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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    MOST GLUTEN-FREE PRODUCTS FALL SHORT ON NUTRITION


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 08/28/2015 - Perhaps unsurprisingly, a study of over 3,200 supermarket products finds gluten-free foods aren't a healthier choice than their non gluten-free counterparts.


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    Photo: CC--Whatsername?If you have celiac disease, or gluten sensitivity, gluten-free foods are necessary and beneficial, but the new study suggests that, nutritionally speaking, there's no evidence that they're any healthier than their gluten-containing counterparts.

    The research looked at 3,200 food products on Australian grocery shelves, and found little or no nutritional difference between regular foods and comparable gluten-free items. Now, that doesn't make gluten-free products unhealthy, just no better than their gluten-containing equivalents.

    But if you are not celiac or gluten-sensitive, then you're probably spending more money to get the same nutrition, and not getting any health benefits. Strangely, plenty of people seem to believe that sugary treats such as cakes are 'healthier' if they are gluten-free.

    The study compared supermarket products in 10 categories: bread, breakfast cereal, dry pasta, cereal bars, cakes, sweet biscuits, ice cream, potato chips, processed meats, and candies.

    The study team assessed foods using the Australian Government's Health Star Rating, which rates food by nutritional value. The rating system awards one star to the foods with the least nutritional value, and five stars to those with the most.

    Basically, when they crunched the numbers using the Health Star Rating, the team found no significant difference between the ratings of gluten-free foods and their regular alternatives.

    For me, though, the real takeaway is that there's a good amount of processed food out their, gluten-free or not, and you're likely healthier eating fresh, whole foods than anything processed.

    Or, alternatively, it takes a bit of effort to maintain a healthy diet, whether you are gluten-free or not. Share your thoughts below.

    Source:


    Image Caption: The gluten-free aisle beckons. Photo: CC--Whatsername?
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    I don't see the relevance of comparing nutritional value between gluten-free and regular food. To focus on health, you avoid junk foods like potato chips, whether or not they are gluten-free. To avoid the side effects of gluten, including bloating, even for those who do not have celiac, you eat gluten-free. The two have nothing to do with each other.

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    "Most gluten free food" includes all fruits and veggies, meats and fish, all, dairy products, beans, potatoes nuts and seeds. Anything processed is going to be somewhat short on the nutrition we need to be our healthiest, whether gluten-free or not, but the most nutritious foods are still gluten free and they are still the vast majority of the foods out there.

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    Guest Ed Epifani

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    Thank you., thank you! gluten-free food made from finely ground grains, especially baked goods ,are not nutritionally dense. They have a very low ANDI score, meaning few nutrients for the amount of calories. I love them, but they are my special occasion "junk food". Weddings, birthdays, funerals. It would be my own if I ate them all the time.

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    I never buy what I consider junk food, anyway. The idea of stuffing my face with overly sweet empty calories never did appeal - even before celiac. Potato chips are an occasional treat, and processed boxes of food can never give me the flavor and texture that I get from freshly made food. BUT I am grateful that if I do need a substitute I know I have some choices. Perhaps the greatest strength of this article is that all packaged food needs to be more nutritionally acceptable.

