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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 03/31/2015 - Here is Celiac.com's list of Gluten-free and Gluten-safe Candy for Easter 2015.

    Ads by Google:

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    Below the list of SAFE candy, you will find a list of UNSAFE, NON–gluten–free candies, along with a partial list of major candy makers with links to their company websites.

    Please keep in mind that this list is not complete, or definitive, and should only be used as a guideline.

    Before eating any candy on the list, be sure to read labels, check manufacturer’s information, and gauge your purchases according to your own sensitivity levels, or those of your children.

    Check manufacturer websites for official information on any specific products.

    For a comprehensive list of gluten-free candy and manufacturers, see Celiac.com’s Gluten-free and Gluten-safe Halloween Candy.


    Photo: CC--Bisayan LadyA

    • Almond Joy Eggs
    • Andes Creme de Menthe Thins


    • Baby Ruth original and fun size
    • Bazooka Big Mix (contains bubble gum, bubble gum filled candy, candy chews, and bubble gum filled lollipops)
    • Bazooka Ring Pops
    • Bazooka Push Pops
    • Bazooka Baby Bottle Pops
    • Bit•O•Honey
    • Big Blow bubblegum
    • Bubbly lollipop and gum
    • Butterfinger bar, original and fun size


    • Cadbury Caramel Eggs
    • Cadbury Caramello Bunnies
    • Cadbury Creme Eggs
    • Cadbury Dairy Milk Chocolate Bunny
    • Cadbury Dairy Milk Buttons Chicks
    • Cadbury Easter Egg Trail Pack
    • Cadbury Egg Heads
    • Cadbury hollow milk chocolate egg filled with Cadbury mini-eggs
    • Cadbury Mini Caramel Eggs
    • Cadbury Mini Chocolate Eggs
    • Cadbury Mini Crème Eggs
    • Cadbury Mini Daim Eggs
    • Cadbury Mini Eggs
    • Cadbury Orange Creme Eggs
    • Carousel Bubble Gum Eggs
    • Carousel Easter Egg Surprise Lollipops
    • Charms Blow Pops and Blow Pop Minis
    • Cry Baby Eggs


    • Dairy Good Easter bunnies (chocolate flavored, foil-wrapped)
    • Dairy Good Easter eggs (chocolate eggs)
    • Dairy Good Chocolate and White Chocolate Crosses
    • Disney Princess plastic eggs with candy and stickers inside
    • Dove Chocolates
    • Dove Chocolate Eggs
    • Dove Fairy Bunny hollow milk chocolate
    • Dove Solid Chocolate Bunnies, milk chocolate Ingredients
    • Dove Solid Chocolate Bunnies, dark chocolate
    • Dove Truffle Eggs
    • Dubble Bubble Eggs (egg-shaped bubble gum) and Speckled Bubble Gum


    • Easter Bunny Egg-head family filled with Power Candy


    • Farley’s Kiddie Mix—contains Now & Laters, Jawbreakers, Super Bubble bubble gum, Tootsie Roll Midgees, Sassy Tarts and Smarties
    • Florida Natural Healthy Treats fruit snacks eggs
    • Frankford Marshmallow Chicks and Bunnies


    • Gimbal’s candies


    • Haribo Gold-Bears
    • Heath milk chocolate English toffee bar and snack size - contains almonds
    • Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bunnies, Springtime Flowers, and Crosses
    • Hershey’s milk chocolate hollow egg with candy-coated milk chocolate eggs inside
    • Hershey’s candy-coated milk chocolate eggs
    • Hershey’s Solid Milk Chocolate Speedy Bunny and Princess Bunny
    • Hershey’s milk chocolate hollow Bunny
    • Hershey’s milk chocolate eggs
    • Hershey’s Special Dark chocolate eggs
    • Hershey’s Marshmallow Eggs
    • Hershey’s Blisschocolate candy
    • Hershey’s Bliss milk chocolate eggs with a meltaway center
    • Hershey’s Bliss dark chocolate eggs
    • Hershey’s Bliss Hollow Milk Chocolate Bunny
    • Hershey’s Kisses
    • Hershey’s Kisses filled with Caramel
    • Hershey’s Kisses with Almond
    • Hershey's Nuggets (Milk Chocolate, Milk Chocolate with Almonds, Milk Chocolate with Toffee and Almonds, Special Dark, Special Dark with Almonds),
    • Hershey's Skor Toffee Bars
    • Hot Tamales


