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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    DISTILLERY UNDER FIRE FOR LABELING VODKA AND GIN AS "GLUTEN-FREE"


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 06/18/2015 - An Irish distillery has run afoul of regulatory authorities over labels that tout its gin and vodka as "gluten-free." The artisanal, Cork-based, St Patrick's Distillery claims it is a common misconception that all gin and vodkas were gluten-free.


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    Photo: CC--Toukou SousuiThe company claims that, since its products are made with gluten-free ingredients, its labels are accurately distinguishing its vodka and gin from other products made with wheat. However, after numerous complaints, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland plans to follow up on the distillery's claims.

    The FSAI points out that all distilled beverages are gluten-free, calls the claims misleading, and says the company could be in breach of strict Irish food-labeling laws.

    A spokesperson for the FSAI said: "Under the Food Information for Consumers Regulation, the food information must not mislead the consumer by suggesting that the food possess special characteristics when, in fact, all similar foods (in this case, vodka and gin) possess such characteristics."

    Niamh O'Connor, who runs Cork Nutrition, said she that she was incredulous about the company's claims.

    "It is an absolute indisputable fact that distilled spirits are gluten-free, even if gluten-containing grains are used as a raw ingredient," said O'Conner. "Therefore…all gin and vodka products are gluten-free so one cannot label their own product as "gluten-free."

    Ireland's Coeliac Society, which supports people with the food intolerance, described the claims from St Patrick's Distillery as "unhelpful".

    "Wine, spirits, and cider are gluten free," said the society's Gráinne Denning.

    In addition to labeling their gin and vodka as "gluten-free," the company also refers to their new range of spirits as being lactose free. Of course, all distilled spirits are naturally dairy free and lactose free.

    What do you think? Are such labels helpful, or misleading?

    Share your thoughts below.


    Image Caption: Photo shows Japan's Yamazaki distillery. Photo: CC--Toukou Sousui
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    I think this labeling IS helpful. Some vodkas etc. have additives that might make them not gluten free (like flavorings). If all spirits were labeled it would just make it easier. We aren't all food experts. And we have all had the experience of finding gluten in something that should be naturally gluten free.

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    I think this labeling IS helpful. Some vodkas etc. have additives that might make them not gluten free (like flavorings). If all spirits were labeled it would just make it easier. We aren't all food experts. And we have all had the experience of finding gluten in something that should be naturally gluten free.

    Oops. I meant to say a PhD chemist, not physicist, in my above comment. Here is the link to explain why ALL alcohol made from glutenous grains contains gluten:

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    Guest Brenda Loughnane

    Posted

    I find this article very interesting and I think the company should be allowed to label the product gluten-free. I myself have been ill after drinking Baileys, which contains whiskey.

    This is a quote from Baileys' website "The ingredients used in Baileys are Gluten free. On the basis of this and to the best of our knowledge there are no traces of Gluten in Baileys. As we are not qualified to give medical advice persons requiring a Gluten free diet should consult their medical adviser before consuming Baileys."

    I note that they say "to the best of their knowledge", which, to me, indicates that they do not run tests for gluten.

     

    Another article I found interesting is from 2009 by No Gluten, No Problem. They are indicating that the problem with gluten found in spirits is from after distillation. The gluten gets in the product via cross-contamination and distillation practices by the company.

     

    My personal opinion is that there could be trace amounts and that the distillation process makes alcohol safe only for "most coeliacs" and therefore is deemed gluten free by all organisations. The only time I would contradict this is if a product is solely using naturally gluten free ingredients and not making any other gluten containing ingredients in their factory.

     

    I was diagnosed a hyper-sensitive coeliac (by The Royal Free Hospital in London) and cannot tolerate any trace amounts. They advised me, as I was still ill after 1 year of a gluten free diet, to avoid anything that contained the Codex Wheat Starch (Codex Alimentarius), which I knew nothing about at the time. I find the coeliac organisations and companies promoting products that are safe for "most" coeliacs an absolute insult to the coeliacs that cannot tolerate these foods or drinks of which a high proportion contain some form of gluten. Now in the UK they do not even have to declare it on the label, if it is 20ppm or less, as it is considered safe!! So, I have to eat something and then get extremely ill and then I know it contains a small amount of gluten.

