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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    SIX WAYS CELIAC DISEASE CAN KILL YOU


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 08/13/2014 - Even though some folks suffering from symptoms of celiac disease will claim they would welcome death, most people will not actually die from the immediate symptoms of celiac disease; no matter how bad those symptoms get.


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    Photo: Wikimedia Commons--NabokovHowever, left untreated, celiac disease can lead to numerous other conditions, several of which are potentially fatal. Remember, many people experience few, or no classic symptoms of celiac disease. These folks may find it easy to keep eating gluten with relatively few noticeable consequences; at least for a time.

    So, for people with celiac disease who ignore either their doctors, or their bodies, the risks can be huge. They can even lead to death by one of the following:

    1) Cancer—Nobody wants cancer, and especially nobody wants the type of cancer that can strike people with gut damage that comes with long-untreated celiac disease.

    People with untreated celiac disease are at risk of developing any number of associated conditions, including gastrointestinal cancer at rates of 40 to 100 times those of the general population. Chief among these types of cancer are a type known as Enteropathy-Associated T-cell Lymphoma (EATL). EATL is a gut cancer that often ends in death. People with celiac disease also need to watch out for non-Hodgkins lymphoma.

    2) Thyroid Disease - There is a 2.5-fold increased risk of papillary cancer of thyroid for celiac patients.

    The good news is that papillary cancer of the thyroid has a high cure rate, with 10-year survival rates estimated at 80% to 90% for any given patient. Still, the dark side is that 10-20% of patients with papillary cancer of the thyroid don’t survive.

    3) Epilepsy - Rare form of celiac disease.

    Patients with an autoimmune disease faced a nearly four-fold higher risk for epilepsy. In some cases, people with epilepsy can suffer from sudden unexpected death (SUDEP).

    SUDEP are still poorly understood, it is possibly the most common cause of death as a result of complications from epilepsy, accounting for between 7.5 to 17% of all epilepsy related deaths and 50% of all deaths in refractory epilepsy.

    4) Heart Failure - Celiac disease doubles the risk of coronary artery disease, which can, in many cases prove fatal.

    5) Diabetes - Diabetes can cause numerous complications, some of which can be fatal. People with celiac disease have higher rates of diabetes than people without celiac disease. Moreover, long-term celiac disease increases death rates in people with diabetes.

    There is also some evidence that a gluten-free diet can lower rates of Type 1 diabetes.

    In the end, for people with T1D, having a celiac disease diagnosis for at least 15 years was associated with a 2.80 times greater risk of death

    6) Obesity - Recent studies suggest that people with celiac disease are likely to be overweight or obese at the time of presentation.

    Studies show that nearly 40% of people diagnosed with celiac disease are actually overweight, not underweight. Also, a full 30% of celiac disease patients are obese at the time of their diagnosis.

    Of course, long term obesity can increase the likelihood of fatality in numerous categories. People treating celiac disease with a gluten-free diet are more likely to have a healthier weight. 

    So, while celiac disease won't kill anyone in the short term, it can have devastating consequences if it remains untreated for a long period of time. Share your thoughts on these ways to die from untreated celiac disease, or add additional insights in the comments section.


    Image Caption: Photo: Wikimedia Commons--Nabokov
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    It would be nice to include some positive info instead of scaring everyone with photos of caskets. I am all for being informed but this makes it sound as if it's a death sentence. Please provide info on what you can do to prevent and reduce your chances of these diseases instead of making it sound like we are all doomed. The caskets were a horrible visual. I am going to continue liking this page but if this happens again, I am going to get my information from an honest, but more uplifting source.

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    It would be nice to include some positive info instead of scaring everyone with photos of caskets. I am all for being informed but this makes it sound as if it's a death sentence. Please provide info on what you can do to prevent and reduce your chances of these diseases instead of making it sound like we are all doomed. The caskets were a horrible visual. I am going to continue liking this page but if this happens again, I am going to get my information from an honest, but more uplifting source.

    The article is titled "Six Ways Celiac Disease Can Kill You," thus you probably should not have clicked on it if you wanted an uplifting article.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    It would be nice to include some positive info instead of scaring everyone with photos of caskets. I am all for being informed but this makes it sound as if it's a death sentence. Please provide info on what you can do to prevent and reduce your chances of these diseases instead of making it sound like we are all doomed. The caskets were a horrible visual. I am going to continue liking this page but if this happens again, I am going to get my information from an honest, but more uplifting source.