    • Jelly Beans—Top gluten-free brands include:
    • Jelly Belly Jelly Beans
    • Just Born Jelly Beans
    • Just Born Marshmallow Treats 


    • Kellogg’s Spongebob Squarepants fruit flavored snacks
    • Kinder Surprise Eggs


    • Lemon Delight; Lime Delight; Mystery Flavored Marshmallow Chicks; Orange Delight; Party Cake; Sour Watermelon; and Sweet Lemonade Flavored Marshmallow Chicks
      Lifesaver hard candies—Original and Pastels
    • Lifesaver Eggsortment (including jellybeans, gummies and pops)
    • Lifesaver Gummies—Original, and Bunnies and Eggs


    • Melster Chocolate Flavored Marshmallow Bunnies
    • M&M’s—Original, Peanut, Speck-tacular Eggs, and Bunny Mix
    • M&M’s Easter Pastel Colored Coconut M&M’s
    • Mike and Ike Berry Blast
    • Mike & Ike Jelly Beans
    • Mike and Ike Lemonade Blends
    • Mike and Ike Original
    • Mike and Ike Zours
    • Mounds Eggs


    • Nestle’s Nest Eggs (EXCEPT Crunch Nest Eggs)
    • Nestle’s milk chocolate Nest Eggs
    • Nestle’s creamy caramel Nest Eggs
    • Nestle’s Butterfinger chocolate Nest Eggs
    • Nestle’s Butterfinger Creme Eggs


    • Palmer Holiday Candy
    • Palmer’s Bunny Bites foil-wrapped eggs—all flavors
    • Palmer’s Baby Binks hollow milk chocolate bunny
    • Palmer’s Bunnyettes (milk chocolate)
    • Palmer’s Butter Cream Flavored eggs
    • Palmer’s Carrot Patch Pete
    • Palmer’s Fudge Filled Big Ears
    • Palmer’s Hollow Bunnies
    • Palmer’s Little Beauty milk chocolate bunny
    • Palmer’s Milk Chocolate Flavored and premium milk chocolate eggs
    • Palmer’s Peanut Butter Filled chocolate eggs
    • Palmer Poppin’ Rockin’ Egg (hollow egg filled with Pop Rocks)
    • Palmer’s Soft Caramel Cups
    • Palmer’s Super Sports Balls
    • Peeps Chocolate Dipped Marshmallow Chicks
    • Peeps Chocolate Mousse Flavored Marshmallow Chicks
    • Peeps Chocolate Covered Marshmallow Chicks
    • Peeps Chocolate Mousse Flavored Marshmallow Bunnies
    • Peeps Decorated Marshmallow Eggs
    • Peeps Large Marshmallow Bunny
    • Peeps Marshmallow Bunnies—Yellow, lavender, pink, orange, green, blue, and white
    • Peeps Mystery Flavored Marshmallow Bunnies
    • Peeps Original Marshmallow Chicks—Yellow, white, orange, green, pink, blue, and lavender
    • Peeps Flavored Chicks, including:Blue Raspberry; Bubble Gum;
    • Peeps milk chocolate covered marshmallow
    • PEZ candy
    • Pixy Stix Green Grass (Wonka)
    • Giant Pixy Stix (Wonka)
    • Pop Rocks in plastic egg


