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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    DOES A GLUTEN-FREE DIET MEAN HIGHER ARSENIC AND MERCURY LEVELS?


    Jefferson Adams


    • A study finds higher levels of arsenic and mercury in gluten-free eaters.


    Celiac.com 03/01/2017 - Do people who eat a gluten-free diet face an increased exposure to toxic metals like arsenic and mercury, and thus possibly higher rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer and neurological effects?


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    That's a very possible scenario, according to a report published in the journal Epidemiology. Maria Argos, assistant professor of epidemiology in the UIC School of Public Health, and her colleagues searched data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for a link between gluten-free diet and biomarkers of toxic metals in blood and urine.

    Of the 7,471 people they surveyed between 2009 and 2014, they found 73 participants who reported eating a gluten-free diet.

    People on a gluten-free diet higher concentrations of arsenic in their urine, and mercury in their blood, than those who ate a non-gluten-free diet. In fact, arsenic levels for gluten-free eaters were nearly twice as high, and mercury levels were 70 percent higher.

    So, does a gluten-free diet pose an actual health risk? Do people need to make any immediate dietary changes?

    While noteworthy, Argos says the findings indicate the need for more studies, "to determine if there are corresponding health consequences that could be related to higher levels of exposure to arsenic and mercury by eating gluten-free."

    Argos points out that the EU has in place regulations for food-based arsenic exposure, while the United States does not. The question that needs to be answered if whether rice flour consumption increases the risk for exposure to arsenic. An answer to that requires further study.

    Source: University of Illinois at Chicago


    Image Caption: Do people with celiac disease face higher levels of arsenic and mercury levels? Photo: CC--Matt Brubeck
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    Very little helpful information in this article. The article points to increased levels of arsenic in rice, a gluten free diet staple... but what about in other foods? People on a gluten free diet are already used to managing their food intake...so please give us a few more guidelines. There's no mention of what foods constitute an increased risk of exposure to mercury in a gluten free diet.

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    Guest Pippy

    Posted

    Jefferson, do you know if any of the people were tested for arsenic and mercury before going on the gluten-free diet? I do wish these studies had more detail. A lot of this makes sense as almost all the processed food out there is based on rice and rice is notorious for having arsenic. All the more reason to eat a whole food diet AMAP. I feel for the children whose parents are not hip to this knowledge. Many of them will have life long problems like learning disabilities, hearing loss and neurological issues, depending on how much exposure they have.

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    Guest Janet Hoover

    Posted

    I have been reading that rice has arsenic in it so this would make sense that gluten-free dieters have more arsenic in their urine. Rice is one of the most substituted ingredients that I have found in the gluten-free diet. In fact I have developed a sensitivity to rice since being on the gluten-free diet for over 10 years. Whenever I eat rice, my skin breaks out in a rash now. I am finding it difficult to find ready made gluten-free breads, cakes, etc without rice flour. So maybe this link to arsenic should be investigated as well.

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    Guest Catherine

    Posted

    That was my first thought about higher levels of arsenic--rice. It is reputed to have high levels of arsenic. I eat a fair amount of rice as my starch and imagine others do too.

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    Destiny Stone
    Celiac.com 07/21/2010 - Naturally gluten-free foods have long held the assumption that they are supposed to be gluten-free. However, a new study has found that many naturally occurring gluten-free foods are in fact not gluten-free.
    Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye and barley, and people with gluten sensitivities know to avoid those grains. However,  a new study lead by celiac disease nutrition consultant, Tricia Thompson, proves that many naturally gluten-free grains, seeds and flours found in your local supermarket are definitely not gluten-free.
    Tricia and her team of researchers evaluated 22 naturally gluten-free seeds, flours and grains that were not labeled as being “gluten-free”. They tested the products using the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for acceptable gluten levels of 20 parts contaminant per million parts product. Trish and her researchers found that 7 of the 22 products tested, would not pass the FDA standards, including millet grain and flour, buckwheat flour, and sorghum flour.
    Currently the FDA does not mandate that companies labeling their products as “gluten-free” actually test for acceptable gluten levels in their products. Although, under the new proposed FDA gluten-free regulations, the FDA would be able to inspect foods labeled “gluten-free” for validity of the gluten-free claim.
    Unfortunately the scope of this study is not vast enough to determine exactly which products to watch out for, but Tricia and her  colleagues agree that more research is needed in this area. Meanwhile Tricia recommends that people with celiac disease and gluten sensitivities only purchase grains, flours and seeds labeled as “gluten-free”, as these products are more likely to be tested for acceptable FDA levels of gluten.
    Source:

    Journal of the American Dietetic Association - Volume 110, Issue 6, Pages 937-940 (June 2010)

    Dr. Vikki Petersen D.C, C.C.N
    This article originally appeared in the Spring 2010 edition of Celiac.com's Journal of Gluten-Sensitivity.
    Celiac.com 10/22/2010 - More and more we’re hearing from frustrated patients who, despite being vigilant about their gluten-free diet, continue to suffer health problems.
    I have been involved in the field of celiac and gluten sensitivity for over 15 years and am delighted by much of the recent increased awareness and attention given to the area.  But I’m also concerned about the lack of assistance given to many patients who have been definitively diagnosed with either celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.  While being correctly given the advice to not eat gluten, they are not provided with a follow-up program to address and treat the secondary effects of gluten sensitivity.  This oversight condemns many to ongoing ill health.
    The focus of this article is on the types of conditions we see clinically with our patients, some of the recent research that corroborates our findings, and steps you can take to address the underlying root cause of these problems.

