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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
  • 1 1

    IS SOY SAUCE GLUTEN-FREE?


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 10/11/2012 - Would you be surprised to learn that a number of naturally brewed soy sauces are technically gluten-free? I was.


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    I was recently doing some research for a catered even and needed to make a decision about what kind of soy sauce to use in the food preparation. Since the Korean food being served required a great deal of soy sauce for marinating purposes, the hosts were concerned that gluten-free tamari might end up costing too much. However, the event included a number of folks who eat gluten-free, and the hosts did want to provide food that everyone could eat. So, what to do? The restaurant making the food uses Kikkoman. Is Kikkoman safe to serve to people with celiac disease and gluten-intolerance?

    Photo: CC--SmitemeIn an effort to answer that question, I did a bit of research. I was a bit surprised when my research led me to an interesting article on the naturally fermented soy sauce made by Kikkoman and Lima Foods, which are two major manufacturers of soy sauce.

    There are two ways to manufacture soy sauce. The first uses natural fermentation. The second uses chemical hydrolysis. Both methods will break down the complex proteins including gluten into smaller components such as amino acids and polypeptides.

    However, the soy sauces tested for the article were produced using natural fermentation. That's because chemically produced (or artificial) soy sauce is may contain toxic and carcinogenic components produced by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    The article said that the soy sauces made by these companies actually met Codex Alimentarius standards for gluten-free foods, and that tests show their gluten content to be well under the 20ppm required for gluten-free products.

    The people who produced the article sent samples out to a major laboratory in the Netherlands for gluten analysis, and the results were surprising.

    Gluten content in both samples was well under the acceptable detection limit of 5ppm (see report).

    According to a new European laws, any product labeled gluten-free must contain less than 20 ppm gluten. The FDA has proposed the same 20 ppm level for their rule, which they look set to implement very soon.

    That means that the naturally fermented soy sauces that were tested meet gluten-free standards, and will likely not trigger adverse reaction in gluten sensitive individuals, especially considering the small daily quantities of soy sauce consumed.

    Anyone who does not trust this can, of course, choose soy sauces that do not contain any wheat to start with. Tamari soy sauces are typically produced without wheat, but some brands do not follow this tradition and are not wheat-free, so: Buyer beware.

    As for the catered event, after talking with the gluten-free guests, the hosts decided to go with traditional Kikkoman. They have not received any reports of illness or adverse reactions, even in the several people with high gluten-sensitivity.

    I'm sure there are plenty of gluten-free eaters who have plenty to say about soy sauce. What's your take on the test results?

    Source:



    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Smiteme
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    Guest Roberta

    Posted

    Kikkoman has come out with a gluten-free version -- why would they feel it's necessary to do that if the regular version is virtually gluten-free?

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    Wow! I'm so surprised to hear this! I have always (since being diagnosed with celiac disease) heard that Kikkoman has gluten. Kikkoman has come out with a gluten-free version too. Thanks for the research!

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    Guest cristina

    Posted

    I am swedish and a few months back, I got the monthly celiac magazine, were it was stated that soy sauce is gluten-free.

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    When I was diagnosed with celiac disease, my doctor recommended that I also go to a nutritionist. When she was going over the gluten-free diet and what was on it and what wasn't, she also stated that soy sauce (she did mention Kikkomans) was ok to use. This was right after I was diagnosed, which was over 5 years ago.

     

    As to why Kikkomans is now getting around to labeling their product as gluten-free...I think it's the same as Chex cereals: they always WERE gluten-free, but marketing shows that they want everyone to know it now.

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    Guest Annette

    Posted

    I am leary of this finding for many reasons. We must remember what is an average serving? Is it a teaspoon? A tablespoon? Many items are soaked in soy sauce and are likely to have more than a single serving. So let's say the PPM are 19 (just below the level considered gluten-free. And you have two or three servings in a single day..you would already have consumed 57 PPM just with the soy sauce labeled gluten free. I think it is easy for us to fall into that trap and believe that portions don't matter because it is "gluten-free". We need to be cautious of this.

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    Kikkoman has come out with a gluten-free version -- why would they feel it's necessary to do that if the regular version is virtually gluten-free?