    • Bee Flowers and Fairies Egg Hunt (contains Smarties, Super Bubble bubble gum, Taffy Werks, Jelly Bean Werks, and Lemonheads)
    • Bee Sport Ball Eggs (contains Smarties, Super Bubble bubble gum, Taffy Werks, Jelly Bean Werks, and Lemonheads)
    • Bee Noah’s Ark Easter Egg Hunt (contains Smarties, Super Bubble bubble gum, Taffy Werks, Jelly Bean Werks, and Lemonheads)
    • Bug Collector Candy Filled Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Peace and Love Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Red Hots, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Dress Up Candy Filled Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Farm Friends Candy Filled Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Game Time Candy Filled Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Glow in the Dark Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Red Hots, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Mmmm…Cupcakes Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Red Hots, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Nighttime Candy Filled Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Outdoor Adventure Candy Filled Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Pet Shop Candy Filled Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Rainforest Candy Filled Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)
    • Speedster Cars Candy Filled Egg Hunt (contains Ferrara Pan jellybeans, Tropical Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Chewy Lemonhead and Friends, Jaw Busters)


    • Reese’s Peanut ButterChocolate candy
    • Reese’s Easter Assortment Eggs (including peanut butter eggs, white peanut butter eggs, and miniatures)—EXCEPT the foil-wrapped mini eggs, which contain gluten
    • Reese’s Peanut Butter Cup miniatures
    • Reese’s Pieces Pastel Eggs
    • Reese’s Peanut Butter Eggs—large and small size, EXCEPT the foil-wrapped mini eggs, which contain gluten
    • Reese’s Reester Bunny—large size only! Mini-sized unsafe
    • Ring pops
    • Russel Stover Pectin Jelly Beans 


    • See’s Candies—See’s candies do not contain gluten
    • Sixlets
    • Skittles eggs and fun-size
    • Smarties candy rolls
    • Snickers mini’s
    • Sour Patch Bunnies
    • Spree Jelly Beans—Cherry, Lemon and Green Apple
    • Surf Sweets Jelly Beans
    • Starburst fruit chews—All Original and Easter-themed Starburst candy, including jelly beans and special Easter candy packages
    • Starburst Jellybeans—original, tropical, and red fruits
    • Swedish Fish Eggs soft and chewy candy
    • Sunny Seed Drops chocolate covered sunflower seeds


    • Teenee Beanee Jelly Beans—including Americana Medley, Country Retreat, and Island Breeze flavored packages
    • Easter-themed Tootsie Roll candy, including Dubble Bubble Easter egg-shaped bubble gum, Tootsie Pops, Charms Blow Pops and Charms Candy Carnival products


    • Wonka Giant Chewy Nerds Jelly Beans
    • Wonka Everlasting Gobstopper Eggbreakers
    • Wonka Fun Dip
    • Wonka Giant Pixy Stix
    • Wonka Hoppin’ Nerds
    • Wonka Runts Freckled Eggs
    • Wonka Egg Hunt with a Golden Egg (contains Nerds, Laffy Taffy, and SweeTarts)
    • Wonka Egg Hunt Zero Gravity (contains Nerds, Laffy Taffy, and SweeTarts)
    • Wonka Egg Hunt Hard 2 Find (contains Nerds, Runts, and SweeTarts)


    • York Peppermint Patties


    • Zachary real chocolate Marshmallow Eggs
    • Zachary solid milk chocolate Bunnies
    • Zipperz Lollipops




    • Airheads Candies are “Manufactured in a facility that processes wheat flour.”
    • Airheads Xtremes Rolls contains wheat flour


    • Abba Zabba—Contains: peanuts, soybean oil and soy lecithin, wheat/gluten
    • Big Hunk—Made in a facility that uses peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • Look—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Rocky Road, Rocky Road Mint, Rocky Road Dark—Contain wheat/gluten
    • U-No—Contains wheat/gluten


    • Sour Punch Sticks, Twists, Bits, Bites, Straws—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Red Vines—all varieties contain wheat/gluten, including Black, Natural and Fruit Vines



    • All Brach's candy should be considered NOT gluten–free! Please be careful, as I have seen Brach's candies included on gluten-free safe lists!


    • Child’s Play Easter Mix—Made in a facility that uses peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • Chick Feed sunflower seeds “May contain wheat, peanuts, and tree nuts.”


