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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 05/06/2011 - Recent epidemiological studies show that the prevalence of Celiac disease had been underestimated, affecting not only Europeans, but also populations of the Mediterranean countries, such as Middle East (1-4) and North Africa (5-7), where its prevalence is similar to that of Western countries.


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    A international team of researchers recently set out to estimate the global burden related to undiagnosed Celiac Disease in the Mediterranean Area, as computed by morbidity, mortality and crude health cost.

    The team included Luigi Greco, Laura Timpone, Carmela Arcidiaco, Abkari Abdelhak, Attard Thomas, Barada Kassem, Bilbao Josè Ramon, Boudraa Ghazalia, Cullufi Paskal, Hugot Jean Pierre, Abu-Zekry Mona, Kuloglu Zarife, Roma Eleftheria, Shamir Raanan, Ter Terzic Selma, and Zrinjka MiÅ¡ak.

    Prevalence of celiac disease among low risk populations varies from 0.14% to 1.17% (15-17): 1%-1.3% in Turkey (18.19), 0.6%-0.96% in Iran (20-21), 0.5% in Egypt (22), 0.6% in Tunisia and Israel (23-24), <0.5% in Jordan, Lebanon, and Kuwait (1.10,16.25). Among high risk groups (patients with positive family history, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, thyroiditis, etc.) the prevalence of celiac disease ranges from 2.4% to 44% assessed by serological markers and biopsy (26-27).

    The team discovered a celiac disease prevalence of 1%, an incidence, based on new Cases/year estimated on 1% of the live births of 1 in 7 symptomatic adults, and 1 in 5 children. Their results showed standardized mortality rate of 1.8 compared to age and sex matched population.

    They found that the delay between symptoms and diagnosis was six years for adults, and two years for children.

    The team found associated conditions in 10% of the total cohort (KB 30%: Turkey 2% Iran 33% , IDDM 10% (6.7-18.5%).

    Sixteen percent of symptomatic patients showed celiac disease-related complications.

    The team found the following non GI Symptoms among symptomatic patients: short stature 25% Anemia 40% (20-80%) Osteopenia 30% (30-50%), abnormal liver function 10% (Turkey 38%, Iran 25%).

    In the Northern Africa Region and in the Middle East very high incidence of celiac disease has recently been reported both in the general population and in at risk-group. These high frequencies are due to the wide consumption of wheat and barley and to the high frequency of the DR3-DQ2 celiac disease predisposing haplotypes in these population (13,14).

    Source:


    Image Caption: New study looks at prevalence of CD in the Mediterranean Area. Photo: Jefferson Adams
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  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/23/2011 - A group of researchers in India recently conducted a community-based study on the prevalence of celiac disease in the northern part of India.
    The research group included Govind K Makharia, Anil K Verma, Ritvik Amarchand, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Prasenjit Das, Anil Goswami, Vidyut Bhatia, Vineet Ahuja, Siddhartha Datta Gupta and Krishnan Anand.
    They are affiliated with the Departments of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, and Pediatrics and Pathology at the Centre for Community Medicine of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi.
    Worldwide celiac disease rates are estimated at about 1%, but the disease is thought to be uncommon in both India and Asia. However, there has generally been a lack of study data on the actual prevalence of celiac disease in Asian nations.
    The research team set out to accurately estimate the prevalence of celiac disease in a specific Indian community. The team crafted a cross sectional study to estimate rates of celiac disease in urban and rural populations in the National Capital Region, Delhi, India.
    The team gathered data using a structured questionnaire administered via door-to-door visits. The questionnaire provided socio-demographic data and basic screening for features of celiac disease, such as chronic or recurrent diarrhea, and anemia.
    For children, the questionnaire included additional factors, namely short stature (linear height below 5th percentile for age) and failure to thrive/gain weight.
    All test subjects with positive screens and 10% of negative screen individuals were called for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody blood test.
    All those with positive blood tests were invited to undergo endoscopic biopsy. The team diagnosed celiac disease on the basis of a positive blood screens, the presence of villous atrophy and/or response to gluten free diet.
    The team contacted 12,573 people in all. A total of 10,488 (83.4%) (50.6% male) agreed to participate. Screening showed 5,622 (53.6%) positive results. Of those who screened positive, 2167 (38.5%) submitted to anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody blood tests. The team also tested 712 (14%) subjects who had tested negative.
    The data showed an overall sero-prevalence of celiac disease was 1.44% (95% conï¬dence interval [CI] 1.22 1.69) and the overall prevalence of celiac disease was 1.04% (95% CI 0.85 1.25).
    Celiac disease in this north Indian community is 1 in 96, or about 1%. That means that celiac disease is more common than is recognized in India, and that rates are about the same as in other parts of the world, not lower, as conventional wisdom has held.
    Source:

    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, March 2011 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06606.x

