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  • Jefferson Adams
    Jefferson Adams

    Rates of Gluten-Related Disorders as High as 11.8% in Some Asia-Pacific Groups

      Gluten-related disorders in high risk Asia-Pacific populations run as high as 11.8%. Wheat allergy is rare, but the number one cause of anaphylaxis. 

    Caption: Image: CC--Dennis Jarvis

    Celiac.com 03/05/2019 - The mechanics of how celiac disease and gluten-related disorders develop is still poorly understood. In order to shed light on the subject, a team of researchers recently conducted a systematic review of the current epidemiological knowledge of gluten-related disorders. They focused on variations in reported cases and rates of gluten-related disorders in the Asia-Pacific region.
     
    The research team included Sara Ashtari, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Kamran Rostami, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Luca Busani, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, and Mohammad Reza Zali.

    For their reviews, the team searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane database for material published from January 1991 to January 2018. They searched the following MeSH terms and keywords: celiac disease, wheat allergy, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia and the prevalence studies. Each article was cross-referenced with “Asia-Pacific region” and countries in this region such as Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Turkey, Iran and others.

    They found a total of 66 suitable studies that chronicled rates of gluten-related disorders in the Asia-Pacific region. They found celiac disease rates of 0.32%-1.41% in healthy children, and 0.05%-1.22% in the adult population, while rates in the high risk population ran as high as 11.8%. Earlier studies have shown few cases of dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia. Interestingly, even though wheat allergy is uncommon in most Asian-Pacific countries, it’s the most common cause of anaphylaxis. 

    This review emphasizes how little good information we have, and how much we need more and better epidemiological studies to reveal the origins and development of gluten-related disorders, and to better measure their effects upon health care delivery.

    Read more at: J Gastrointestin Liver Dis, March 2019 Vol. 28 No 1

     

    They are variously affiliated with the Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; the Departments of Gastroenterology, Milton Keynes Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Milton Keynes, UK; the Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; the Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy; and the Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



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  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams earned his B.A. and M.F.A. at Arizona State University, and has authored more than 2,000 articles on celiac disease. His coursework includes studies in biology, anatomy, medicine, science, and advanced research, and scientific methods. He previously served as Health News Examiner for Examiner.com, and devised health and medical content for Sharecare.com. Jefferson has spoken about celiac disease to the media, including an appearance on the KQED radio show Forum, and is the editor of the book "Cereal Killers" by Scott Adams and Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.

  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/01/2014 - While estimates indicate that about 1% of the world's population is affected by celiac disease, it is thought to be uncommon in both India and Asia. However, very little study has been done on celiac disease in Asian nations.
    A team of researchers recently set out to estimate rates of celiac disease in the Indian population. The research team included G.K. Makharia, A.K. Verma, R. Amarchand, S. Bhatnagar, P. Das, A. Goswami, V. Bhatia, V. Ahuja, S. Datta Gupta, and K. Anand. They are affiliated with the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi, India.
    For their cross sectional study, the team estimated rates of celiac disease in urban and rural populations in the National Capital Region in Delhi, India.
    For their estimate, they made door-to-door visits with a structured questionnaire, collecting socio-demographic data, and screening for features of celiac disease, namely chronic or recurrent diarrhea and, anemia. In children, they included short stature, and failure to thrive/gain weight.
    All respondents who screened positive for any of the above factors, and 10% of screen negative individuals received blood tests for the anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody.
    Those with positive blood tests were invited to undergo further evaluation including endoscopic biopsy. Diagnosis for celiac disease was made on the basis of a positive blood test, the presence of villous atrophy and/or response to gluten free diet.
    Overall, the team had 10,488 participants, just over 50% of which were male. A total of 5622 participants (53.6%) showed positive first screens. Of those, 2167 (38.5%) received blood test. The team also blood tested an additional 712 (14%) negative first screens.
    The team found a total celiac disease blood screen rate of 1.44%, with 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 1.69, and a total celiac disease rate of 1.04%, with 95% CI 0.85 1.25.
    The prevalence of celiac disease in this north Indian community is slightly over one percent, which is about the same as many western nations, and higher than generally recognized in India.
    Source:
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 May;26(5):894-900. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06606.x.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 09/01/2014 - At present, the number of reported celiac disease cases in China is extremely low, and celiac disease is considered to be rare in that country. To determine the accuracy of this perspective, a team of researchers recently set out to compile an accurate estimate of rates of celiac disease in China.
    The research team included Juanli Yuan, Jinyan Gao, Xin Li, Fahui Liu, Cisca Wijmenga, Hongbing Chen, and Luud J. W. J. Gilissen. They are variously affiliated with the State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, the College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, and the School of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, at Nanchang University in Nanchang, China, the Department of Genetics at the University Medical Centre Groningen of University of Groningen in Groningen, The Netherlands, with the Sino-German Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China, and with the Plant Research International at Wageningen University & Research Centre in Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    The team reviewed the literature for certain and possible cases of celiac disease, the predisposing HLA allele frequencies, and information on gluten exposure in China. For the review, the team used the MEDLINE database, Chinese full-text databases CNKI, CBM, VIP and WANFANG, and two HLA allele frequency net databases, along with the Chinese Statistics Yearbook databases. They performed meta-analysis by analyzing DQ2, DQ8 and DQB1*0201 gene frequencies, and heterogeneity, in populations from different geographic regions and ethnicities in China.
    They found that frequencies of the HLA-DQ2.5 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes were 3.4% (95% confidence interval 1.3–5.5%) and 2.1% (0.1–4.1%), respectively. HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 antigen frequencies were 18.4% (15.0–21.7%) and 8.0% (4.5–11.4%), respectively. The frequency of the DQB1*0201 allele was 10.5% (9.3–11.6%), and the allele was more common in the northern Chinese than in the southern Chinese individuals.
    HLA haplotype data, in conjunction with increasing wheat consumption, strongly suggest that rates of celiac disease are far higher in China than currently reported.
    The researchers suggest that the Chinese government, medical and agricultural research institutions, and food industries work together to increase awareness about celiac disease to prevent it from growing into a medical and societal burden.
    Source:
    PLOS ONE DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081151