    • Ferrero Rocher candy—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Frankford Cookies and Creme Eggs—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Frankford Crispy Eggs (milk chocolate flavored)—Contains wheat/gluten, and made in a facility that uses peanuts and wheat.
    • Frankford solid milk chocolate bunny—Made in a facility that uses peanuts and wheat



    • Black Licorice Wheels
    • Brixx
    • Fruity Pasta
    • Konfekt and Pontefract Cakes
    • Red Licorice Wheels
    • Sour S’ghetti


    • Hershey’s miniatures—Label states: “May contain wheat.”
    • Hershey’s Cookies ‘n’ Creme egg—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Hershey’s Bliss (Milk Chocolate, Milk Chocolate with Almonds, Milk Chocolate with Meltaway Center, White Chocolate with Meltaway Center, Milk Chocolate with Raspberry Meltaway Center, Dark Chocolate) – No gluten ingredients, but not on Hershey’s official gluten-free list
    • Hershey's Good & Plenty
    • Hershey’s Mr. Goodbar fun size


    • Kit Kat Bunny Ears and Kit Kat minis—Contains wheat/gluten


    • Lindt Chocolate — Lindt US website states that they “cannot guarantee that Lindt chocolate is gluten free.”


    • Mayfair Kid’s Play basket stuffers (including Fuit Chews, Teaberry Gumballs, Spout Bubble Log, Atomic Fireballs, Super Bubble bubble gum, Easter Pops, Jawbreakers, Airheads, Lemonhead, and Smarties—Made in a facility that uses peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • Mighty Malts Speckled Malted Milk Eggs —Contains wheat/gluten
    • Milky Way minis—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Milky Way Bunnies—Contains wheat/gluten



    • Butterfinger Crisp or Butterfinger Stixx—Contain wheat/gluten
    • Crunch—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Nestle Butterfinger Egg with pieces in chocolate—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Nestle Crunch Nest Eggs—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Hundred Grand Bar—Contains wheat/gluten


    • PAAS eggs—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Palmer’s Double Crisp chocolate candy (including Bunnies, Bunnyettes, Pops, Chick a Dees, Bunny Munny and Eggs)—Contain wheat/gluten
    • Palmer’s Lil’ Crispy chocolate bunny—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Palmer’s My Little Bunny—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Palmer’s Cookies ‘n Creme Eggs—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Palmer’s Crispy Peanut Butter flavored eggs—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Palmer’s Eggbert Double Crisp—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Palmer’s Quax hollow milk flavored candy duck (“The Yummy Ducky”)
    • Peter Rabbit real milk chocolate bunny—Made in a facility that uses peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • Peter Rabbit hollow milk chocolate bunny—Made in a facility that uses peanuts, tree nuts and wheat


    • Reese’s milk chocolate and peanut butter eggs (mini eggs foil-wrapped individually)—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Reese’s mini-Reester Bunnies—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Russell Stover chocolate candy—Made in a facility that uses peanuts, tree nuts and wheat


    • Snickers Eggs—Label states: May contain tree nuts, egg, and wheat.
    • Snickers Creme Sports Eggs—Label states: May contain tree nuts, egg, and wheat.
    • SpongeBob Squarepants Eggs plastic egg with sour candy and stickers—Made in a facility that uses peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • SpongeBob Squarepants gummy Krabby Patties—Made in a facility that processes peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • SweetTart Gummy Bunnies (Wonka)—Contains wheat/gluten


    • Trolli Gummi Bunnies—Made in a facility that processes peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • Twix—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Twizzlerscandy—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Twizzlers Tweeters—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Twizzlers Rainbow Twists—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Twizzlers Strawberry Mini Bars—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Twizted Strawberry Blast pull-n-peel candy—Contains wheat/gluten


    • Whitman’s Sampler—Made in a facility that processes peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • Whoppers Robin Eggs, including mini-Robbin Eggs—Contains wheat/gluten
    • Wonka’s Eggs—Made in a facility that processes peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • Wonka Easter Nerds Rope—Made in a facility that processes peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • Wonka Mix-Ups (including SweeTart chews, Laffy Taffy, SweeTarts, and Nerds)—Made in a facility that processes peanuts, tree nuts and wheat
    • Wonka Oompas and the Wonka Bar are NOT gluten–free.


