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    Jefferson Adams earned his B.A. and M.F.A. at Arizona State University, and has authored more than 2,000 articles on celiac disease. His coursework includes studies in biology, anatomy, medicine, science, and advanced research, and scientific methods. He previously served as Health News Examiner for Examiner.com, and devised health and medical content for Sharecare.com. Jefferson has spoken about celiac disease to the media, including an appearance on the KQED radio show Forum, and is the editor of the book "Cereal Killers" by Scott Adams and Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.

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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 01/29/2008 - If the results of a recent study are any indication, the Greeks might be among those least affected by celiac disease.
    The study on the prevalence of celiac disease in Greece shows that the people of Thessaly have a prevalence of celiac disease that is among the lowest of all the European populations.
    Recent discoveries point to a greater prevalence of celiac disease than previously expected in a number of European populations, and the availability of new, accurate serological tests has made screening in the general population possible. These facts, coupled with the reality that no data exist regarding the prevalence of celiac disease in Greece, recently sparked a team of researchers to use a novel diagnostic algorithm to examine the general population of Thessaly, in central Greece, in an effort to determine rates of prevalence for celiac disease.
    Led by doctors Roka V, Potamianos SP, Kapsoritakis AN, Yiannaki EE, Koukoulis GN, Stefanidis I, Koukoulis GK, Germenis AE, the researcher team selected 2230 participants (1226 women, 1004 men, median age 46 years, range 18-80 years) by a random sampling from the adult general population of Thessaly.
    The researchers took blood samples and checked them for total immunoglobulin A (IgA)-serum levels, to eliminate IgA deficiency. The research team then examined samples that showed total IgA within the normal range for IgA antibodies compared to native human-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG); the researchers then tested samples that were anti-tTG positive for IgA antiendomysial antibodies (EmA).
    The researchers then examined samples from participants with selective IgA deficiency for IgG antigliadin antibodies. They referred for biopsy and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing those participants that showed EmA-positive or antigliadin antibody-positive.
    No participant with selective IgA deficiency was detected. Four individuals tested positive for EmA, all of whom were biopsy-proven coeliacs. Therefore, the prevalence of celiac disease within this general population sample is 1: 558 or 1.8 per 1000 (SE 0.13).
    The two men, two women that did show abnormal histology were between the ages of 18 and 35. Two of them were considered to be asymptomatic and two presented with a sub-clinical course. All four showed the heterodimer HLA-DQ2.
    The evidence indicates that the people of the central Greek area of Thessaly have a prevalence of celiac disease that is among the lowest of all the European populations.
    Eur. J. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Nov;19(11):982-7.


    Destiny Stone
    Celiac.com 08/11/2010 - New studies from the United States, Europe and other Countries around the world indicate that the commonness of celiac disease has dramatically increased  in the last decade, possibly as much as four-times the amount seen in the 1950's. Most current studies show that celiac disease is prevalent in at least 1% of the general population.
    To determine when the prevalence of celiac disease started to increase, researchers at the Mayo Clinic analyzed blood samples stored from Air Force recruits taken in the early 1950's, and compared them with blood samples from this decade. Expecting to see at least 1% of the samples come up positive for gluten antibodies, they were surprised to find the numbers were much smaller than anticipated. The results of these studies suggest that until the 1950's, celiac disease was extremely rare. From these findings, researchers determined that celiac disease is about 4 times more prevalent now, than it was in the 1950's, suggesting an environmental change to the grains happened in the 1950's.
    While there are many documented statistics on diagnosed celiacs, there is new research revolving around “latent celiac disease”, or gluten sensitivity.  According to a study by Dr. Ludvigsson's team and as outlined in the Journal of the American Medical Association, latent celiac disease is defined by someone who has a "normal small intestinal mucosa but positive celiac disease serology," and is estimated to be prevalent in at least 1 in 1,000 people worldwide.
    According to Dr. Ludvigsson's team mortality rates are higher for those with celiac disease and latent celiac disease than it is in the general population. Ten out of 1,000 people with celiac disease will die in a years time, compared to  approximately 7 in 1,000 people without the disease. Although, Dr. Ludvigsson emphasizes that while mortality and increased risk for other disorders are raised for those with celiac and latent celiac disease, "the absolute risk increase is very small."
    Unfortunately,  celiac disease often goes undetected. In most countries at least 2/3 of people with celiac disease are undiagnosed. The reason for the high number of undiagnosed celiac's is because celiac symptoms vary widely from each other and can present in several ways. They can be asymptomatic (without symptoms), or classic symptomatic celiac (diarrhea, weight loss, failure to thrive, malabsorbtion, etc.), or non-traditional (osteoporosis, malignancy, depression etc.), making it difficult to accurately diagnose celiac disease. Many autoimmune disorders, specifically, autoimmune liver disease, thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, and Addison's disease can be an indicator of celiac disease, and according to Dr. Ludvigsson, doctors should be evaluating patients for celiac disease for a variety of symptoms and disorders. 
    There are alternative treatment strategies for gluten sensitivities currently underway, but to date a gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. As such, Dr. Ludvigsson urges health practitioners to emphasize to their patients the importance of strict adherence to the gluten-free diet. Dr. Ludvigsson also stresses the significance of medical follow-up for celiac patients.
    Source:

    MedScape Today

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/17/2014 - Italian researchers are claiming a major scientific and potentially commercial breakthrough that could lead to a revolution in the food available to people with celiac disease.
    The researchers, all at the Department of Agricultural Sciences, Food and the Environment, University of Foggia are claiming that their revolutionary new method will enable the manufacture of wheat products safe for people with celiac disease. The method method involves modifying the gluten proteins in standard wheat so that it will not trigger an adverse gluten reaction in people with celiac disease.
    They claim that their method enables the production of celiac safe and gluten-friendly foods containing “all the dough and baked products made with flour from commonly obtained wheat.”
    A patent has been made by Prof. Aldo Di Luccia and Prof. Carmen Lamacchia, and CNR researcher Dr. Carmela Gianfrani. The application was filed in Italy with the Italian Patent and Trademark Office at the Ministry of Economic Development, on 2 October 2012. An application for extension according to the International Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) was filed on 29 April 2013.
    Both researchers have earned a very positive evaluation by the award of the higher threshold of the so-called "scientific credibility".
    Specifically, they claim that their method induces changes in gluten proteins, which break the chain of chemical combinations that trigger the so-called "intolerance" changes, thus avoiding the inflammatory process that interferes with nutrient absorption, and causes lesions and bowel dysfunction.
    Source:
    University of Foggia

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/24/2015 - The Danish National Patient Registry records about 50 cases of celiac disease per 100,000 persons. This is much lower than the celiac rates reported in other Nordic countries, and many doctors have suspected that the condition is being under-diagnosed.
    So, how common is under-diagnosis of celiac disease? A team of researchers recently set out to answer that question by conducting a population-based study of Danish adults. The research team included A. Horwitz, T. Skaaby, L.L. Kårhus, P. Schwarz, T. Jørgensen, J.J. Rumessen, and A. Linneberg. They are affiliated with the Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region at the University of Copenhagen in Copenhagen, Denmark.
    They screened a total of 2,297 adults aged 24-76 years living in the southwestern part of Copenhagen for celiac disease via immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies to transglutaminases and deamidated gliadin. They invited IgA/IgG-positive participants to a have a clinical evaluation, including biopsies, by a gastroenterologist.
    Of 56 invited participants, 40 underwent a full clinical evaluation, 8 of whom were diagnosed with celiac disease. Experts considered 2 of the 16 persons who declined the clinical evaluation to be likely positive for celiac disease.
    None of the above 56 participants had a known history of celiac disease or a recorded diagnosis of celiac disease in National Patient Registry.
    By combining the 8 cases of biopsy-proven celiac disease, the 2 cases of probable celiac disease, and 1 registry-recorded case of celiac disease, the team calculated 11 celiac cases out of 2,297 study participants. From this number, the team estimated celiac disease rates to be 479 per 100,000 persons, for the general population (95% CI: 197-761).
    This figure is 10 times higher than the registry-based prevalence of celiac disease.
    Of 11 participants diagnosed with celiac disease in our screening study, 10 were unaware of the diagnosis prior to the study.
    Thus, the team suggests that celiac disease is profoundly under-diagnosed in Danish adults.
    Source:
    Scand J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jul;50(7):824-31. doi: 10.3109/00365521.2015.101057.

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