    The first paragraph makes clear that "most people will not actually die from the immediate symptoms of celiac disease; no matter how bad those symptoms get." The rest is simply fact based reality. Untreated celiac disease can lead to potentially fatal complications down the road. Sorry if that was a bit much for your sensitivity setting.

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    You always have such good information! I have both the DQ2 and the DQ8 gene markers. My mother has finally gone gluten free, and I always wondered where the other one on my dad's side of the family came from. This information points straight to my paternal grandmother. Wow! Another point, I know most people at diagnosis are overweight, but I was not. I was dangerously close to death from being malnourished due to my undiagnosed celiac. There are a lot of people that die from "failure to thrive" due to undiagnosed celiac.

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    I think this was an excellent article. It clearly states how important it is to follow a gluten free diet. I for one would love to not follow a gluten-free diet and this reminds me how crucial it is.

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    There I am in the ER having a heart attack, the head of cardiology is introducing himself to me before I head off to the Cath Lab for 3 stints. He asks do you have any other medical conditions. I share that I'm self diagnosed celiac, he responds"oh yeah, I remember that from medical school....he states.

    I had not been gluten free for a number of years leading up to that day, my bad. It wasn't even on his radar.

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    Guest Petrea Reading

    Posted

    The article is titled "Six Ways Celiac Disease Can Kill You," thus you probably should not have clicked on it if you wanted an uplifting article.

    The title was specific enough. The picture of caskets was a cheap shot to get attention. We all die sooner or later especially as we age as well. Pointing out how celiac CAN lead to diseases and effect which can lead to death is one thing. Sensationalizing with "caskets"or death heads is simply pompous! Also there is no real way to determine the actual amount of difference one would have lived if such and such...etc!

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    Guest Donnie

    Posted

    It is always a good idea to tell it like it is. Too many people cheat on a gluten-free diet, or won't eat gluten free at all, even when they have a celiac diagnosis. If they know of the many risk factors of untreated celiac, it might be a wake up call for a few of them. I had the classic symptoms of celiac disease most of my life, but was never tested for it, until 10 years ago. I didn't even know anything about celiac. But, when I found out what was wrong I went totally gluten-free, and never cheat. I was diagnosed with Hashimotos thyroid disease, many years before my celiac diagnosis.

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    I was more interested in the title and content than the photo. It is a good reminder for people with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten intolerance to continue avoiding gluten. The potential diseases that may result from gluten are not worth the risk.

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    This was a great article! I was diagnosed with celiac disease at the age of 52 and at that time weighed 110 lbs, losing 5 lbs every week until the diagnosis was made. I also have Barretts Esophagus , had a brain tumor, and had 5 tonic clonic seizures consecutively in one day, and had thyroid disease as well. All of these maladies were later connected to celiac disease. It is important to follow the gluten-free diet, but that does not guarantee that none of these things will happen

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    Guest Szilvia

    Posted

    It was a good eye opener article! More education never hurts.

    Fortunately, there is so many different ways to get preventative methods or products to help heal and be better even for celiac sufferers. There are so many natural herbs out there to aid prevent the constant gut inflammation and/or help to boost the immune system and the absorption ratio also.

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    Guest Amy, An Allergic Foodie

    Posted

    You always have such good information! I have both the DQ2 and the DQ8 gene markers. My mother has finally gone gluten free, and I always wondered where the other one on my dad's side of the family came from. This information points straight to my paternal grandmother. Wow! Another point, I know most people at diagnosis are overweight, but I was not. I was dangerously close to death from being malnourished due to my undiagnosed celiac. There are a lot of people that die from "failure to thrive" due to undiagnosed celiac.

    Amy, I have the DQ 2 and DQ 8 gene markers and I'm also named Amy. My dad had epileptic episodes late in life and died of heart problems. My brother has diabetes. I also have other autoimmune issues. My youngest son has celiac disease. Still, no one in my extended family believes that celiac is genetic!

