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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    CELIAC DISEASE MORE PREVALENT IN NORTH INDIAN, ASIAN POPULATIONS


    Gryphon Myers

    Celiac.com 09/04/2012 - North India has what has come to be referred to as a “celiac belt”, where a greater than average number of people exhibit symptoms of celiac disease. This is partially because more wheat is consumed in this region, but also because the population possesses haplotypes necessary for celiac disease to develop. For this reason, it would make sense that emigrants from the area would also be prone to celiac disease. A study centered in Debyshire, UK investigates celiac disease as it manifests in the North Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi immigrant populations.


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    north_indian_wedding-CC_Pranav_Bhasin.jpgAll celiac disease patients (both Asian and white) who were diagnosed via biopsy in Derbyshire, UK between 1958 and 2008 were identified. Population data from the Office of National Statistics was used to calculate prevalence. Presenting symptoms, adherence to a gluten-free diet and follow up record were also assessed. Asian patients were compared against matched white patients.

    1305 eligible celiac disease patients were identified, 82 of whom were Asian. The prevalence of celiac disease in Asians was considerably higher than in white groups. In the white population, celiac rates were 1:356, whereas in the Asian population they were 1:193. Particularly high celiac rates were seen in Asian women between 16 and 60 years of age: 1:116. No cases of celiac disease were reported in Asian men over 65 years of age.

    A previous study from Leicester has already demonstrated some propensity for Asian populations to develop celiac disease. It is thought that diet plays some role in this tendency.

    One of the most significant findings of the present study is that no Asian man over the age of 65 was diagnosed with celiac disease. It is possible that celiac disease rarely manifests in this group, but is more likely that cultural or other factors lead to a lack of reporting, preventing diagnosis.

    Another finding of the study shows that Asians with celiac disease are more likely to be anemic. This tells us that celiac disease should be considered as a diagnosis for unexplained anemia in Asian patients.

    The study also found that Asians with celiac disease are less likely to adhere to a gluten-free diet. Roughly one third of Asian patients successfully adhered to the diet, whereas nearly two thirds of white patients did. This could be a language issue (an inability to detect gluten-containing foods), or because of family pressure to comply with cultural norms, or because of difficulty adapting cuisine to be gluten-free. In any case, there should be more discussion with Asian immigrant populations to determine the best way to improve gluten-free diet adherence rates.

    Source:

     


