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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    FOOD INDUSTRY RESPONDING TO GLUTEN-FREE CONSUMER DEMAND


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 11/27/2014 - A growing desire to avoid gluten is changing the food industry in myriad ways, so says an article in the Oct 25th 2014 edition of the Economist.


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    Photo: CC--LyzaThe article points to a fast rising consumer demand for gluten-free products that began with sufferers of celiac disease, but has quickly grown to include large numbers of health conscious eaters, and which shows no sign of slowing down.

    They cite a recent survey by market research firm Mintel, which says sales of gluten-free food and drink in the U.S. have surged from $5.4 billion to $8.8 billion since 2012, and are set to grow a further 20% by 2015.

    They note that Mintel forecasts a 61% growth in gluten-free food sales in America by 2017, with similar increases expected in other rich countries, and they also point to double-digit sales growth of gluten-free products in most European countries--with Britain leading the way.

    Basically, gluten-free food is a strong enough influence on businesses that it is changing the offerings at food markets and eating establishments across the board.

    Grocers are giving precious shelf space, and restaurants are shifting their menus to incorporate gluten-free offerings. It was recently reported that more than half of restaurants in the U.S. will include gluten-free items on this menus by the end of 2014.

    And, as the Economist notes, Europe is following suit. “Even small convenience stores in remote parts of rural Ireland and Italy now stock ranges of gluten-free bread and cakes,” the magazine points out. The big losers here, in terms of market share are other specialty products, such as vegetarian and meat replacement products, whose sales have fallen flat.

    Interestingly, the trend is being ruled not by fad dieters, but largely by people worried about their health. The Economist points to a survey by the research firm Kantar, which found that only about 1 in 5 people who buy gluten-free food say they buy it for non-medical reasons.

    Read the complete article in The Economist.


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Lyza
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    admin