    Leaky Gut
    Also known as increased intestinal permeability, a leaky gut refers to a loss of integrity of the lining of the small intestine.  Recall that the small intestine is approximately 23 feet in length and has the surface area of a tennis court.Gluten, in the sensitive individual, is a known cause of leaky gut, but in a perfect world the elimination of gluten would allow healing to occur resulting in an intact, healthy intestinal lining.
    Alas, we do not live in a perfect world and other factors contribute to the health of the gut.  Infections in the form of parasites, amoebas, bacteria, and the like, can certainly contribute to continued increased permeability.  Likewise, other food reactions, chief among them dairy, can cause persistent irritation and thereby prevent healing.  Imbalance of the beneficial bacteria or microbes that comprise the microbiota of the intestine, as well as nutritional and pancreatic enzyme deficiencies, are also suspected to limit healing.
    Let’s take a look at each of these individually:

    Infections
    Whether one has celiac disease or is gluten sensitive, one thing is for sure, one’s immune system has been overtaxed due to the presence of gluten in the diet.  Depending on the age at diagnosis, it is often several decades of stress that the immune system has undergone.Such an overburdened immune system is unable to be as vigilant as a healthy one and as a result it allows such organisms as parasites, amoebas or bacteria to infiltrate the body.  Some estimates suggest that the digestive tract is normally exposed to a pathogenic organism every 10 minutes.  A healthy intestinal immune system is able to identify and eradicate those organisms as part of its normal activities.  An unhealthy immune system often “misses” such organisms and they happily take up residence in the small intestine.
    Interestingly, some of these organisms create crypt hyperplasia and villous atrophy that appears the same as that caused by gluten.  Imagine the frustration of a patient who is being told by their doctor that they are not following their diet when indeed they are.  What’s being missed?  The presence of an infectious agent.
    In the 2003 American Journal of Gastroenterology, researchers reported a large percentage of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) in celiac patients with persistent GI symptoms despite adherence to a gluten-free diet.  These patients were off gluten, as instructed, but were still having diarrhea due inhospitable organisms in their intestines.
    This segues nicely into the next area I want to discuss – dysbiosis or imbalance of the friendly bacteria in the small intestine.

    Dysbiosis
    The population of organisms found in the intestines of celiac patients (treated with a gluten-free diet or not) is different from that found in healthy control groups.  The ratio of good bacteria to bad was found to be reduced in celiac patietnts regardless of whether their celiac disease was active or inactive.  Because the “bad” bacteria are pro-inflammatory in nature, they can be responsible for creating some of the initial problems with celiac disease, as well as helping to perpetuate them despite following a gluten-free diet.In the August 2009 Scientific American, Dr Fasano made a very interesting statement regarding these microbes or probiotics as relates to the age of initiation of celiac disease.  He stated: “Apparently they [probiotics] can also influence which genes in their hosts are active at any given time.  Hence, a person whose immune system has managed to tolerate gluten for many years might suddenly lose tolerance if the microbiome changes in a way that causes formerly quiet susceptibility genes to become active.  If this idea is correct, celiac disease might one day be prevented or treated by ingestion of selected helpful microbes.”
    Isn’t this fascinating?  If you haven’t read the complete article I encourage you to do so, but it is sufficient to say there is scientific discussion that entertains the notion that a healthy microbiome or probiotic population is not only anti-inflammatory (a good thing to help prevent many diseases) but may actually act as a “switch” that turns on and off the expression of certain genes.
    Therefore, part of our program is to examine the population of the microbiome through laboratory testing, and supplement as needed, to support a healthy anti-inflammatory population.  In the past we typically prescribed probiotics only for a few short months following the eradication of a pathogenic organism.  But in the last several years it has become clear that our patients’ clinical profile is much more stable with continued probiotic supplementation.

    Dairy Sensitivity
    It can be difficult to confront major changes in one’s diet.  Removing gluten is definitely a big challenge and sometimes my patients look at me forlornly when I simultaneously recommend the elimination of dairy products.  I try to encourage them by promising that organic butter is allowed and by quickly recommending my favorite coconut ice cream, as well as cheese and milk substitutes.Contrary to the passing thought that I wish to be cruel, there is excellent documentation to back up what we’ve seen clinically for years - gluten and dairy are truly not our friends.
    The majority of the world’s people are lactose intolerant.  Populations such as Asians, African Blacks, those of Jewish descent, Mediterraneans, Mexicans and North American Blacks all exceed 70% intolerance to lactose. 
    Note that many drugs and supplements may contain lactose as well, so be vigilant.
    Estimates suggest that we retain the enzyme to digest our human mother’s milk for 2 to 5 years and after that milk from any mammal is likely toxic because it’s too high in protein and phosphorus, making proper digestion impossible.  Human milk is very low in protein but rich in essential fatty acids.
    Casein, a protein from milk, is strongly associated with allergic reactions.  Therefore putting lactose and casein together presents double jeopardy to the body.  In this country, milk contains more toxins per gram than any other food, so you can see that there’s great cause for concern.
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    Nutritional Deficiencies
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    Discovering that you’re gluten sensitive and following the diet should be rewarded with dramatically improved health.  If that is not the result, other problematic factors need to be isolated and treated.  Such a program is not difficult and is well worth the effort.
    Please let me know if I can answer any further questions.
    To your good health!


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/13/2014 - Even though some folks suffering from symptoms of celiac disease will claim they would welcome death, most people will not actually die from the immediate symptoms of celiac disease; no matter how bad those symptoms get.
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    Jefferson Adams
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
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    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6