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    Sayer Ji
    Approximately 70% of all American calories come from a combination of the following four foods: wheat, dairy, soy and corn - assuming, that is, we exclude calories from sugar.
    Were it true that these four foods were health promoting, whole-wheat-bread-munching, soy-milk-guzzling, cheese-nibbling, corn-chip having Americans would probably be experiencing exemplary health among the world's nations. To the contrary, despite the massive amount of calories ingested from these purported "health foods," we are perhaps the most malnourished and sickest people on the planet today. The average American adult is on 12 prescribed medications, demonstrating just how diseased, or for that matter, brainwashed and manipulated, we are.
    How could this be? After all, doesn't the USDA Food Pyramid emphasize whole grains like wheat above all other food categories, and isn’t dairy so indispensible to our health that it is afforded a category all of its own? 
    Unfortunately these “authoritative” recommendations go  much further in serving the special interests of the industries that produce these commodities than in serving the biological needs of those who are told it would be beneficial to consume them.  After all, grains themselves have only been consumed for 500 generations – that is, only since the transition out of the Paleolithic into the Neolithic era approximately 10,000 years ago.  Since the advent of homo sapiens 2.5 million years ago our bodies have survived on a hunter and gatherer diet, where foods were consumed in whole form, and raw!  Corn, Soy and Cow's Milk have only just been introduced into our diet, and therefore are “experimental” food sources which given the presence of toxic lectins, endocrine disruptors, anti-nutrients, enzyme inhibitors, indigestible gluey proteins, etc, don’t appear to make much biological sense to consume in large quantities - and perhaps, as is my belief, given their deleterious effects on health, they should not be consumed at all.
    Even if our belief system doesn’t allow for the concept of evolution, or that our present existence is borne on vast stretches of biological time, we need only consider the undeniable fact that these four “health foods” are also sources for industrial adhesives, in order to see how big a problem they present.
    For one, wheat flour is used to make glues for book binding and wall-papering, as well as being the key ingredient for paper mache mortar. Sticky soy protein has replaced the need for formaldehyde based adhesives for making plywood, and is used to make plastic, composite and many other things you probably wouldn’t consider eating. The whitish protein known as casein in cow's milk is the active ingredient in Elmer's glue and has been used for paint since ancient times. Finally, corn gluten is used as a glue to hold cardboard boxes together. Eating glue doesn't sound too appetizing does it?  Indeed, when you consider what these sticky glycoproteins will do to the delicate microvilli inside our intestines, a scenario, nightmarish in proportions, unfolds. 
    All nutrients are absorbed in the intestine through the microvilli. These finger-like projections from off the surface of the intestine amplify the surface area of absorption in the intestine to the area the size of a tennis court. When coated with undigested or partially digested glue (glycoproteins), not only is the absorption of nutrients reduced leading to malabsorption and consequently malnourishment, but the villi themselves become damaged/dessicated/ inflammed and begin to undergo atrophy - at times even breaking off.  The damage to the intestinal membrane caused by these glues ultimately leads to perforation of the one cell thick intestinal wall, often leading to "leaky gut syndrome": a condition where undigested proteins and plant toxins called lectins enter the bloodstream wreaking havoc on the immune system. A massive amount of research (which is given little to no attention both in the mass media and allopathic medicine) indicates that diseases as varied as fibromyalgia, diabetes, autism, cancer, arthritis, crohn's, chronic fatigue, artheroscerosis, and many others, are directly influenced by the immune mediated responses wheat, dairy, soy and corn can provoke.
    Of all four suspect foods Wheat, whose omnipresence in the S.A.D or Standard American Diet indicates something of an obsession, may be the primary culprit.  According to Clinical Pathologist Carolyn Pierini the wheat lectin called "gliadin" is known to to participate in activating NF kappa beta proteins which are involved in every acute and chronic inflammatory disorder including neurodegenerative disease, inflammatory bowel disease, infectious and autoimmune diseases.
    In support of this indictment of Wheat’s credibility as a “health food,” Glucosamine – the blockbuster supplement for arthritis and joint problems – has been shown to bind to and deactivate the lectin in wheat that causes inflammation. It may just turn out to be true that millions of Americans who are finding relief with Glucosamine would benefit more directly from removing the wheat (and related allergens) from their diets rather than popping a multitude of natural and synthetic pills to cancel one of Wheat’s main toxic actions. Not only would they be freed up from taking supplements like Glucosamine, but many would also be able to avoid taking dangerous Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) like Tylenol, Aspirin and Ibuprofen, which are known to cause tens of thousands of cases of liver damage, internal hemorrhaging and stomach bleeding each and every year.
    One might wonder:  “How is it that if America's favorite sources of calories: Wheat and Dairy, are so obviously pro-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and generally toxic, why would anyone eat them?”  ANSWER: They are powerful forms of socially sanctioned self-medication.
    Wheat and Dairy contain gliadorphin and gluten exorphins, and casomorphin, respectively.  These partially digested proteins known as peptides act on the opioid receptors in the brain, generating a temporary euphoria or analgesic effect that has been clinically documented and measured in great detail.  The Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology in Magdeburg, Germany has shown that a Casein (cow's milk protein) derivative has 1000 times greater antinociceptive activity (pain inhibition) than morphine. Not only do these morphine like substances create a painkilling "high," but they can invoke serious addictive/obsessive behavior, learning disabilities, autism, inability to focus, and other serious physical and mental handicaps. 
    As the glues destroy the delicate surface of our intestines, we for the life of us can't understand why we are so drawn to consume these "comfort foods", heaping "drug soaked" helping after helping.  Many of us struggle to shake ourselves out of our wheat and dairy induced stupor with stimulants like coffee, caffeinated soda and chocolate, creating a viscous “self-medicating” cycle of sedation and stimulation.
    As if this were not enough, Wheat, Dairy, and Soy also happen to have some of the highest naturally occurring concentrations of Glutamic Acid, which is the natural equivalent of monosodium glutamate. This excitotoxin gives these foods great "flavor" (or what the Japanese call umami) but can cause the neurons to fire to the point of death.  It is no wonder that with all these drug-like qualities most Americans consume wheat and dairy in each and every meal of their day, for each and every day of their lives.
    Whether you now believe that removing Wheat, Dairy, Soy and Corn from your diet is a good idea, or still need convincing, it doesn’t hurt to take the “elimination diet” challenge. The real test is to eliminate these suspect foods for at least 2 weeks, see how you feel, and then if you aren’t feeling like you have made significant improvements in your health, reintroduce them and see what happens.  Trust in your feelings, listen to your body, and you will move closer to what is healthy for you.
    This article owes much of its content and insight to the work of John Symes whose ground-breaking research on the dangers of wheat, dairy, corn and soy have been a great eye opener to me, and a continual source of inspiration in my goal of educating myself and others.