    Gregory M. Glenn is in the USDA-ARS Bioproduct Chemistry and Engineering Research Unit. Celiac.com 09/29/2004 - Those lightweight, polystyrene containers that some restaurants give you for carrying home leftovers or take-out meals are known in the foodservice industry as clamshells. Their hinged-lid construction indeed resembles the architecture nature uses for clams, oysters, and other familiar bivalves.
    Every year, billions of these clamshells and other foodservice containers made from petroleum-based foams end up in already overstuffed landfills. Slow to decompose, they become yet another environmental burden.
    But the containers, along with other disposable foodservice items such as plates, bowls, and cups, can also be manufactured with biodegradable ingredients.
    ARS plant physiologist Gregory M. Glenn is working with EarthShell Corp., the California-based innovators of potato-starch-based foam products such as burger boxes, to create environmentally friendly disposables made with starch from wheat, the worlds most widely planted grain. His wheat-starch-based prototypes are sturdy, attractive, convenient to use, and just as leakproof as their polystyrene counterparts. Glenn is with the Bioproduct Chemistry and Engineering Research Unit at ARSs Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California.
    Why use wheat starch in packaging? Because it offers manufacturers of foodservice products another choice among starches when theyre buying raw materials. That purchasing flexibility can help keep their prices competitive with the polystyrene products. Another important cost savings: The machinery already used to make EarthShells potato-starch-based containers is suitable for the wheat-starch products as well. That sidesteps the need for costly retooling at manufacturing plants.
    The machines are presses or molds that work something like giant waffle irons, explains Glenn. First, a wheat-starch batter is poured onto the heated mold, which is then closed and locked. Moisture in the batter generates steam that, in turn, causes the batter to foam, expand, and fill the mold. The steam is vented and, when the baking is finished, the mold is opened, the product is removed, and the cycle starts again. This whole process takes less than a minute.
    A water-resistant coating, added later, helps the container keep its strength and shape when its filled with a hot, juicy cheeseburger or creamy pasta alfredo leftovers, for example. But once the container hits the backyard compost pile or municipal landfill, it biodegrades in only a few weeks.
    Perhaps having our ready-to-eat meal packed for us in a guilt-free throwaway container, such as a wheat-starch-based clamshell, will make eating those foods even more enjoyable.—By Marcia Wood, Agricultural Research Service Information Staff.
    This research is part of Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, an ARS National Program (#306) described on the World Wide Web at www.nps.ars.usda.gov.
    Gregory M. Glenn is in the USDA-ARS Bioproduct Chemistry and Engineering Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710; phone (510) 559-5677, fax (510) 559-5818.
    Wheat—A New Option for Carry-Out Containers was published in the September 2004 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.
    Additional comments by USDA Plant Physiologist Gregory Glenn on 9/20/2004:
    Due to a current market shortage of wheat starch, the containers will be made of corn starch. However, you bring up a very valid concern and at some point the containers may be made of wheat starch. We are very sensitive to the concerns that Celiac sufferers have regarding wheat-based products. I spoke with Dr. Bassi of MGP Ingredients. MGP is a major supplier of wheat starch. Dr. Bassi is very aware of the concerns about Celiac disease and serves on an international committee that addresses this concern. Dr. Bassi can be reached at MGP Ingredients at 800-255-0302. Let me summarize our conversation. Wheat allergens are comprised of protein or wheat gluten. The starch component itself is safe and would only be a risk if contaminated by gluten. Dr. Bassi explained that current food regulations specify that gluten levels below 200 ppm can be labeled gluten free and are deemed safe for consumption by the general public. Wheat starch produced by MGP has a protein level of 5 to 30 ppm which is well below the required 200 ppm level. Our wheat starch containers are only about 50% wheat starch and they have a film or coating on the container that provides moisture resistance.
    It would also act as a barrier between the food product and the wheat starch. Thus, a food product would not come into direct contact with the wheat starch. As I mentioned earlier, the containers are currently being made of corn starch. However, the containers would be safe, even for those with wheat allergens, if the containers were made of wheat starch.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/10/2009 - A UK mother-turned-entrepreneur is about to notch the one-million loaf sales mark for the gluten-free bread she invented to help her sons’ food allergies.  Launched by Lucinda Bruce-Gardyne in April, Genius bread originally made its debut exclusively at British supermarket giant Tesco, which had just debuted its "Free From" line of products.
    Genius has expanded to other retailers, including Asda and Waitrose, and will make its way into Sainsbury’s in the new year.  Also available in Ireland, Genius is eyeing plans to launch in a number of overseas markets. The bread has "just taken off,” she said.
    Bruce-Gardyne, who previously worked at top London restaurant Bibendum and has written recipe books for food allergy sufferers, began developing her gluten-free bread three years ago, after finding existing products to be lacking in quality. “They were packed with stabilizers and preservatives,” she said.
    Working from her home kitchen in Edinburgh, Bruce-Gardyne spent several hours a day crafting her recipe for bread that looked and tasted like regular, commercial gluten-containing bread. Her effort was not without its challenges. She was "baking constantly," she says, and “I broke my oven twice because of overuse,” she said.
    She teamed up with United Central Bakeries, a specialty industrial baking company, at an early stage of development, and the company now bakes all the bread sold under the Genius brand. She also has the good fortune to have support from Sir Bill Gammell, the boss of Cairn Energy, who suffers from gluten intolerance. Their children attend the same school, and the two met after Sir Bill sampled the former chef’s bread. He has become keen to help commercialize it.
    To date, the business has attracted investment of between $1.6 million and $3.3m and sales are running at about $4 million.  Genius sells an average 45,000 loaves a week at about $4 each. Bruce-Gardyne is optimistic about the company's future. Genius is looking to diversify: “We have 18 new products coming out including pre-sliced bread, rolls and ciabatta” said Bruce-Gardyne. She is also working on a gluten-free croissant. “Nothing will be launched unless it tastes as good or better than the mainstream alternative."
    Will Genius bread make it to America? Stay tuned…
    More: Times Online