    Here is a partial list of major candy manufacturers and how to contact them:

    • Adams & Brooks – 213-749-3226
    • American Licorice Co. – 866-442-2783
    • BEE International – 619-710-1800
    • Ferrara Candy Company – 888-247-9855
    • Ferrero Rocher – 732-764-9300
    • FLIX – 847-647-1370
    • Gimbal’s Fine Candies – 888-841-9373
    • Goetze’s Candy Company – 410-342-2010
    • Hershey's – 800–468–1714. Here's a link to Hershey's official gluten-free list.
    • Impact Confections – 303-626-2222
    • Jelly Belly – 800–522–3267
    • Just Born – 888–645–3453. Here's a link to Just Born Gluten-free FAQs
    • Kraft Foods – 877-535-5666
    • Mars Chocolate – 800–627–7852
    • Necco – 781–485–4800
    • Nestle USA – 800–225–2270
    • Palmer – 610 372-8971
    • Pearson's – 800–328–6507
    • PEZ – 203.795.0531
    • Pop Rocks – 770-399-1776
    • Tootsie Roll – 773–838–3400

    Additional information and lists of gluten-free safe and unsafe candies can be found at:

    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Bisayan Lady

    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    Guest Wendy


    I always have concerns about the candies I eat even if it says no wheat products. Am also allergic to all fruit and fruit juices. See's candies is a special treat that my father will buy for us very, very occasionally and am glad to see it is gluten-free. Going to keep this list in the car.

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    Most Lindt Chocolate states on the label that it contains malt or malt flavoring....made from Barley.....therefor not gluten free, Right?

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    Guest Christine Shanks


    Here is the response I got from Ferrara about Brach's Black Jelly Bird Eggs: Thank you for contacting Ferrara Candy Company regarding Brach's Black Jelly Bird Eggs. Hearing from our consumers better enables us to continue to provide quality products and services. Consumer feedback is very important to us, and we appreciate the opportunity to respond. Ferrara products contain only Corn Gluten. The following Ferrara products contain no wheat, rye, barley or oats. Here is a list of candies you can enjoy: Atomic Fireballs All Gummies (Black Forest, Ferrara, Sathers, Trolli) All Jellies (Gum Drops, Orange Slices, etc) Bob´s Sweet Stripes Boston Baked Beans (contains peanuts) Brach´s Wild ´N Fruity Gummi Worms Brach´s Candy Corn - All Varieties Brach's Chocolates - Peanut Caramel Clusters, Stars, Chocolate Covered Raisins, Double Dipped Peanuts, Peanut Clusters (they are processed in a facility that processes wheat) Brach's Cinnamon Disks Brach's Cinnamon Imperials (They are processed in a facility that processes wheat) Brach´s Conversation Hearts Brach´s Jelly Bean Nougats (they are processed in a facility that processes wheat) Brach's Lemon Drops (Kosher) Brach's Halloween Mellowcremes - All Varieties (They are processed in a facility that processes wheat) Candy Canes (Bob's, Brach´s, Lemonhead & Friends, Red Hots) Allergen Free Cherry Sours Fruit Snacks (Ferrara, Black Forest, Trolli) Gumballs Jawbreakers / Jawbusters Jelly Beans Juju´s Jujy´s Lemonheads Lemonheads & Friends Conversation HeartsTropical Chewy Lemonhead Chewy Lemonhead & Friends Berry Chewy Lemonhead Cherryhead Grapehead Now & Later Red Hot´s. Thank you for contacting Ferrara Candy Company with your request for information on our allergens.