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/03/2016 - Among patients diagnosed with celiac disease by small intestinal biopsy in the U.S., people from the Punjab region of India have the highest rates of disease, according to new research published in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
    In an effort to better understand celiac disease distribution in Americans of various ethnicities, a team of researchers led by Benjamin Lebwohl, MD, Herbert Irving Assistant Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology at the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University Medical Center in New York, recently looked at more than 400,000 intestinal biopsies from a nationwide database. The team identified patients with celiac disease based on the presence of villous atrophy in the small intestine.
    The researchers used a previously published algorithm based on patient names to identify celiac disease distribution among North Indian, South Indian, East Asian, Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Jewish and other Americans.
    The team's data shows that celiac disease is much less common among U.S. residents of South Indian, East Asian and Hispanic ancestry, while celiac disease rates among patients of Jewish and Middle Eastern ethnicities was similar to that of the general American population.
    Earlier studies have suggested that celiac disease might be more common in women, but these findings show that men and women have similar rates of celiac disease when tested, regardless of ethnicity.
    These findings show that, contrary to the previous medical thinking that celiac is a disease predominantly affecting Caucasian Europeans, the condition is better understood as "one of the most common hereditary disorders worldwide," noted Dr. Lebwohl.
    Source:
    American Gastroenterological Association

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 01/03/2019 - Celiac disease is common in Saudi Arabia, affecting about 1.5% of the country's total population, according to a recent mass screening study. A team of researchers recently set out to determine the frequency of celiac disease-predisposing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ genotypes in the Saudi population.
    The research team included A Al-Hussaini, H Alharthi, A Osman, N Eltayeb-Elsheikh, and A Chentoufi. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Children's Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City; College of Medicine, Alfaisal University; Prince Abdullah bin Khalid Celiac Disease Research Chair, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Immunology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; the Department of Immunology, University of Mohammed VI for health sciences, Casablanca, Morocco.
    For their cross-sectional population-based study, the team enrolled 192 randomly selected healthy school children, who all tested negative for tissue transglutaminase-IgA. The team then used polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes to type the children for D QA1 and D QB1 genes.
    More than half of the children carried the high-risk celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ molecules at the following rates: homozygous DQ2.5 ( 2.6%), DQ2.5/DQ2.2 ( 4.7%), heterozygous DQ2.5 ( 28.15%), homozygous DQ8 ( 4.2%), DQ8/DQ2.2 ( 3.6%), and double dose DQ2.2 ( 9.4%). Another 13% had low-risk celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ molecules, single dose DQ2.2 and heterozygous DQ8. 
    In the ultra low-risk groups, subjects without alleles that promote DQ2/DQ8 variants (33.5%), 13.5% carried only one of the alleles of the high-risk HLA-DQ2.5 heterodimer called "half-heterodimer" (HLA-DQA1*05 in 12% and HLA-DQB1* 02 in 1.5%), and 20.8% lacked all the susceptible alleles (DQX.x). The celiac disease-risk groups showed no important differences in gender distribution.
    More than half the healthy general Saudi population carries celiac disease-predisposing HLA-DQ genotypes, one of the highest general rates in the world; a fact that may help to explain the high rates of celiac disease in the Saudi population.
    Source:
    Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2018 Sep-Oct;24(5):268-273. doi: 10.4103/sjg.SJG_551_17

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    Doritos does make a few gluten-free versions.     
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