    Tina Turbin
    Celiac.com 10/12/2011 - According to recent estimates, three million Americans suffer from celiac disease—approximately 1% of the population, and only three percent of them have to this writing been correctly diagnosed. As startling as that sounds to us all, according to a news article on Medscape Today, the incidence of celiac disease has increased markedly over the last three decades, perhaps even as fourfold, and studies are suggesting the incidence may actually be higher than 1% of the population.
    What is the reason for this? According to Dr. Jonas Ludvigsson, MD, from the Department of Medicine, Epidemiology Unit at the Karolinska Institute and Orebro University Hospital in Sweden, and a renowned celiac expert, there may be many factors explaining this, but there probably is an actual increase underlying these.
    The Medscape article went on to report that the Mayo Clinic has confirmed increase in celiac disease incidence, reported in Discovery's Edge, the Mayo Clinic's research magazine. Dr. Joseph Murray, MD, and colleagues analyzed stored blood samples from Air Force recruits in the early 1950s for gluten antibodies. It was assumed that 1% would be positive, given today's estimates, but the number of positive results was far smaller. Dr. Murray and his colleagues compared their results with two more recently collected sets with the conclusion that celiac disease is about four times more common today than it was in the 1950s.
    Additionally, Dr. Ludviggon's research team in Sweden has found that those living with celiac disease and latent celiac disease have higher mortality than those who don't have these conditions. Latent celiac disease is also known as "gluten sensitivity," a term to describe those who have "normal small intestinal mucosa but positive celiac disease serology," estimated to affect 1 in 1000 people. According to Dr. Ludvigsson's research team, in 1 year, 10 of 1000 individuals with celiac disease will die, as compared with 7 in 1000 individuals without the disease. The mortality rate is increased among those who also have latent celiac disease as well. The increased risk, however, is quite small.
    As alarming as the statistics are regarding the increasing rate of celiac disease, Dr. Ludvigsson shares some good news with Medscape—the methods of diagnosing celiac disease are actually improving. According to some other estimates, the rate of celiac diagnosis rate is increasing. For those who are testing positive for the celiac disease, the only method of treatment currently available is eliminating gluten from the diet. Yes, this is a simple treatment, although it can require some challenging lifestyle adjustments for the gluten-free community, something which I address in my work as an author, researcher, and gluten-free advocate. In the future, we may see other treatments such as gluten-digesting enzymes (which are on the rise) or even the genetic modification of the structure of gluten in wheat so that it will not cause an autoimmune reaction in celiac patients. Even with celiac diagnosis incidence on the rise, with raised awareness and effective diagnosis, we can help change the lives of millions of celiac Americans for the better. This is an important endeavor.


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/23/2012 - At 2012 Digestive Diseases Week in San Diego, California, Alvine Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the publication of data from Phase 2A trial of its main celiac disease compound, ALV003.
    The results show that ALV003, orally administered to celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet, significantly reduces gluten-triggered intestinal mucosal damage.
    For the trial, 41 adults with clinically proven celiac disease who had followed a gluten-free diet for at least one year were randomly given ALV003 or a placebo each day for six weeks. During that time, they also received 2g of gluten in the form of bread crumbs.
    Participants received a small bowel biopsy prior to randomization and again, at the end of the six week challenge.
    The results showed that the study met its primary endpoint of a clinically and statistically meaningful reduction in intestinal mucosal damage in celiac patients on a gluten-free diet. Damage was measured by the ratio of the villus height to crypt depth, or Vh:celiac disease between the ALV003 and placebo treated groups over the six week study period.
    Secondary endpoints included change in intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) density, gastrointestinal symptoms as measured by Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) scores, celiac serologies, safety and tolerability.
    Each subject received small bowel biopsy at the start of the trial, and again after six weeks of daily gluten challenge.
    When researchers compared biopsy results from 34 patients, they found significantly less small intestinal mucosal damage in patients treated with ALV003 than in placebo-treated patients (p=0.013).
    Placebo-treated patients suffered worse damage and symptoms. Most often, these included abdominal distention, flatulence, eructation, abdominal pain and diarrhea.
    The published data shows that:
    Biopsy results for patients who received ALV003 had significantly reduced small intestinal mucosal damage compared with placebo-treated patients (p=0.0133). For placebo-treated patients, IELs, including CD3+ and CD3+ aB and subsets, which measure cellular inflammation responses, were significantly higher, but were mostly normal in the ALV003-treated patients. ALV003-treated patients had better overall GSRS scores and scores for indigestion and abdominal pain symptoms, compared with placebo-treated patients, though the results were not statistically significant. Patients reported no serious adverse events, however, placebo-treated patients reported more regular and consistent non-serious adverse. Such events that occurred in 10 percent or more patients included abdominal distention, flatulence, eructation, diarrhea, nausea, headache and fatigue. Celiac-disease blood tests revealed no significant changes between the ALV003 and placebo-treated patients, though results did show positive trends for tissue transglutaminase and deamidated gliadin peptide antibody titers in the ALV003-treated group, which indicates improved immune response. Daniel Adelman, M.D., Alvine's Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer, says that the trial results represent the first time that any such treatment for celiac disease has met its pre-specified primary endpoint of providing protection against damage from gluten-exposure in celiac disease patients, with data that is both clinically and statistically significant.
    Such a drug could help to protect gluten-free celiac disease patients against accidental gluten contamination.
    The company plans to initiate a Phase 2B trial later this year.
    Read the abstract of the presentation (Sa1342) on the DDW website. Review information on Alvine's current clinical trial titled "Evaluation of Patient Reported Outcome Instruments in Celiac Disease Patients" at the NIH website.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/21/2013 - Caroline, a third-grader at St. Pius school in Chicago her mother, Cassandra, both have celiac disease.
    After being formally diagnosed at the Celiac Disease Center at the University of Chicago, they each received care package that contained "…lots of gluten free foods, as well as tons of literature about eating gluten free,” said Cassandra. “Caroline’s care package had a stuffed animal in it," she added.
    The university's care package program is funded solely by donations, and this knowledge, along with Caroline's appreciation, led to a desire to support the Celiac Disease Center.
    Cassandra credits Caroline with a plan to make and sell pony tail holders with ribbons. Caroline made the holders herself, and sold them for $4.00 each, collecting over one hundred dollars in the process.
    Caroline specifically "wanted the money to be used to send another little girl or boy a care package and stuffed animal,” said Cassandra.
    Caroline proudly announced her efforts and presented the money at her at her annual appointment with Dr. Stefano Guandalini, founder of the University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center.
    Dr. Guandalini was "so appreciative and proud of her efforts,” beamed Cassandra. “His kind words to her made our day, and Caroline left feeling great about giving back!”
    Principal Daniel Flaherty called Caroline a "…great example for all of us here at St. Pius X Parish School.”
    Source:
    http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/suburbs/lombard_villa_park/community/chi-ugc-article-st-pius-x-third-grader-inspired-to-give-2013-04-26,0,5389721.story