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    Paul Smith
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    In other instances, the problems may be caused by too early an introduction of solid foods and food types and in some cases by simple over exposure to particular food categories. These issues require awareness and careful observation on the part of the mother to try and relate/identify the problem foods to the problems in the child. In some instances, these problems may also overlap with lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption and other fermentable sugar issues. There can also be cumulative issues with preservatives and the histamines in chocolate/cocoa and orange juice. Histamines and gluten, either singly or in combination, can both contribute to headache, migraine and behavioral problems.
    I recall one young mother, the wife of a colleague, who found that her normally happy and contented baby son reacted negatively to the coffee, cabbage, curry, chocolate, pasta and occasional alcohol in her diet – all foods his mother enjoyed, particularly the chocolate - by becoming red in the face, grizzly, plainly uncomfortable and often with diarrhea. Fortunately, she was perceptive enough to relate these incidents to her diet and chose to abstain from consuming the offending foods for the duration of the breast-feeding period.
    We had spent some time discussing and theorizing about the underlying reasons.With the coffee we suspected the caffeine. With the cabbage we suspected the nitrogenous (high protein) fertilizers used in growing the vegetable and the sugar content. With the pasta we suspected the gluten and possibly the fructose content of the garlic and perhaps the garlic as an irritant. The curry and chili plainly had an irritant effect and we suspected the histamines in the chocolate.
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    An intelligent, fun loving and well adjusted young man who towers over both his parents and enjoys robust good health, he has learned, with his mother’s support, to select and develop a diet which suits him and upon which he obviously thrives. He is living proof of the adage “that one man’s meat is another man’s poison”: that a single diet does not suit everyone. A lesson many people have yet to learn.
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    In some instances the child may outgrow the problem but in many others the problems or tendencies may be lifelong, for example, in the case of coeliac disease and many forms of gluten sensitivity and as in the case of Michael, recounted above, where many of the food sensitivities of early childhood remain into adulthood. In some other health problems, the degree of exposure to a particular food or food additive may be the issue. A small amount is OK but too much may lead to eczema, mucus, arthritis or headache problems etc. The consumption of such a food needs to be managed carefully. It is my belief that it is often better to eat a small amount of as many foods as possible – to build some tolerance to them - rather than to go down the road of the total exclusion of every offending food. Often, this approach is not only socially desirable but sometimes a necessity where there is limited opportunity to organize the food. In these circumstances, it is important for the dietary challenged individual to be selective and to know and understand their dietary limits and the consequences of exceeding those limits.
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    Jefferson Adams
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    Beers tested in a new study, including some brands labeled "low-gluten," contain hordein, the form of gluten found in barley, at levels that could trigger symptoms in patients with celiac disease, according to researchers.
    You can find the full study to address this controversy over the gluten content of beer in ACS' Journal of Proteome Research.
    In their article, Michelle Colgrave and colleagues explain that celiac disease affects over than 2 million people worldwide.
    They explain that their study faced an initial challenge because  detecting gluten in malted products using existing tests was difficult, as the tests were largely inaccurate. So the scientists developed a highly accurate new test for hordein, the gluten component in barley-based beers.
    As many expected, their analysis of 60 commercial beers found that eight labeled "gluten-free" did not contain gluten. All eight of the commercial beers labeled 'gluten-free' were, in fact, gluten-free.
    But most regular, commercial beers had significant levels of gluten. Most alarming was that discovery that the two beers labeled as "low-gluten" each contained about as much gluten as a regular beer.
    With the market for gluten-free products continuing to expand rapidly, it is no surprise that products may slip onto the market which are targeted at people with celiac disease or gluten-intolerance, but which actually contain levels of gluten that are unacceptable and potentially harmful to people who are sensitive to the proteins.
    The problem is partly compounded by a lack of consistent standards for what constitutes "gluten-free," or what levels best address the needs of people with celiac disease and gluten-intolerance.
    That leaves the burden for making decisions about what products are safe or not safe largely up to consumers, who must rely on a loose patchwork of manufacturers and product certification organizations that are, hopefully, knowledgeable, scientific and reliable. When science is hazy, room exists for spurious.
    The lesson here is that commercial gluten-free beers seem to be genuinely gluten-free, and safe for people with celiac disease and gluten-intolerance, while anything labeled 'low gluten' is potentially bad news.
    ACS' Journal of Proteome Research