    I would like to ask that if everyone who is hyper sensitive like myself, please campaign to whomever you can to get coeliac/celiac disease graded as they have done with other diseases. For example, Grade/Type 1 for those who are hyper sensitive, Grade/Type 2 for "most coeliacs", Grade/Type 3 for medically diagnosed gluten intolerance or allergy. I think that this will help all of us whatever our Grade/Type, ensure that organisations and companies treat us all as individuals and not place us under their "umbrellas" and hopefully manufacturers will label their products accordingly.

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    Guest Luann

    Posted

    I have to agree with Sue here. I get tired of reading labels. If it is gluten free, I love to see it big on the front. So much easier.

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    Guest Michael

    Posted

    I think this labeling IS helpful. Some vodkas etc. have additives that might make them not gluten free (like flavorings). If all spirits were labeled it would just make it easier. We aren't all food experts. And we have all had the experience of finding gluten in something that should be naturally gluten free.

    Sue is absolutely correct. I had a terrible experience with one shot of a root beer flavored vodka (not from consuming too much, I should add) and researched later (since the label indicated nothing) only to find that the additive did contain gluten. Similar with other foods that should be "naturally" gluten free, all spirits are NOT created equal. If something is truly gluten free, and the manufacturer wishes to attract a consumer who cares about such things (like me and my non-celiac family members and friends who support my special needs), PLEASE feel free to label it as such!!

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    Guest Genevieve

    Posted

    I have reactions to distilled alcohols in the past. I don't believe that distilling ingredients removes the effect. I had selectively removed beer and certain vodkas from my diet long before I heard about gluten intolerance. I just knew that if I drank them, I would be sick.

     

    I was amazed when I finally figured out that the vodkas I had eliminated long before knowing anything about gluten, were those that were grain based. Potato vodka didn't have the same effect.

     

    I would like to know if my alcohol is made with gluten containing ingredients because it MAKES a difference to me.

     

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    Guest Elizabeth Drew

    Posted

    I welcome the labeling, as I have found that one cannot assume that a product that should logically be gluten free actually is. When I was diagnosed with celiac disease in Ireland, I was informed by the dietitian that Smirnoff Vodka (the most commonly available brand there) was not gluten free due to some aspect of the way it was processed. I have also been told that some whiskey distillers add small amounts of barley mash into the finished product to enhance the flavors, although I imagine this practice must be rare. Also, when flavorings are added to distilled spirits, there is usually no information about ingredients, let alone potential allergens, listed on labels.

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    Guest admin

    Posted

    Oops. I meant to say a PhD chemist, not physicist, in my above comment. Here is the link to explain why ALL alcohol made from glutenous grains contains gluten:

    They are mistaken, as distillation removes all traces of gluten.

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    I am not going to argue about the presence of gluten in vinegar or alcohol products, but I have a bad enough allergy to wheat and grains to react badly to any vinegars or alcoholic drinks that have been made from grains. So I would like to see more labeling, but since gluten free only imparts some information, would rather see grain free on labels as well.

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    I DEFINITELY still react to the distilled final product when gluten containing ingredients are used. So do many other sensitive celiacs like me. It would be nice to not have to call each company and/or do tons of 'net research to find out which drinks I can tolerate. I'm all for labeling that tells me not only about ingredients but also manufacturing and chance of CC right on the label. Wouldn't that be refreshing... Kind of like a nice cold mixed drink.