  • Recent Articles

    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
    That’s where the story takes a dangerous turn….about 3:15am. I awoke to the TV blaring loudly, along with the lights shining brightly. Our power was back on! I proceeded to walk throughout the house turning everything off at exactly the same time our neighbor, who was told to evacuate our street, saw me through our window, assuming I knew that our hillside was ablaze with flames. Flames that were shooting 50 feet into the air. I went back to bed and fell fast asleep. The fire department was assured we had left because our house was dark and quiet again. Two hours had passed.  I suddenly awoke to screams coming from a family member yelling, “fire, fire, fire”! Flames were shooting straight up into the sky, just blocks from our house. We lived on a private drive with only one way in and one way out.  The entrance to our street was full of smoke and the fire fighters were doing their best to save our neighbors homes. We literally had enough time to grab our dogs, pile into the car, and speed to safety. As we were coming down our street, fire trucks passed us with sirens blaring, and I wondered if I would ever see my house and our possessions ever again. Where do we go? Who do we turn to? Are shelters a safe option? 
    When our daughter was almost three years old, we left the West Coast and relocated to Northern Illinois. A place where severe weather is a common occurrence. Since the age of two, I noticed that my daughter appeared gaunt, had an incredibly distended belly, along with gas, stomach pain, low weight, slow growth, unusual looking stool, and a dislike for pizza, hotdog buns, crackers, Toast, etc. The phone call from our doctor overwhelmed me.  She was diagnosed with Celiac Disease. I broke down into tears sobbing. What am I going to feed my child? Gluten is everywhere.
    After being scoped at Children's Hospital of Chicago, and my daughters Celiac Disease officially confirmed, I worried about her getting all the nutrients her under nourished body so desperately needed. I already knew she had a peanut allergy from blood tests, but just assumed she would be safe with other nuts. I was so horribly wrong. After feeding her a small bite of a pistachio, which she immediately spit out, nuts would become her enemy. Her anaphylactic reaction came within minutes of taking a bite of that pistachio. She was complaining of horrible stomach cramps when the vomiting set in. She then went limp and starting welting. We called 911.
    Now we never leave home without our Epipens and our gluten free food supplies. We analyze every food label. We are hyper vigilant about cross contamination. We are constantly looking for welts and praying for no stomach pain. We are always prepared and on guard. It's just what we do now. Anything to protect our child, our love...like so many other parents out there have to do every moment of ever day!  
    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
    That is when I knew we had to be prepared. No more winging it. We couldn’t take a chance like that ever again. We were “lucky” one too many times. We were very fortunate that we did not lose our home to the Los Angeles wildfire, and only had minimal damage from the severe storm which hit our home in Illinois.
      
    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764