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/01/2013 - Dairy and gluten contain "opioid peptides," that belong to the same family as opium. Dairy products contain small amounts of casomorphin, while gluten contains small amounts of gluten exorphin, and gliadorphin/gluteomorphin.
    When peptides from either gluten or casein react with opiate receptors in the brain, they produce effects similar to opiate drugs, such as heroin and morphine, albeit on a much more subtle level.
    These receptors influence the part of the brain involved with speech and auditory integration, which means this part of the brain can cause addiction to foods, spacing out or having foggy brain, migraines/headaches, sleepiness, chronic fatigue, aggressive behavior, moodiness, anxiety, depression, and high tolerance to pain.
    Little research exists on the potentially addictive qualities of gluten and dairy. However, there is plenty of research to back up how a gluten-free and casein-free diet can help improve those who suffer from ADHD, depression, anxiety, OCD, schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Many people first beginning a gluten-free and casein-free diet experience withdrawal symptoms, many experience powerful cravings. People can get cranky and irritable, and even pick fights and throw tantrums.
    How do you know if you might be sensitive to gluten or casein?
    Signs that you might be having a reaction to gluten or casein include abnormal bowel movements, either constipated or poorly formed; headaches; aggressive behavior, such as biting, hitting, pushing; inability to focus at school; erratic sleep or rising early -- before 6 a.m.
    Also, if your diet is heavily wheat and dairy based, as many are, it can take up to three weeks to fully be rid of gluten and casein with no reactions.
    If you think you or your child might have an allergy to gluten or casein, you should consider visiting a doctor for an IgG food allergy blood panel to see if that really is the problem. Blood tests are not 100 percent conclusive, but still a good measure.
    If you're still not sure, then ditch all the gluten and dairy in the house, and try a 30-day elimination diet should help return to normal.

    Frank Jackson
    Celiac.com 12/17/2013 - One of the biggest hurdles for those who have celiac disease is finding a way to get enough fiber in their diets. Removing wheat from the equation also eliminates a huge amount of roughage. Wheat provides the fiber in many breads, pastas, crackers and other staples of the American diet. Replacing that fiber is crucial, since the added bulk moves the food through your digestive system and keeps you regular.
    You should be aiming to consume between 25 and 35 grams of fiber per day. Here are a few ways to ensure you’re getting enough fiber in your diet, whether you’ve been living with celiac disease your entire life or just for a few weeks.
    Bulk Up Your Food
    There are plenty of fiber-rich foods that do not contain gluten. For example, fruits and vegetables are a great, all-natural source of fiber. You can add them to soups and sauces for a flavorful kick that will also provide a few extra grams of fiber. Skip the croutons on your salad — most contain gluten anyway — and sub in raisins for a sweet, filling treat.
    Flaxseed and chia seeds are two superfoods that are naturally gluten free and contain a hefty dose of fiber. Stir them into smoothies, sprinkle on your breakfast cereal, or shake them over yogurt to give it a bit of a crunch. With several grams of fiber per serving, nuts are also a great addition to just about any main or side dish. Kidney beans or chickpeas can be stirred into soups to increase the fiber count.
    Use Supplements
    Adding a supplement to your diet can be an excellent way to make up for the fiber you’re losing by not eating wheat. You’ll want to find natural supplements that mimic the way fiber found in food breaks down in your gut. One smart option is a prebiotic, such as Prebiotin — a plant fiber that also provides good bacteria to the colon, further aiding in digestion.
    Make Adjustments
    It’s possible to increase the fiber content in your diet by making simple substitutions. Perhaps you have always eaten white rice, which is easier on your sensitive stomach than brown. Well, now’s the time to give fiber-rich brown rice another try. Since your celiac diagnosis has probably cleared up most of your GI issues, you should be able to eat brown rice now without issue. Or try fiber-laden quinoa, a rice substitute that’s rich in both fiber and protein, as well as millet or amaranth as a white rice fill-in.
    Keep a Tally
    Before your celiac diagnosis, you may not have paid any attention to your daily fiber intake. But now it’s essential to track it for at least a few weeks to make sure you’re getting enough fiber. Aim for 20 grams at first, until you get the hang of searching out non-wheat fiber sources. Eventually, you’ll want to get to 25 or more grams per day, and you may find it’s not as hard as you expected.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6