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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    KELLOGG'S EGGO WAFFLES NOW GLUTEN-FREE!


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 03/06/2015 - The Kellogg Co. has announced the launch of Eggo Gluten Free Waffles in both original and cinnamon flavors.


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    Image: Kellogg's Corporation.Coming on the heels of General Mill’s move to take Cheerios gluten-free, the announcement marks the latest move by major cereal manufacturers into the realm of gluten-free products.

    Eggo Gluten Free Waffles are available nationwide in the frozen food aisle of grocery stores.

    The gluten-free waffles contain eight vitamins and minerals and are considered an excellent source of calcium and iron, with 25% daily value of each. They also contain 15 grams of whole grains per 70-gram serving.

    Kellogg's is taking special care to make their new gluten-free waffles "delicious and wholesome," and to avoid the pitfall of gluten-free products which "…sometimes sacrifice taste and texture compared with their original versions," said AnneMarie Suarez-Davis, vice-president of marketing and innovation for Kellogg’s Frozen Foods.

    For more information, check out Kelloggs.com.

     


    Image Caption: Image: Kellogg's Corporation.
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    Guest Claire

    Posted

    I went to the Kellogg website and found that the Eggo gluten-free waffles contain oat flour, which I don't consider to be gluten free (even the ones that are listed as gluten-free). I'm disappointed.

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    Guest John Peters

    Posted

    Again, I will say if you care about "gluten" you should care about a product full of harmful preservatives and GMO ingredients. Your promoting a product that still harmful to your health.

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    Guest Olinda

    Posted

    So the Oats and the "Artificial flavorings" are gluten-free also??? There wasn't a place to comment at the site...just the buy me area.

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    Guest admin

    Posted

    So the Oats and the "Artificial flavorings" are gluten-free also??? There wasn't a place to comment at the site...just the buy me area.

    If you buy the gluten-free labeled version, yes.

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    Guest Julie

    Posted

    Happy to hear that there will be a gluten-free product that is also fortified, as are most wheat products. The one thing that I would have liked to read is whether this product is certified gluten-free (which I interpret to mean that they use dedicated equipment, etc., to avoid all cross contamination for celiac patients). Can that assumption be made when a large national brand introduces a gluten-free product, or am I just making an @$$ out of myself?

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    Guest R. Borg

    Posted

    I don't trust major brands that get on the gluten-free band wagon to be truly gluten-free. They certainly aren't manufactured in a dedicated facility, so what steps are taken to ensure gluten-free without cross contamination.

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    Guest Gluten-Buster!

    Posted

    They are not gluten free, the oats are the problem. Oats have too much cross contamination! One brand of oats that claim to be gluten free because they are always walking though the field to make sure there is no wheat growing in the field. HA, what a joke, we called the company and the reason why they always walk through the fields to make sure there is no wheat growing is because they grow wheat in those very fields in the off-season! Which means there are traces of wheat in the very soil those oats are growing in. My Mother is a sensitive celiac and she tried those oats and got so sick afterwards.

     

    BOTTOM LINE: OATS ARE NOT GLUTEN FREE EVEN IF THEY ARE LABELED SUCH.

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    If a product is labeled gluten-free and contains oats, do labeling laws specify that they must use certified gluten-free oats?

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    Guest karen b

    Posted

    If xanthan gum and or guar gum + preservatives are in them I can't eat them.

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    Guest John Taylor

    Posted

    Pure oat grain is gluten free. However oats can be contaminated with wheat due to crop rotation. This doesn't happen very often but it does happen. The came is true for corn. Bob's Red Mill Oat Flour is gluten free always as they buy from farmers who do not rotate with Wheat, Barley, or Rye...and it costs more. The gluten free Eggo's cost only 10 cents more than the regular, so they must be using "normal oat flour." I suspect 1 in 10 boxes will have a trace of gluten. That is what I find with Kellogg's corn chex.

     

    Unfortunately, the Eggo's contain soybean oil. I am intolerant to that also. Many people who are gluten intolerant are also soy intolerant...so sooner or later Kellogg's will take out the soy also.

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    Guest Lee-Anne

    Posted

    I went to the Kellogg website and found that the Eggo gluten-free waffles contain oat flour, which I don't consider to be gluten free (even the ones that are listed as gluten-free). I'm disappointed.

    I agree with Claire. I am not able to have oats either. Artificial flavors are also out. By the way, the Cheerios coming out are not using gluten-free oats. Contamination issues??

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    Guest admin

    Posted

    I agree with Claire. I am not able to have oats either. Artificial flavors are also out. By the way, the Cheerios coming out are not using gluten-free oats. Contamination issues??

    Highly doubtful as the liability is just too great.

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    Guest admin

    Posted

    Pure oat grain is gluten free. However oats can be contaminated with wheat due to crop rotation. This doesn't happen very often but it does happen. The came is true for corn. Bob's Red Mill Oat Flour is gluten free always as they buy from farmers who do not rotate with Wheat, Barley, or Rye...and it costs more. The gluten free Eggo's cost only 10 cents more than the regular, so they must be using "normal oat flour." I suspect 1 in 10 boxes will have a trace of gluten. That is what I find with Kellogg's corn chex.