    Probably pretty simple -- put "gluten-free" label on bottle and able to charge double...

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    I gave up my much loved Kikkoman when I was diagnosed. I went to La Choy, which is ok, but I prefer Kikkoman. I would still be very wary of the Kikkoman since I was warned off by a dietician early on...what does Kikkoman have to say??

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    Guest Mary Louise

    Posted

    There is a brand by the name of SanJ that has gluten-free soy sauce and various other sauces. They are labeled gluten free.

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    We prefer to start with no-wheat at all in ptoducts we consume due to high sensitivity in 3/4 of our household members (no grain vinegars or alcohol). I was looking forward to seeing a comparison of many soy sauces..not just one. Although we pay extra for gluten-free tamari sauces, I've always noticed LaChoy does not list wheat in the ingredients. Very affordable option, I was hoping to see lab data on LaChoy.

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    I am thrilled!! No soy sauce compares to Kikkoman! Their gluten-free is good but not the same. I choose to "believe" the research because I WANT to be able to eat it!

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    Guest Jared M.

    Posted

    Kikkoman has come out with a gluten-free version -- why would they feel it's necessary to do that if the regular version is virtually gluten-free?

    Roberta,

     

    That's probably because they are not able to market the regular one as gluten free in the U.S. The FDA currently does not recognize <20ppm as gluten free. You cannot slap a gluten free icon on the label if you used wheat in the manufacturing process.

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    Guest GlutenFreePDX

    Posted

    Thank you for this article, it certainly flew in the face of what I thought I knew! Following your sources and hearing that samples of the soy sauce have been tested in a lab, this news may make people with gluten-intolerance very happy indeed.

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    I am leary of this finding for many reasons. We must remember what is an average serving? Is it a teaspoon? A tablespoon? Many items are soaked in soy sauce and are likely to have more than a single serving. So let's say the PPM are 19 (just below the level considered gluten-free. And you have two or three servings in a single day..you would already have consumed 57 PPM just with the soy sauce labeled gluten free. I think it is easy for us to fall into that trap and believe that portions don't matter because it is "gluten-free". We need to be cautious of this.

    Annette, this soy sauce tested below 5 ppm.

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    When I was diagnosed with celiac disease, my doctor recommended that I also go to a nutritionist. When she was going over the gluten-free diet and what was on it and what wasn't, she also stated that soy sauce (she did mention Kikkomans) was ok to use. This was right after I was diagnosed, which was over 5 years ago.

     

    As to why Kikkomans is now getting around to labeling their product as gluten-free...I think it's the same as Chex cereals: they always WERE gluten-free, but marketing shows that they want everyone to know it now.

    FYI: They are not currently labeling their sauce as gluten-free.

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    I am leary of this finding for many reasons. We must remember what is an average serving? Is it a teaspoon? A tablespoon? Many items are soaked in soy sauce and are likely to have more than a single serving. So let's say the PPM are 19 (just below the level considered gluten-free. And you have two or three servings in a single day..you would already have consumed 57 PPM just with the soy sauce labeled gluten free. I think it is easy for us to fall into that trap and believe that portions don't matter because it is "gluten-free". We need to be cautious of this.

    Correct me if I am wrong, but I believe that the findings show 1ppm is 1mg(gluten) per Liter (soy sauce), so one Liter of soy sauce contains <5 mg of gluten.

    you should be OK with even a bottle of soy sauce a day.

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    I am leary of this finding for many reasons. We must remember what is an average serving? Is it a teaspoon? A tablespoon? Many items are soaked in soy sauce and are likely to have more than a single serving. So let's say the PPM are 19 (just below the level considered gluten-free. And you have two or three servings in a single day..you would already have consumed 57 PPM just with the soy sauce labeled gluten free. I think it is easy for us to fall into that trap and believe that portions don't matter because it is "gluten-free". We need to be cautious of this.

    I also am leary. While the ppm may be low, I'm going to lean toward cautious. It's a matter of how far you go to avoid gluten. I avoid anything that may not have wheat but is processed in a facility with wheat. While there may not be much gluten in the soy sauce, the fact that it is still derived from wheat and is therefore created in a facility WITH wheat, then in my mind there is the possibility of cross contamination, which I choose to avoid. For me, just a grain is enough to cause neurological problems. How likely is the soy sauce to be cross contaminated in the processing and bottling, since there IS wheat being used in the first place?