    Kristen Campbell

    Celiac.com 11/10/2008 - Dietary shifts in recent years towards more organic food choices and low carb diets have forever-altered the food pyramid—the grocery world is changing in response to our health concerns.  Now there is a new trend in the food world: the gluten-free diet.  According to Nielson reports, the gluten free sector of the grocery world grew 20% between June of 2007 and 2008.

     
    With unarguable growth in this new direction, the word is spreading about conditions such as celiac disease and gluten intolerance.  But is gluten-free just the latest diet fad, belittling the severity of these diseases, or is it a trend in the right direction for the millions of Americans who are still undiagnosed?

     
    One of the greatest fears surrounding the growth of the gluten-free trend is that people may indulge the diet for faddish reasons, discounting the severity of conditions such as celiac disease and gluten intolerance.

     
    Celiac is an autoimmune disease that affects at least 1 in 133 Americans. When gluten is consumed, antibodies in the small intestines attack the gluten, damaging the intestinal lining and villi, small hair-like structures which extract nutrients from the food.  Without treatment, the body is rendered unable to absorb the proper nutrients from dietary food, leaving patients vulnerable to an entire host of serious, life-threatening diseases.  The prescribed treatment for celiac disease is an adherence to a completely gluten-free diet for the rest of the patient’s life.  Left undiagnosed and untreated, celiac disease can cause serious conditions such as cancer, osteoporosis and infertility.

     
    Celiac disease is very serious, and it should not be discounted.  Far more common, and often as severe, however, is gluten intolerance.  Gluten intolerance can range in levels of severity, wreaking the same havoc on the body that celiac disease does, or in some cases simply causing gastrointestinal discomforts.  The key here is that gluten intolerance can in fact be as damaging to the body as celiac disease, and gluten intolerance is suspected to affect as many as 30% of Americans  (SOURCE: The Gluten Connection).