     

    Unfortunately, the Eggo's contain soybean oil. I am intolerant to that also. Many people who are gluten intolerant are also soy intolerant...so sooner or later Kellogg's will take out the soy also.

    So you are saying that you scientifically test each box of Chex you eat, and 1 in 10 are not gluten-free?? I doubt this, as the liability for these companies is way too high.

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    Guest admin

    Posted

    If a product is labeled gluten-free and contains oats, do labeling laws specify that they must use certified gluten-free oats?

    No.

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    Guest admin

    Posted

    They are not gluten free, the oats are the problem. Oats have too much cross contamination! One brand of oats that claim to be gluten free because they are always walking though the field to make sure there is no wheat growing in the field. HA, what a joke, we called the company and the reason why they always walk through the fields to make sure there is no wheat growing is because they grow wheat in those very fields in the off-season! Which means there are traces of wheat in the very soil those oats are growing in. My Mother is a sensitive celiac and she tried those oats and got so sick afterwards.

     

    BOTTOM LINE: OATS ARE NOT GLUTEN FREE EVEN IF THEY ARE LABELED SUCH.

    This is not true--oats are gluten-free unless they are cross-contaminated. These companies have a way to remove all non-oat grains from their oats, thus remove cross-contamination. Do you really believe that they are not carefully testing each batch?

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    Guest admin

    Posted

    Again, I will say if you care about "gluten" you should care about a product full of harmful preservatives and GMO ingredients. Your promoting a product that still harmful to your health.

    You don't need to eat them John...but many others prefer to have such a choice.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    They are not gluten free, the oats are the problem. Oats have too much cross contamination! One brand of oats that claim to be gluten free because they are always walking though the field to make sure there is no wheat growing in the field. HA, what a joke, we called the company and the reason why they always walk through the fields to make sure there is no wheat growing is because they grow wheat in those very fields in the off-season! Which means there are traces of wheat in the very soil those oats are growing in. My Mother is a sensitive celiac and she tried those oats and got so sick afterwards.

     

    BOTTOM LINE: OATS ARE NOT GLUTEN FREE EVEN IF THEY ARE LABELED SUCH.

    If the product is labeled "gluten-free," it must contain less than 20ppm gluten, and meet the FDA standard for gluten-free. That would apply to any added oats.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    Again, I will say if you care about "gluten" you should care about a product full of harmful preservatives and GMO ingredients. Your promoting a product that still harmful to your health.

    We are promoting nothing. We are simply reporting the news.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    Pure oat grain is gluten free. However oats can be contaminated with wheat due to crop rotation. This doesn't happen very often but it does happen. The came is true for corn. Bob's Red Mill Oat Flour is gluten free always as they buy from farmers who do not rotate with Wheat, Barley, or Rye...and it costs more. The gluten free Eggo's cost only 10 cents more than the regular, so they must be using "normal oat flour." I suspect 1 in 10 boxes will have a trace of gluten. That is what I find with Kellogg's corn chex.

     

    Unfortunately, the Eggo's contain soybean oil. I am intolerant to that also. Many people who are gluten intolerant are also soy intolerant...so sooner or later Kellogg's will take out the soy also.

    You "suspect 1 in 10 boxes will have a trace of gluten?" Based on what? Do you send samples to a reputable lab?

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    They are not gluten free, the oats are the problem. Oats have too much cross contamination! One brand of oats that claim to be gluten free because they are always walking though the field to make sure there is no wheat growing in the field. HA, what a joke, we called the company and the reason why they always walk through the fields to make sure there is no wheat growing is because they grow wheat in those very fields in the off-season! Which means there are traces of wheat in the very soil those oats are growing in. My Mother is a sensitive celiac and she tried those oats and got so sick afterwards.

     

    BOTTOM LINE: OATS ARE NOT GLUTEN FREE EVEN IF THEY ARE LABELED SUCH.

    You are simply wrong. Oats are gluten-free unless contaminated. It is true that about 8% of people with celiac disease have an adverse reaction to oats, but this is a separate intolerance. Given that major manufacturers must meet FDA labeling standards, and could be sued for contaminating people, I'm going to imagine that they will make sure they will provide a product that is gluten-free. If you have actual scientific evidence to the contrary, please present it.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    Again, I will say if you care about "gluten" you should care about a product full of harmful preservatives and GMO ingredients. Your promoting a product that still harmful to your health.

    Your comment has nothing to do with gluten. Plenty of products contain preservatives and GMO ingredients. Plenty don't. You are free to choose to avoid anything you don't wish to consume. That doesn't change the fact that Kellogg's Eggo Waffles are now gluten-free.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    I went to the Kellogg website and found that the Eggo gluten-free waffles contain oat flour, which I don't consider to be gluten free (even the ones that are listed as gluten-free). I'm disappointed.

    Oats are gluten-free unless cross-contaminated. Some celiacs (about 8%) have adverse reactions to oats. That has nothing to do with gluten. Most celiacs can safely tolerate oats. That's why Kellogg's can label them gluten-free, in accordance with FDA standards.

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    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
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    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
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    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6