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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    THE CHRISTMAS LIGHT WEBCAM THAT FOOLED THE WORLD PARTNERS WITH THE CENTER FOR CELIAC DISEASE RESEARCH TO RAISE FUNDS


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    komarnitsky_webcam.jpgCeliac.com 12/06/2005 - Alek Komarnitsky from Lafayette, CO (USA) has had thousands of Christmas lights on his house for the enjoyment of friends and neighbors since 2000. In 2002, he added a webcam and webcontrol, so people on the Internet could not only view his lights, but turn them on & off and see the results on their computer screen via the Christmas webcam. It got increasingly popular each year, and in 2004, a media frenzy erupted over it and the story went around the world on the Internet, in print, on radio, and on TV - one of the more entertaining segments was when Denver ABC-7 took him up in their helicopter for a live report on the 6:00 News of the blinking lights.

    There was only one problem - it was all a fun little Christmas hoax. The lights were real, but a sequence of still images were used to provide the illusion that people were changing them. Aleks wife was changing the lights when the chopper was overhead, but the rest of the time they never changed!

    Concerned that his prank had gotten out of hand, Alek approached the Wall Street Journal to fess up and High Tech Holiday Light Display Draws Everyone But the Skeptics revealed the hoax after Christmas. Needless to say, the media howled over this change of events, and another round of international publicity ensued as people around the world got a good post-holiday chuckle.

    For 2005, Alek suggests a headline of High Tech Holiday Display Says Bring on the Skeptics! With improved technology available, he has three (real) ChristmasCams (three more than last year!) providing real-time views of his 26,000 Christmas Lights. And using X10 power line control technology, people on the Internet really can them on and off this year. He adds Ill be sure to have it operational on Christmas Eve so web surfers can look for Santa, but realistically, I doubt well get a picture of Rudolph landing on my roof .... but HEY, you never know!

    komarnitsky_kids.jpg
    Aleks children
    - Dirk and Kyle

    While www.komar.org has always been free to Internet surfers around the world, Alek encourages those people who enjoy the Christmas lights show to consider making a direct contribution to the CFCR. Aleks two sons have celiac disease, so this cause is important to him. Individuals and companies that donate are listed on the high traffic web site for Christmas lights fans around the world to see.

    And in keeping with Aleks whimsical nature, he has donated the Christmas Lights Webcam that Fooled the World to the CFCR. There actually was a webcam last year, since as the media showed up at his house in droves, he figured he should put something up in the tree across the street to make it look like there was one. So he a cobbled together a contraption of a Christmas slide projector ($10), a half a roll of duct tape ($2), and ended up fooling the world - PRICELESS!

    The CFCR plans to have an eBay auction in December of this well constructed piece of history - again, 100% of proceeds for Celiac Research. So for those that missed out on the $28,000 Virgin Mary French Toast, get ready for the eBay auction of the The Christmas Lights Webcam that Fooled the World.

    Make a donation at the University of Marylands Center for Celiac Disease Research
    And be sure to say For Christmas Lights when make your donation.


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    admin
    A little boy with a severe seizure disorder had his wish to have a special bike of his own granted through national children’s charity Kids Wish Network.
    Champaign, IL, August 14, 2010 --(PR.com)-- As a child, Joshua was diagnosed with having Intractable Epilepsy, a disorder in which he experiences seizures that are completely uncontrollable; he currently endures around four major seizures a day. Over the years, Joshua’s doctors have tried well over 10 different seizure medications to try and regulate his condition, but none have worked, including the 3 he is currently taking.
    Because of the severity of his condition, Joshua also suffers from developmental delays that have impaired his motor skills to the point where he cannot do much of anything without assistance; his communication skills are very limited. In addition, Joshua was diagnosed with having Celiac Disease, which is a condition that negatively affects his digestive tract when he eats foods that contain gluten. Because of this, Joshua must follow a strict diet that excludes the many foods that have gluten in them, including all wheat-based foods.
    It was a teacher of Joshua’s who told his mother Janet about national children’s charity Kids Wish Network and the wishes they grant to kids like Joshua who are suffering from life-threatening illnesses; Joshua’s mother decided to give them a call.
    Of all the things he could want, all Joshua wanted was a special bike so that he could ride beside his grandfather during the bike rides he enjoys so much; he previously had to ride behind his grandfather in a special seat.
    With an amazing amount of local support from the Westminster Presbyterian Church and the Champaign Firefighters Local 1260, Joshua’s Kids Wish Network wish coordinator arranged for a special side by side “trike” to be sent directly to his house.
    Janet says that her son Joshua took to the brand new side by side bike immediately.
    “It’s very amazing for him because it usually takes him a while to get used to new things, but since he’s gotten the bike, he’s actually requested going for a ride… he goes out to the garage and stands by it. It’s amazing for him,” said Janet.
    “He really likes being right up there next to his grandpa and seeing everything…he’ll even lean over and pat him [his grandpa] on his arm or kiss him…Joshua’s smiling a lot and he’s even laughed a few times, too! This is not usual. I mean, before (on rides) he’d sometimes smile, but not like this.”
    Not only is the “wish bike” something to bring a smile to Joshua’s face, but it is also a chance for Joshua to learn things he might not have ever have had the chance to learn.
    According to Janet, “It’s going to grow with him. It’s a possibility for him to learn to pedal… he’s even put his hand on the handlebars several times, imitating his grandpa. He’s interested and it’s wonderful.”
    Kids Wish Network would like to thank the following for helping to make Joshua’s wish extra special: Westminster Presbyterian Church, Champaign Firefighters Local 1260 and the Worksman Trading Corporation.
    Kids Wish Network is a nationally recognized non-profit organization dedicated to infusing hope, creating happy memories, and improving the quality of life for children in crisis. Every child deserves a chance at happiness; a wish is just a way of bringing them that joy. If you would like to sponsor a child’s wish or if you know a child who is suffering from a life-threatening illness and may be in need of Kids Wish Network’s wish granting services, please call 727-937-3600 or toll free 888-918-9004. For more information on Kids Wish Network, visit their website at www.kidswishnetwork.org