    Destiny Stone
    Celiac.com 04/29/2010 - May is designated as National Celiac Awareness Month. As such, I thought it would be a great opportunity to explore the history of celiac disease. Most people think of celiac disease as a modern day ailment, which predominantly affects  those of European descent and in Westernized societies. However in my research, I found that the best place to start when referencing the history of celiac disease, is actually the beginning of humans.
    In the beginning of humans, known as the Neolithic Period,  humans were hunters and gatherers and primarily survived on fruits, nuts, and meat when available. During the Neolithic Period,  humans evolved and began cultivating plants which quickly led to the agricultural revolution.
    With the agricultural revolution came a myriad of food antigens, such as dairy, eggs and processed grains. It was during this time that celiac disease was born. Some 8,000 years after making its debut, celiac was identified and named by a Greek physician known as Aretaeus of Cappadocia.
    In the first century A.D.,  Aretaeus documented information about, “The Coeliac Affection.” He named celiac disease, “koiliakos” derived from the Greek word for “abdomen”. In his descriptions of celiac Aretaeus stated, “If the stomach be  irretentive  of food and if it pass through undigested and crude, and nothing ascends into the body, we call such persons coeliacs”.  While a name had been given to the disease, people with celiac still had no idea how to heal from the condition, and were still vastly unaware of the cause for their ailments.
    It wasn't until the early 19th Century that Dr. Mathew Baillie published his observations on celiac disease which he sited as, 'chronic diarrheal disorder causing malnutrition and characterized by a gas-distended abdomen'. In his observations, Dr. Baillie documented that some of his patients appeared to benefit from eating only rice.
    However important Dr. Baillie's findings were, they still went largely unnoticed by the medical community until 75 years later when an English doctor known as Dr. Samuel Gee, came into the scene. In 1888  Dr. Gee was working for the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in the United Kingdom when he demonstrated a set of clinical trials performed on children and adults with celiac disease. Dr. Gee was quoted as saying, “To regulate the food is the main part of treatment. The allowance of farinaceous foods must be small, but if the patient can be cured at all, it must be by means of diet.” As an example he sited a very sick child that was fed the best Dutch mussels every day during mussel season. The child thrived during mussel season, but as soon as the season was over, the child regressed and died before the next mussel season.
    In the 1920's, Sidney Hass presented the “Banana diet”. Sydney successfully treated 8 out of 10 children suffering with celiac disease using the banana diet. He claimed to have cured the 8 children that were on the banana diet, but the other 2 children not on the banana diet, died. The banana diet included the elimination of all bread, crackers, potatoes and cereals and for several decades, the banana diet was the only cure for celiac disease.
    Another important marker in the history of celiac disease were the findings by Dutch pediatrician, Dr. Willem Karel Dicke. In 1953 Dr. Dicke wrote his doctoral thesis for the University of Utrecht based on  his observations that the ingestion of wheat proteins specifically, and not carbohydrates in general, were the cause of celiac disease. He was able to exemplify his findings based on bread shortages in the Netherlands during World War II. During the  bread shortages, he found that the health of children with celiac improved tremendously. However, when the allied planes began dropping bread to the Netherlands, the same children quickly deteriorated.
    In the 1960's, it became evident that the best method for testing for celiac disease was to perform a biopsy. However, doctors were urged not to diagnose people as having celiac disease until it was proven that gluten was the cause for the damage. To determine if a patient had celiac disease, a biopsy would be performed to evaluate the damage done to the intestines. The patient would then be put on a gluten-free diet. Another biopsy would then be preformed to determine improvement in the intestines. After improvement the patient would be put back on a gluten diet, and another (3rd) biopsy would be preformed to determine reoccurring damages to the intestine, and thus the presence of celiac disease. This method was used for over 20 years as the best method for testing for celiac disease.
    Then in the 1980's studies by Dr. Stefano Guandalini, showed that the presence of  celiac could be found in 95% of celiac cases by performing  a single biopsy.  In 1990 these findings helped create the new guidelines for celiac testing which  were  approved by ESPGHAN (European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology). Also during this time, professionals starting recognizing celiac as an autoimmune disease and also began recognizing  the correlation between gluten sensitivity and other autoimmune diseases.
    Here we are now in the year 2010;  thirty years after the medical profession has successfully established the causes, tests and treatments for celiac disease, and thousands of years since celiac first made it's debut. Yet, as far as early diagnosis is concerned, we are still living in the dark ages. In this day and age, knowing what we know about celiac disease, childhood screening for celiac should already be mandatory. It's almost as if, when doctors were told in the 1960's to hold off on celiac diagnosis until they knew undoubtably that  gluten was the cause for damage to intestines, they were never told, 'okay, now it's safe to diagnose for celiac'. Unfortunately, many (if not most) doctors still don't know how to appropriately diagnose patients for celiac disease, and therefor they continue to 'hold off' making celiac diagnoses, or misdiagnose regularly.  Enforcing  mandatory celiac screening in school age children has potential to eliminate the  unnecessary suffering of millions of children and adults worldwide. My dearest hope is that we all get to see mandatory celiac testing in this lifetime.
    If you would like more information on “Celiac Awareness Month,” please check out the links below. The following links are trusted sites that also provide suggestions on how you can get involved and contribute to celiac awareness in your community.