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    I love the fact that the coffins are there. I am beating my head against the wall to get folks to take this serious!!! and if graphics is what it takes to get them to read and start their own research, so be it.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    The title was specific enough. The picture of caskets was a cheap shot to get attention. We all die sooner or later especially as we age as well. Pointing out how celiac CAN lead to diseases and effect which can lead to death is one thing. Sensationalizing with "caskets"or death heads is simply pompous! Also there is no real way to determine the actual amount of difference one would have lived if such and such...etc!

    Thanks, Petrea, for your comment. I agree that the chosen photo is a bit overly dramatic. I had scant time to source a photo, and took the easy way out on this one. It's definitely not the only option. I'll keep that in mind going forward.

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    You always have such good information! I have both the DQ2 and the DQ8 gene markers. My mother has finally gone gluten free, and I always wondered where the other one on my dad's side of the family came from. This information points straight to my paternal grandmother. Wow! Another point, I know most people at diagnosis are overweight, but I was not. I was dangerously close to death from being malnourished due to my undiagnosed celiac. There are a lot of people that die from "failure to thrive" due to undiagnosed celiac.

    Like you, I was not overweight when diagnosed with celiac disease, but I had become so ill by the time I was diagnosed I almost wished I would die. I was so undernourished I believe I could have eventually died of malnutrition.

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    The article is titled "Six Ways Celiac Disease Can Kill You," thus you probably should not have clicked on it if you wanted an uplifting article.

    Thank you and I agree...as a celiac patient, a nurse and also a multi-focal papillary/follicular thyroid cancer survivor, I appreciate when articles touch on the severity of the disease. I hear perceptions that celiac disease causes, bloating, GI upset, etc. It is an autoimmune disease and the severity is often misunderstood as a disease of "food intolerance" or really just an annoying condition to those around us. I am gluten free for 6 years, post thyroid cancer/treatment for 2 years, and still I battle iron anemia an malabsorption of nutrients. Quite possibly a lifelong battle of irreparable damage.

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    Amy, I have the DQ 2 and DQ 8 gene markers and I'm also named Amy. My dad had epileptic episodes late in life and died of heart problems. My brother has diabetes. I also have other autoimmune issues. My youngest son has celiac disease. Still, no one in my extended family believes that celiac is genetic!

    Amy,

    I can relate to your strong family history and yet the denial remains! I too have te DQ2 and DQ8 markers, my children are positive as well and yet none of my sisters have been tested. Instead my eldest sister reassures me that she only buys whole grain organic flour. Oh good! Very good quality poison. I am a nurse and just resign to allow those members to have the knowledge and make informed autonomous decisions.

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    Guest Sue Farrow

    Posted

    I have recently been diagnosed with coeliac and continue to eat wheat because I cant stand gluten free food. I weigh 5 stone 13lbs because I have a poor appetite, all I eat is soup, bead and crackers, wheat ones of course. I was told I will die because I am continuing to eat wheat but I didn't eat wheat then I would starve as the soup contains wheat, the bread contains wheat and so do the crackers. My taste buds won't like anything else and that's all I eat. I'm scared of dying and will I die in my sleep just like that one night I don't know or when or will I be ill before my death, my consultant has not told me. Does anyone know.

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    Guest Madeline Vance

    Posted

    I don't have thyroid cancer but I do have lots of thyroid nodules. How do I get rid of them and why have they developed?

    Currently, I read about using cabbage leaves on the thyroid area of the neck and bound it tightly with a cotton cloth. Very unusual and in the beginning very uncomfortable.

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    Guest Brenda

    Posted

    Thank you for your article, it was very informative. This Jan. of 2015, one of the worst day of my life. I was at a health store and all of the sudden I wasn't feeling right, I was sweating bullets and I blacked out, then came to and yelled for my husband, he pulled me outside with my wheel chair (I'm disabled), when we got outside, I blacked out again and threw up, they called 911, by the time they got there, my lips were blue and when they got me into the ambulance, they lost me, and had to do CPR on me, and got me back. Thank God the hospital was only less than a mile away. Come to find out, my Hemoglobin was so low that the doctor was shocked that I was alive, they admitted me and I had to have 3 blood transfusions. From there, many different specialists came in and I had two procedures and surgery and that's when I was diagnosed with celiac disease, colitis, & H. Pylori. They said I was very lucky to be alive. So its been almost two months since I have been diagnosed & I am learning how to eat gluten-free, its so complicated for me, but I am following what the doctor is saying. I have never realized how serious this is. I never even heard of celiac until now. As far as family having it, no one, has it. People needs to take this seriously. I am 43 and I would like to live longer. I almost lost my life because of it and now I have to live a whole new lifestyle and I am okay with it, just its taking time to adjust to it, one day at a time. Articles like this we NEED, so people can understand the consequences that they are taking, if they don't follow the gluten-free diet. Thank you again for your article!! God Bless.