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 02/16/2011 - A team of researchers recently set out to establish a universal approach to eliminate disease-triggering properties of alpha-gliadin peptides in celiac disease.
    The research team included Cristina Mitea, Elma M. J. Salentijn, Peter van Veelen, Svetlana V. Goryunova, Ingrid M. van der Meer, Hetty C. van den Broeck, Jorge R. Mujico, Veronica Monserrat, Luud J. W. J. Gilissen, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Liesbeth Dekking, Frits Koning, and Marinus J. M. Smulders.
    They are affiliated with the Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion at Leiden University Medical Center, in Leiden, Plant Research International at Wageningen UR, and the Allergy Centre Wageningen, in Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Celiac disease is triggered by an uncontrolled immune response to gluten, a mix of wheat storage proteins that include α-gliadins. Research has shown that α-gliadins contain several major epitopes involved in celiac disease pathogenesis.
    Eliminating such epitopes from α-gliadins would be a major step towards eliminating gluten toxicity for celiac disease patients.
    The team analyzed over 3,000 expressed α-gliadin sequences from 11 types of bread wheat to figure out if they encode for peptides that might play a role in celiac disease.
    The team synthesized all epitope variants they identified as peptides. They then tested each to see if it bound to the disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 molecules, and if it was recognized by patient-derived α-gliadin specific T cell clones.
    For each of the α-gliadin derived peptides involved in celiac disease, the team found several specific naturally occurring amino acid substitutions that eliminate the celiac disease-triggering properties of the epitope variants.
    Finally, the team proved at the peptide level that by using systematic introduction of such naturally occurring variations α-gliadins, they can generate genes that no longer encode antigenic peptides. That is, they can create genes in wheat that do not trigger celiac disease.
    Their work offers an important contribution for developing strategies to modify gluten genes in wheat so that it becomes safe for people with celiac disease and gluten intolerance.
    The findings of the study also provide information for design and introduction of safe gluten genes in other cereals, which would conceivably make them both better in quality, and safe for people with celiac disease.

    Source:

    PLoS ONE 5(12): e15637. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015637

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 02/20/2012 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is gathering information on drug ingredients derived from wheat, rye or barley, to help people with celiac disease make better-informed decisions when buying drugs and other health products.
    Specifically, the FDA is asking pharmaceutical companies for information about any ingredients derived from wheat, rye or barley, that are used to make U.S. products.
    Additionally, the FDA is seeking information about the prevalence of such ingredients, processing steps taken or possible to remove gluten, and any current gluten testing practices.
    The FDA is also seeking to understand exactly how crucial ingredients derived from wheat, rye and barley are to the production of any given drug that may contain them, and to press for possible substitutes.
    Lastly, the FDA wants to make certain that people with gluten sensitivities get complete information when receiving drugs in a clinical setting.
    Overall, the FDA seems to be making certain that the known allergens in wheat, rye and barley are getting proper attention from drug manufacturers.
    Stay tuned for the results, and for information on how these FDA actions impact gluten-free issues regarding drugs, health and medical products in the future.
    Source:

    http://www.in-pharmatechnologist.com/Materials-Formulation/FDA-researching-gluten-in-drugs-to-help-celiac-disease-patients