    Celiac Disease Foundation Celiac Sprue Association Celiac Disease Timeline:
    Agricultural Revolution - celiac disease is born 1st Century A.D.- Aretaeus named celiac, “ koiliakos” 1st Century A. D.- Aretaeus documented“The Coeliac Affection.” 19th Century- Dr. Mathew Baillie published his observations on celiac 1888- Dr. Gee established the correlation between celiac and diet 1920's - Sydney Hass successfully treated celiac patients with “the banana diet” 1953 -  Dr. Willem Karel Dicke confirmed wheat protein to be the cause for celiac disease 1960's - Biopsy established as the most accurate test for celiac 1980's - Dr. Stefano Guandalini established a single biopsy  test for celiac 1990 -  ESPGHAN established new guidelines for celiac biopsy testing
    Sources:
    Impact America's Silent Epidemic

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/24/2014 - Here are ten recipes for make-at-home Halloween treats that are guaranteed to put smiles on the faces of your young ones, and help you to breath a sigh of gluten-free relief.
    The recipes are gluten-free, or easily modified to be gluten-free. Remember to double-check ingredients, such as caramel (I use Kraft caramels without any issues).
    Also, many of these recipes list ingredients that acre fat-free, sugar-free, low-fat, and/or low sugar. I always ignore such instructions and include full-fat, full-sugar alternatives, but prepare according to your own tastes.
    Top Ten Gluten-free Halloween Treats:
    Caramel Apples - http://www.realsimple.com/food-recipes/browse-all-recipes/caramel-apples Caramel Corn - http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/paula-deen/grandma-pauls-caramel-corn-recipe.html Roasted Pumpkin Seeds - http://www.tasteofhome.com/recipes/roasted-pumpkin-seeds Garlic Pumpkin Seeds - http://www.tasteofhome.com/recipes/garlic-pumpkin-seeds Strawberry Chocolate Ghosts - http://www.tasteofhome.com/recipes/strawberry-ghosts Butterscotch Pumpkin Mousse - http://www.tasteofhome.com/recipes/butterscotch-pumpkin-mousse Scary Halloween Apple Teeth Treats - http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Halloween-Fruit-Apple-Teeth-Treats/Detail.aspx?evt19=1 Spooky Halloween Brain Dip - http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Halloween-Brain-Dip/Detail.aspx?evt19=1 Two-Layer Halloween Fudge - http://www.crazyforcrust.com/2013/10/halloween-fudge/ Ghoulish Deviled Eyeballs - http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Halloween-Eye-of-Newt/Detail.aspx?evt19=1  

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com