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    Guest Cassie

    Posted

    The article is titled "Six Ways Celiac Disease Can Kill You," thus you probably should not have clicked on it if you wanted an uplifting article.

    I had that same thought. I clicked on this article to find out what makes celiac disease fatal because I have it and haven't been sticking to a gluten free diet. This article is exactly what I needed to read. My friends and family just don't understand how important it is that I stay gluten free. I was even in the hospital for six days in January for blood clots in which celiac disease is a factor for them as well, which I guess can also be fatal. Thank you for this article, it really opened my eyes.

     

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    Guest Joe Denver

    Posted

    My opinion is that this article is one of the most interesting and relevant to celiac conditions.

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    Guest Realtruth Please

    Posted

    Thank you and I agree...as a celiac patient, a nurse and also a multi-focal papillary/follicular thyroid cancer survivor, I appreciate when articles touch on the severity of the disease. I hear perceptions that celiac disease causes, bloating, GI upset, etc. It is an autoimmune disease and the severity is often misunderstood as a disease of "food intolerance" or really just an annoying condition to those around us. I am gluten free for 6 years, post thyroid cancer/treatment for 2 years, and still I battle iron anemia an malabsorption of nutrients. Quite possibly a lifelong battle of irreparable damage.

    I think a lot of people are in denial about the severity of celiac disease. Wake up calls are needed.

    I've watched two people slowly die from diarrhea and the results of having intestines that are no longer able to process food. They eventually can't even absorb water. Their veins become too small to get needles in them, and they die very slowly and miserably. This is not a scare tactic, this is a reality. These two people knew they had celiac disease, but did not take it seriously, nor did their doctors or families. So I was left at their side watching them slowly waste away, cleaning up poop, knowing that they could easily be saved, but no one will listen and I have to watch them die. Please, publish more real life stories of people dying from celiac disease. It's not just the autoimmune diseases associated with it that kill people, the disease itself will kill them.

     

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    You always have such good information! I have both the DQ2 and the DQ8 gene markers. My mother has finally gone gluten free, and I always wondered where the other one on my dad's side of the family came from. This information points straight to my paternal grandmother. Wow! Another point, I know most people at diagnosis are overweight, but I was not. I was dangerously close to death from being malnourished due to my undiagnosed celiac. There are a lot of people that die from "failure to thrive" due to undiagnosed celiac.

    I, too, was way underweight. Down almost to 100 lbs at 63 years of age. Had celiac disease my whole adult life, but always treated for individual health issues. I was getting weaker, and expected to hear I already had cancer, but my doctor said it hadn't turned to cancer YET. I'm in Stage 4 of celiac disease. I immediately went 100% gluten free. I'm up 35 lbs. in a year. Stunned, but realize, celiac disease damage is irreversible, but stoppable. Keep researching, read labels, and download the gluten free app on your iPhone to scan labels in the market before you buy. Feeling Grateful everyday!

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    Ultrapharm will use Systech’s oxygen and carbon dioxide headspace analyzer to make sure their products are properly sealed, and to test the inert packaging atmosphere for maximum shelf life.
    Beth Faulkner, marketing manager, Systech Illinois, told FoodProductionDaily that Ultrapharm is the first gluten-free bakery to partner with Systech for atmospheric quality assurance testing. Systech’s Gaspace Advance uses a probe that is inserted into the gas pack to measure levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The results are then shown on an LCD display.
    Ultrapharm opened its gluten-free baking facility in Poland in 2005. Nearly all of the company’s gluten-free products are exported from the Polish manufacturing site to Italy, Germany, France, UK and Ireland.
    The baking facility uses modified atmospheric packaging to extend shelf life of up to six months for its frozen breads, rolls and filled pastries and pies. Testing the modified atmospheric packs helps to assure proper shelf life, and to keep the product looking its best.
    Systech Illinois also produces oxygen permeation and water vapor permeation analyzers for packaging film, finished package and PET bottles.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com