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 01/14/2015 - Recent epidemiological studies show that celiac disease rates are still underestimated, both in Europe and in Mediterranean regions. But how is better testing impacting higher celiac numbers in Europe?
    To get a clearer picture, a team of researchers recently set out to review the latest data on celiac rates and incidence in the European Union (EU) as of September 2014.
    The research team included E. Altobelli, R. Paduano, R. Petrocelli, and F. Di Orio. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences at the University of L'Aquila in L'Aquila, Italy, and with ASREM in Molise, Italy.
    They assessed the celiac disease rates and cases by conducting a search of PubMed for papers in English using the key words "celiac disease", "celiac disease plus prevalence" (limits: 1990-2014), "incidence" (limits: 1970-2014), and "frequency", plus "in Europe". They conducted additional searches using the same key words plus the name of each European country.
    The team included only prevalence data obtained by serology using anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), EMA test, tTG test, and/or duodenal biopsy, and only studies that were retrospective and prospective, such as population-based, cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies.
    They found that the overall undiagnosed celiac population in EU is 0.5-1%, whereas the highest estimate reported in population-based studies is approximately 1%.
    Considering data from different periods, incidence seems to range from 0.1 to 3.7/1000 live births in the child population and from 1.3 to 39/100,000/year in the adult population.
    Interestingly, though perhaps unsurprisingly, the data show clear geographical variation in both cases and rates of celiac disease in various European countries.
    They note a rising occurrence of celiac disease in recent decades in European countries, due partly to the advent of improved serological testing (tTG + EMA) and partly to increased awareness of its clinical presentation.
    Source:
    Ann Ig. 2014 Nov-Dec;26(6):485-98. doi: 10.7416/ai.2014.2007.

  • Recent Articles

    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
    That’s where the story takes a dangerous turn….about 3:15am. I awoke to the TV blaring loudly, along with the lights shining brightly. Our power was back on! I proceeded to walk throughout the house turning everything off at exactly the same time our neighbor, who was told to evacuate our street, saw me through our window, assuming I knew that our hillside was ablaze with flames. Flames that were shooting 50 feet into the air. I went back to bed and fell fast asleep. The fire department was assured we had left because our house was dark and quiet again. Two hours had passed.  I suddenly awoke to screams coming from a family member yelling, “fire, fire, fire”! Flames were shooting straight up into the sky, just blocks from our house. We lived on a private drive with only one way in and one way out.  The entrance to our street was full of smoke and the fire fighters were doing their best to save our neighbors homes. We literally had enough time to grab our dogs, pile into the car, and speed to safety. As we were coming down our street, fire trucks passed us with sirens blaring, and I wondered if I would ever see my house and our possessions ever again. Where do we go? Who do we turn to? Are shelters a safe option? 
    When our daughter was almost three years old, we left the West Coast and relocated to Northern Illinois. A place where severe weather is a common occurrence. Since the age of two, I noticed that my daughter appeared gaunt, had an incredibly distended belly, along with gas, stomach pain, low weight, slow growth, unusual looking stool, and a dislike for pizza, hotdog buns, crackers, Toast, etc. The phone call from our doctor overwhelmed me.  She was diagnosed with Celiac Disease. I broke down into tears sobbing. What am I going to feed my child? Gluten is everywhere.
    After being scoped at Children's Hospital of Chicago, and my daughters Celiac Disease officially confirmed, I worried about her getting all the nutrients her under nourished body so desperately needed. I already knew she had a peanut allergy from blood tests, but just assumed she would be safe with other nuts. I was so horribly wrong. After feeding her a small bite of a pistachio, which she immediately spit out, nuts would become her enemy. Her anaphylactic reaction came within minutes of taking a bite of that pistachio. She was complaining of horrible stomach cramps when the vomiting set in. She then went limp and starting welting. We called 911.
    Now we never leave home without our Epipens and our gluten free food supplies. We analyze every food label. We are hyper vigilant about cross contamination. We are constantly looking for welts and praying for no stomach pain. We are always prepared and on guard. It's just what we do now. Anything to protect our child, our love...like so many other parents out there have to do every moment of ever day!  
    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
    That is when I knew we had to be prepared. No more winging it. We couldn’t take a chance like that ever again. We were “lucky” one too many times. We were very fortunate that we did not lose our home to the Los Angeles wildfire, and only had minimal damage from the severe storm which hit our home in Illinois.
      
    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764