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    admin

    Currently, the Center for Celiac Research is involved in two critical areas:
    * Multi-Center Serological Screening Study to determine the prevalence of Celiac Disease in the United States; and
    * New Diagnostic Assay to develop a non-invasive diagnostic test for Celiac Disease.
    1) SEROLOGIC SCREENING STUDY
    We have tested 3,076 samples as part of the Multi-Center Serological Study for the prevalence of Celiac Disease in the United States. Our preliminary findings indicate that 6.8% of first-degree relatives and 4.7% of second-degree relatives of Celiacs test positive for the disease. These results are similar to those reported previously in Europe, suggesting that Celiac Disease is currently under-diagnosed in the United States.We are extremely encouraged by these preliminary findings; however, many more subjects need to be screened to put the study into full operation. Your financial help is pivotal to accomplish our goals.
    2) NEW DIAGNOSTIC ASSAY
    Our scientists have been able to develop a more sensitive, non-invasive, and specific test for Celiac Disease based on the use of tissue transglutaminase. We were able, for the first time, to clone the human transglutaminase gene. By using this tool, we have developed a new diagnostic tool that may eventually allow us to make a definite diagnosis of Celiac Disease without an intestinal biopsy.
    BLOOD SCREENING UPDATE
    Blood screenings of first and second-degree relatives have been conducted in New York, North Carolina, New Hampshire, California, Pennsylvania, Washington, Maryland, Texas, and Rhode Island.Screenings are scheduled for Billings, Montana June 19th, Louisville, Kentucky September, 18th and Vermont (to be scheduled in Oct/Nov.)
    WEB SITE
    Thanks to the sponsorship of Dietary Specialties, we are very excited to announce that the Center for Celiac Research will have a web site. The domain name will be www.celiaccenter.org. and should be on line by June 21st.
    FUND-RAISING UPDATE
    As of June 1, 1999, the University of Marylands Center for Celiac Research has received approximately $340,000 in contributions and pledges. We thank all of you who have made a contribution or pledge. The Center was very fortunate to receive three significant pledges/contributions over the past four months which helped boost our contribution total by more than $100,000 since our last update. Although this is a significant increase, we must keep the momentum going.
    For now, we cannot rely on any outside financial assistance. So please, help us to help you. Remember we are not asking you to make a contribution, but to make an investment in the well being of every celiac - now and in the future.
    NINTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CELIAC DISEASE
    The Center for Celiac Research, the University of Maryland Program for Continuing Education, the University of Chicago, and the University of California, San Diego are pleased to announce joint sponsorship of the Ninth International Symposium on Celiac Disease. The symposium will be held August 10-13, 2000 at the Marriotts Hunt Valley Inn, Hunt Valley, Maryland.
    The medical program to be presented will discuss the most advanced knowledge of the genetic, immunological, and diagnostic aspects of Celiac Disease. In addition, a panel of international experts will discuss new frontiers for the treatment and prevention of Celiac Disease. Celiacs from around the world will be given the opportunity to compare
    the practical aspects of living with Celiac Disease in different countries and cultures at a full day session. Registration information and costs will be available in August and will be posted on the web site.
    WHAT CAN YOU DO?
    If you have not made a pledge or contribution, please consider making one at this time. Please make checks payable to the UM Foundation, Inc. Center for Celiac Research, Attn: Pam King, 700 W. Lombard St. Room 206, Baltimore, MD 21201. These funds are administered by the University of Maryland Foundation, Inc. If possible, increase your current pledge or make another gift at this time. Discuss the importance of this study with fellow celiacs, relatives, friends or whoever might be in a position to help. Ask them to contribute. Organize discussions and/or fund-raising efforts with your local support group. For example, Tri-County Celiac Sprue from Walled Lake, MI organized a bake sale and the Greater Louisville Celiac Sprue Support Group organized a walk/run event. Both donated the proceeds to the Center. Help us to identify possible organization, companies, trusts or foundations that might be in a position to help. Please contact Pam King at 410-706-8021 if you have any questions or need any assistance. Send contributions to the Center for Celiac Research in honor or in memory of a friend or loved one. Make a gift to the Center in honor of the new year.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 01/20/2011 - Over his five years as a participant in Project Bread’s annual Walk for Hunger, 16-year-old high school sophomore, Pierce Keegan came to realize that more needed to be done to supply gluten-free food to people in need.
    “When I was doing the Walk for Hunger, I suddenly thought, ‘What if I needed food? Would I be able to get gluten-free products if I couldn’t afford them?’’’
    Inspired by his success in raising nearly $5,000 for Project Bread, Keegan founded Pierce’s Pantry to supply gluten-free food to people who need food, and need that food to be gluten-free.
    Pierce's Pantry officially launched on January 1st, 2011, and  collects and distributes gluten-free products to local food pantries. Keegan has so far received donations from 12 food manufacturers, and collected nearly 800 pounds of gluten-free food.
    The Acton Food Pantry in Boxborough is the first food service to make Keegan’s gluten-free products available to clients, and has also agreed to provide emergency bags of gluten-free food for those in need.
    “I’ve been fortunate enough to eat and have access to gluten-free food,’’ said Keegan, “but there are many celiacs out there who can’t afford it, and have to make choices between either eating unsafe foods or not eating at all.’’
    Keegan wants to eventually expand Pierce’s Pantry nationwide, and eventually to accommodate other food allergies.
    ’“The Acton Food Pantry told me about this woman they gave a whole bag of gluten-free products to and the woman started crying,’’ said Keegan. “It showed me that this could really make a difference, after hearing how just one bag of food changed another person’s life so drastically.’’
    Read more or donate to Pierce's Pantry.


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/23/2011 - A group of researchers in India recently conducted a community-based study on the prevalence of celiac disease in the northern part of India.
    The research group included Govind K Makharia, Anil K Verma, Ritvik Amarchand, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Prasenjit Das, Anil Goswami, Vidyut Bhatia, Vineet Ahuja, Siddhartha Datta Gupta and Krishnan Anand.
    They are affiliated with the Departments of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, and Pediatrics and Pathology at the Centre for Community Medicine of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi.
    Worldwide celiac disease rates are estimated at about 1%, but the disease is thought to be uncommon in both India and Asia. However, there has generally been a lack of study data on the actual prevalence of celiac disease in Asian nations.
    The research team set out to accurately estimate the prevalence of celiac disease in a specific Indian community. The team crafted a cross sectional study to estimate rates of celiac disease in urban and rural populations in the National Capital Region, Delhi, India.
    The team gathered data using a structured questionnaire administered via door-to-door visits. The questionnaire provided socio-demographic data and basic screening for features of celiac disease, such as chronic or recurrent diarrhea, and anemia.
    For children, the questionnaire included additional factors, namely short stature (linear height below 5th percentile for age) and failure to thrive/gain weight.
    All test subjects with positive screens and 10% of negative screen individuals were called for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody blood test.
    All those with positive blood tests were invited to undergo endoscopic biopsy. The team diagnosed celiac disease on the basis of a positive blood screens, the presence of villous atrophy and/or response to gluten free diet.
    The team contacted 12,573 people in all. A total of 10,488 (83.4%) (50.6% male) agreed to participate. Screening showed 5,622 (53.6%) positive results. Of those who screened positive, 2167 (38.5%) submitted to anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody blood tests. The team also tested 712 (14%) subjects who had tested negative.
    The data showed an overall sero-prevalence of celiac disease was 1.44% (95% conï¬dence interval [CI] 1.22 1.69) and the overall prevalence of celiac disease was 1.04% (95% CI 0.85 1.25).
    Celiac disease in this north Indian community is 1 in 96, or about 1%. That means that celiac disease is more common than is recognized in India, and that rates are about the same as in other parts of the world, not lower, as conventional wisdom has held.
    Source:

    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, March 2011 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06606.x

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/26/2013 - There are a number of highly specific and sensitive blood tests that can be used in diagnosing celiac disease; however histological examination of a biopsy taken by endoscopy remains the gold standard for celiac diagnosis.
    However, not every patient wants to undergo an endoscopy, and many will happily undergo additional blood tests to avoid or delay endoscopy.
    In an effort to help clinicians make accurate celiac diagnosis without endoscopy and biopsy, the company Nestec S.A. of Vevey, Switzerland, a research and testing subsidiary of Nestlé has obtained U.S. Patent No. 8,409,819, entitled "Methods to predict risk for celiac disease by detecting anti-flagellin antibody levels."
    The inventors have shown that a subset of at risk patients had elevated anti-CBir1 antibodies and that this correlated with HLA-DQ2.5 and HLA-DQ8 genotypes.
    The inventors showed that a group at risk patients have elevated anti-CBir1 antibodies that correlate with HLA-DQ2.5 and HLA-DQ8 genotypes.
    Their patent contains two independent claims, numbers 1 and 9, each of which describes a method to aid in predicting whether a patient who is EMA positive, or who has a relative with celiac disease, is at risk for developing celiac disease.
    Each method relies on the CBir1 flagellin antigen, specifically the N-terminal residues 1-147, to determine whether or not a sample from an at-risk patient contains anti-CBir1 flagellin antibodies.
    Flagellin is a part of what makes up bacterial flagella, the molecular mechanism that drives the propeller-like motion in bacteria. The inventors theorize that individuals at risk for celiac disease may have an aggressive immune response to resident bacterial proteins, in this case flagellin.
    This method for predicting celiac disease risk may help clinicians to diagnose patients who wish to avoid endoscopy, or who wish additional tests before doing so. The new patent also notes that the method might help to identify patients at risk of developing celiac disease before any symptoms are present.

  • Recent Articles

    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
    That’s where the story takes a dangerous turn….about 3:15am. I awoke to the TV blaring loudly, along with the lights shining brightly. Our power was back on! I proceeded to walk throughout the house turning everything off at exactly the same time our neighbor, who was told to evacuate our street, saw me through our window, assuming I knew that our hillside was ablaze with flames. Flames that were shooting 50 feet into the air. I went back to bed and fell fast asleep. The fire department was assured we had left because our house was dark and quiet again. Two hours had passed.  I suddenly awoke to screams coming from a family member yelling, “fire, fire, fire”! Flames were shooting straight up into the sky, just blocks from our house. We lived on a private drive with only one way in and one way out.  The entrance to our street was full of smoke and the fire fighters were doing their best to save our neighbors homes. We literally had enough time to grab our dogs, pile into the car, and speed to safety. As we were coming down our street, fire trucks passed us with sirens blaring, and I wondered if I would ever see my house and our possessions ever again. Where do we go? Who do we turn to? Are shelters a safe option? 
    When our daughter was almost three years old, we left the West Coast and relocated to Northern Illinois. A place where severe weather is a common occurrence. Since the age of two, I noticed that my daughter appeared gaunt, had an incredibly distended belly, along with gas, stomach pain, low weight, slow growth, unusual looking stool, and a dislike for pizza, hotdog buns, crackers, Toast, etc. The phone call from our doctor overwhelmed me.  She was diagnosed with Celiac Disease. I broke down into tears sobbing. What am I going to feed my child? Gluten is everywhere.
    After being scoped at Children's Hospital of Chicago, and my daughters Celiac Disease officially confirmed, I worried about her getting all the nutrients her under nourished body so desperately needed. I already knew she had a peanut allergy from blood tests, but just assumed she would be safe with other nuts. I was so horribly wrong. After feeding her a small bite of a pistachio, which she immediately spit out, nuts would become her enemy. Her anaphylactic reaction came within minutes of taking a bite of that pistachio. She was complaining of horrible stomach cramps when the vomiting set in. She then went limp and starting welting. We called 911.
    Now we never leave home without our Epipens and our gluten free food supplies. We analyze every food label. We are hyper vigilant about cross contamination. We are constantly looking for welts and praying for no stomach pain. We are always prepared and on guard. It's just what we do now. Anything to protect our child, our love...like so many other parents out there have to do every moment of ever day!  
    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
    That is when I knew we had to be prepared. No more winging it. We couldn’t take a chance like that ever again. We were “lucky” one too many times. We were very fortunate that we did not lose our home to the Los Angeles wildfire, and only had minimal damage from the severe storm which hit our home in Illinois.
      
    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764