     
    With every new trend comes controversy, but ultimately, the growth in interest in a gluten free diet will mean more research, more diagnoses and more food options.  Doctors often have a hard time diagnosing gluten intolerance and celiac disease, because of the broad range of symptoms and their lack of exposures to these diseases.  Patients often receive their diagnosis only after digging deeper, looking further than one or two doctors for the correct answer.

     
    More coverage on these conditions, means more people with undiagnosed gluten intolerance or celiac disease will find their answer, and get the diagnoses they need.  People with gluten sensitivities are often very outgoing about them, and many write articles, post on forums, or start blogs.  One thing is for sure, the more people who get diagnosed, the more the word will spread.

     
    Perhaps just as dietary trends or fads have taught us that carb-centric, processed food diets may not be the answer for optimal health, so too will the gluten free-movement correct our country’s addiction to the wheat-based diet.  Many argue that our diets should have never contained gluten to begin with, and today it is added to nearly all processed foods ranging from soups and sauces to seasonings and condiments.  The gluten-free diet may just be the latest trend for some people, but for many of us it is our only path to good health—and for this reason the gluten-free diet is here to stay.


    Destiny Stone
    Celiac.com 05/10/2010 - Celiac is a genetic autoimmune disease which affects 1 in 100 people worldwide, making it one of the most common food intolerance's in the world. Celiac disease is triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins, and for those sensitive to gluten, digestion of gluten grains results in an immunological response in the small intestine, destroying mature absorptive epithelial cells on the surface of the small intestine, and creating side effects ranging from severe illnesses, to no obvious symptoms what-so-ever. Regardless of your symptoms, if left untreated, celiac disease can be life-threatening.
    There is no medication to cure or alleviate celiac disease, and the only cure is complete gluten abstinence for life. Avoiding gluten, means avoiding wheat, rye and barley; which when entirely avoided can lead to recovery from celiac disease symptoms, and result in significant improvement of the intestinal mucosa and its absorptive functions.
    There is great controversy among most people who are gluten sensitive over the current market  for gluten-free products, especially breads and cereals. Most people who avoid gluten agree that gluten-free bread leaves much to be desired. Most gluten-free breads are dry, bland, and can only be tolerated when toasted and covered with lots of jam. However, Healthgrain, a European Union project  is working hard to strengthen the scientific formulas for a new generation of cereals and breads for those looking for healthy, tasty gluten-free options.
    New methods are being created  by Healthgrain, and conducted by the research team of Professor Elke Arendt, University College Cork, Ireland and the team of Professor Jan Delcour, KU Leuven, Belgium, to improve the overall quality of gluten-free products. One new method Healthgrain is exploring is the use of special Lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria has innate properties such as anti fungal activity, which  has been shown to improve the quality and shelf-life of gluten-free breads.
    Texture is another big complaint most gluten-free people have when it comes to gluten-free products. Healthgrain has been experimenting with the effect different enzymes such as transglutaminase, glucose oxidase and protease play on the texture of gluten-free cereals. The enzymes showed that they in fact have an essential role in improving the construction of gluten-free bread, although the enzymes also showed varying reactions to the array of different gluten-free breads.
    Another technique introduced to improve  gluten-free products is something called, 'high pressure processing' (HP).  The impact of HP on the major polymers found in gluten-free flours, were also investigated by Healthgrain. The results of the impact of HP on gluten-free grains reveled that starch gelatinisation and protein network formation occurred at pressures greater than 350 MPa. However a weakening of protein structures  was discovered at lower pressures. Adding HP treated gluten-free batters to bread showed an improvement in volume and decreased staling with pressure less than 200 MPa.
    We live in a great time to be gluten-free and the scientific studies of the Healthgrain project offers more hope to gluten-free folks looking for more gluten-free products that don't taste gluten-free.
    Source:

    New Improved Gluten-Free Foods Developed for Patients with Celiac Disease  


    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 01/05/2012 - I was disappointed to read this opinion article in The Atlantic (titled: A Gluten-Free Diet Reality Check) when there are three U.S. studies demonstrating that about half of overweight and obese children and/or adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease lose weight following institution of a gluten free diet (GFD) (2,3,4). Some of these researchers make statements such as “The GFD has a beneficial effect upon the BMI [body mass index] of overweight children with celiac disease” after following 27 children who, at diagnosis, were overweight or obese (2). Similarly, Cheng et al reported that “A GFD had a beneficial impact on BMI, underweight patients gained weight and overweight/obese patients lost weight” (3).  Murray et al report that only 30% of their obese patients with celiac lost weight after six months of following a gluten free diet (4). 
    There isn’t much ambiguity in any of these three studies conducted by three separate groups of reputable medical scientists and published in the peer reviewed medical and scientific literature. Clearly, the gluten free diet is an effective weight loss tool for some of the individuals investigated. Yet Fontenot asserts that “there is no evidence that gluten-free foods promote weight loss….” (1). Exactly what evidence does she want?   
    She goes on to say that “The only condition that necessitates a gluten free diet is celiac disease” (1). Yet she previously states, when discussing several other conditions that have been connected with gluten that “the research shows mixed results” (1). Surely the “mixed results” suggests that there is evidence that at least some cases benefit from a gluten free diet.
    Neither does the notion of ‘necessity’ apply to celiac disease. A person with celiac disase can consume gluten. They may place their health at risk by so doing, but that applies equally to those individuals with other conditions that have been shown to benefit from a gluten free diet. So the distinction she makes is, at best, one of degree.
    For decades many highly regarded investigators have published test results clearly showing that a gluten free diet is beneficial in the conditions listed by Ms. Fontenot, as well as many other ailments. These range from autism (5,6,7)  to schizophrenia (8,9,10,11) to a variety of neurological (12,13,14) conditions to attention deficit disorder (15,16), to many other forms of autoimmunity (17,18,19), learning disabilities (20) and even to AIDS patients (21).
    Ms. Fontenot even asserts that “A person with celiac disease has increased levels of certain autoantibodies circulating in their blood due to their intake of gluten”(1). Again, she overlooks seronegative celiac disease which is frequently seen in the context of IgA deficiency (22, 23, 24) and may be present in many other contexts. 
    Opinion pieces are probably easier to write when ignoring relevant facts. In this case, the overwhelming body of personal bias that drives Ms. Fontenot’s article is offered in the absence of a single supporting research finding and only one other professional opinion which is offered by one of Ms. Fontenot’s colleagues. She certainly hasn’t let the facts get in the way of her story, but it is deeply disturbing to discover that The Atlantic has chosen to republish this unsupported rant.
    Sources:

