve is a bowl with tortilla chips and guacamole.