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    I thought the only soy sauce that could be used was La Choy. I am surprised to hear this about Kikkoman. If true it would solve a lot of problems at Chinese restaurants

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    Guest Robert Geddes

    Posted

    I am leary of this finding for many reasons. We must remember what is an average serving? Is it a teaspoon? A tablespoon? Many items are soaked in soy sauce and are likely to have more than a single serving. So let's say the PPM are 19 (just below the level considered gluten-free. And you have two or three servings in a single day..you would already have consumed 57 PPM just with the soy sauce labeled gluten free. I think it is easy for us to fall into that trap and believe that portions don't matter because it is "gluten-free". We need to be cautious of this.

    Not picking on you Annette - but you are assuming that the soy sauce was 19ppm (it was much less). In fact the 19ppm measure would be the same amount regardless of whether you drank a cup full or a teaspoon full. It's parts per million - that's a fractional figure. Of course continuing with that logic is that as you have it with food its even more dilute (even lower ppm) - so maybe it's very safe...

     

    This argument is the same one offered for beer. The brewing process breaks down the gluten proteins (apparently). I have seen quite reasoned arguments either way that therefore beer is/is not safe. A lot of the 'is not safe' arguments say that the remaining proteins will still cause coeliacs damage even though they pass the classic gluten tests.

     

    I would have thought by now some poor uni looking to make some funding money would have roped in some coeliac beer devotees and used their guts for the only reliable testing - but I have never seen that published - sadly.

     

    Use wheat containing soy sauce (and other products) at your peril....

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    When I was diagnosed with celiac disease, my doctor recommended that I also go to a nutritionist. When she was going over the gluten-free diet and what was on it and what wasn't, she also stated that soy sauce (she did mention Kikkomans) was ok to use. This was right after I was diagnosed, which was over 5 years ago.

     

    As to why Kikkomans is now getting around to labeling their product as gluten-free...I think it's the same as Chex cereals: they always WERE gluten-free, but marketing shows that they want everyone to know it now.

    Chex cereals where NOT always gluten-free. They contained barley malt in them. Barley contains gluten, therefore off limits for us who must follow a gluten-free diet. That ingredient was removed and replaced with another one that is gluten-free.

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    I have tried Kikkoman and suffered the same symptoms as I do if I eat wheat filled bread. This information may mean some can consume it, but not all. We'll hear from a lot of consumers who buy it and suffer a reaction then claim in fact it is not gluten-free or cross contaminated. Also this was one batch. Will they test every batch made to make sure it falls below the maximum amount allowed? I doubt it, but you never know. This one we need to keep an eye on.

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    Once again surprising information. Thank you again, Jefferson! Have you looked into the GMO corn controversy? That would be right up your alley, thanks again for all your info for us.

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    Guest LeeAnne

    Posted

    Annette, this soy sauce tested below 5 ppm.

    I understand what Annette is saying. Having too much in one day can make the most sensitive person sick. Kikkoman is probably for people who are less sensitive to it and will not consume too much of it in any given day, taking into consideration other forms of gluten a gluten sensitive person may unknowingly or inadvertently consume in one day. It all adds up.

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    Guest An Onimous

    Posted

    "Tamari soy sauces are typically produced without wheat..."

     

    All the tamari I could find in the stores contain wheat. I couldn't find any that were made without it. Some tamari even has 'alcohol' as an ingredient, but the type is unclear.

     

    La Choy is naturally gluten-free, but it's the worst tasting I've tried, just taste test it against your favorite brand and you'll see... it's like sweetened salty brown water. Yuck. If you don't yet know the difference, you're in for the treat of your life - go taste some Kikkoman right now!

     

    How convenient that the natural brewing process allegedly breaks down both the gluten AND soy proteins; soy is something I've tried to cut out of my diet too (I am male), so if the findings are legit, it's some of the best news I've read in a long time!

     

    The findings need to be replicated a few more times by other labs before any of you can switch back to the brand you love most. Never trust only a single source.

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    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6