    http://www.theatlantic.com/health/print/2012/01/a-gluten-free-diet-reality-check/250750/ Reilly NR, Aguilar K, Hassid BG, Cheng J, Defelice AR, Kazlow P, Bhagat G, Green PH. Celiac disease in normal-weight and overweight children: clinical features and growth outcomes following a gluten-free diet. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 Nov;53(5):528-31. Cheng J, Brar PS, Lee AR, Green PH. Body mass index in celiac disease: beneficial effect of a gluten-free diet. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr;44(4):267-71. Murray JA, Watson T, Clearman B, Mitros F. Effect of a gluten-free diet on gastrointestinal symptoms in celiac disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr;79(4):669-73. Whiteley P, Haracopos D, Knivsberg AM, Reichelt KL, Parlar S, Jacobsen J, Seim A, Pedersen L, Schondel M, Shattock P. The ScanBrit randomised, controlled, single-blind study of a gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Nutr Neurosci. 2010 Apr;13(2):87-100. Reichelt KL, Knivsberg AM. The possibility and probability of a gut-to-brain connection in autism. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Oct-Dec;21(4):205-11. Knivsberg AM, Reichelt KL, Høien T, Nødland M. A randomised, controlled study of dietary intervention in autistic syndromes. Nutr Neurosci. 2002 Sep;5(4):251-61. Cascella NG, Kryszak D, Bhatti B, Gregory P, Kelly DL, Mc Evoy JP, Fasano A, Eaton WW. Prevalence of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity in the United States clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness study population. Schizophr Bull. 2011 Jan;37(1):94-100. De Santis A, Addolorato G, Romito A, Caputo S, Giordano A, Gambassi G, Taranto C, Manna R, Gasbarrini G. Schizophrenic symptoms and SPECT abnormalities in a coeliac patient: regression after a gluten-free diet. J Intern Med. 1997 Nov;242(5):421-3. Dohan FC, Grasberger JC, Lowell FM, Johnston HT Jr, Arbegast AW. Relapsed schizophrenics: more rapid improvement on a milk- and cereal-free diet. Br J Psychiatry. 1969 May;115(522):595-6..  Singh MM, Kay SR. Wheat gluten as a pathogenic factor in schizophrenia. Science. 1976 Jan 30;191(4225):401-2. Hadjivassiliou M, Kandler RH, Chattopadhyay AK, Davies-Jones AG, Jarratt JA, Sanders DS, Sharrack B, Grünewald RA. Dietary treatment of gluten neuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 2006 Dec;34(6):762-6. Hadjivassiliou M, Rao DG, Wharton SB, Sanders DS, Grünewald RA, Davies-Jones AG.Sensory ganglionopathy due to gluten sensitivity. Neurology. 2010 Sep 14;75(11):1003-8. Turner MR, Chohan G, Quaghebeur G, Greenhall RC, Hadjivassiliou M, Talbot K. A case of celiac disease mimicking amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007 Oct;3(10):581-4. Niederhofer H, Pittschieler K. A preliminary investigation of ADHD symptoms in persons with celiac disease. J Atten Disord. 2006 Nov;10(2):200-4. Zelnik N, Pacht A, Obeid R, Lerner A. Range of neurologic disorders in patients with celiac disease. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):1672-6. Rodrigo L, Hernández-Lahoz C, Fuentes D, Alvarez N, López-Vázquez A, González S. Prevalence of celiac disease in multiple sclerosis. BMC Neurol. 2011 Mar 7;11:31. Malalasekera V, Cameron F, Grixti E, Thomas MC. Potential reno-protective effects of a gluten-free diet in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009 May;52(5):798-800. Epub 2009 Feb 14. Iuorio R, Mercuri V, Barbarulo F, D'Amico T, Mecca N, Bassotti G, Pietrobono D, Gargiulo P, Picarelli A. Prevalence of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Minerva Endocrinol. 2007 Dec;32(4):239-43. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article444290.ece Quiñones-Galvan A, Lifshitz-Guinzberg A, Ruíz-Arguelles GJ. Gluten-free diet for AIDS-associated enteropathy. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Nov 15;113(10):806-7 Evans KE, Leeds JS, Sanders DS. Be vigilant for patients with coeliac disease. Practitioner. 2009 Oct;253(1722):19-22, 2. Mozo L, Gómez J, Escanlar E, Bousoño C, Gutiérrez C. Diagnostic Value of Anti-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide Igg Antibodies for Celiac Disease in Children and Iga Deficient Patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 Dec 23. Wang N, Shen N, Vyse TJ, Anand V, Gunnarson I, Sturfelt G, Rantapää-Dahlqvist S, Elvin K, Truedsson L, Andersson BA, Dahle C, Ortqvist E, Gregersen PK, Behrens TW, Hammarström L. Selective IgA deficiency in autoimmune diseases. Mol Med. 2011 Aug 4.

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    Jefferson Adams
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    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com