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    Guest Peter Nowee

    Posted

    In this environment of cross-contamination and blurring boundaries between food categories, there should be no obstacle for any food producer that is sure that his food is gluten free, to label it as such.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    Oops. I meant to say a PhD chemist, not physicist, in my above comment. Here is the link to explain why ALL alcohol made from glutenous grains contains gluten:

    This view does not represent the scientific consensus, or the view of most celiac support organizations. It is nearly universally proven and accepted that distillation removes all traces of gluten, and that all pure distilled spirits are gluten-free, unless gluten is added after distillation.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    Sue is absolutely correct. I had a terrible experience with one shot of a root beer flavored vodka (not from consuming too much, I should add) and researched later (since the label indicated nothing) only to find that the additive did contain gluten. Similar with other foods that should be "naturally" gluten free, all spirits are NOT created equal. If something is truly gluten free, and the manufacturer wishes to attract a consumer who cares about such things (like me and my non-celiac family members and friends who support my special needs), PLEASE feel free to label it as such!!

    You answered your own question. The culprit for you was flavoring added after the fact, NOT the pure distilled spirit, itself. Pure spirits are gluten-free. Additives and flavorings may not be. Buyer beware!

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    I would also like to have the ingredients on the all labels. Distilling has no effect, which I found out the hard way that not all vodkas are made from potatoes. I had a horrible reaction to a drink and it has taken weeks to recover from it. Label label label!

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    Guest Jonathan

    Posted

    CAUTION! NO! Not all pure spirits are Gluten Free! See my below explanation. Labels help and so I say; PLEASE ALLOW THEM TO LABEL IT! It is so much easier!

    I would love to add a very relevant comment in here about BOURBON. someone mentioned the barley mash in whiskey being added back in earlier - this is TRUE more times than not with Bourbon.

    Often made from corn or corn AND wheat / barley - bourbon is NOT necessarily gluten free. Why? Because they ADD THE SOUR MASH BACK IN for flavour! This is what makes a bourbon, well a bourbon, and not whiskey. This means, that even pure, distilled bourbon can gluten - and LOTS of it!

    Bourbon is a spirit. Just like Whiskey, vodka, gin and rum. However, because of the practice of adding the sour mash back into the distilled product before bottling bourbon is often NOT gluten free.

    This is for PURE bourbon, bourbon that has had no added "flavouring", and nothing else added. As the sour mash being added back is not considered an added flavour, but rather just a part of the process.

    I think it is VERY helpful to label products that are Gluten Free as Gluten Free! Eliminate the guess work.

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    admin
    Frederik Willem Janssen is head of the Chemistry Department, Food Inspection Service in Zutphen, and a subsidiary of the Inspector of Health Protection (similar to the FDA in America). Their lab has a special interest in.... modified gluten, edible packaging materials (which may contain gluten), and detection of hidden gluten in foods, including the development of improved detection methods. He is also a member of the Medical/Scientific Advisory Committee of the Dutch Celiac Society.
    Distillation quite effectively removes the gluten and it is very unlikely that splashes of fermented (we call it "moutwijn", i.e. malt wine, can’t remember the correct English word for it) will be carried over to the final distillate. If they are present they must have been added afterwards. A couple of years ago we analyzed some distilled liquor for presence of gluten proteins but we couldn’t detect any in this set (about 40 different types). The beer test, which consisted of a set of 50 different brands, showed that most brands (35) did contain immunoreactive protein in amounts between 1 and 200 mg/liter. Only 15 contained less than 1 mg/liter. There was a strong correlation between the gluten content and whether wheat had been used as an ingredient!
    I found a report in a periodical by the Flemish Celiac Society of an investigation that was published in 1992 about immunological determination of gluten in beer and some distilled liquor. This confirmed our findings that the gluten content of beer is quite variable (the authors found levels from zero to 400 mg /liter gluten).
    They did find gluten in distilled liquor! The levels varied from zero to 200-mg gluten/liter. The highest amount was found in a "Creme de Framboise" (200 mg/liter) but second was a French brandy VSOP with a score of 180 m g/liter. A Dutch gin was negative, which might be an indication that gluten in these type of liquor is not a carry over to the distillate! My guess is that this gluten is derived from the caramel coloring, though there is no proof about this yet. I always advise sensitive patients to abstain from brown colored liquor!
    I would like to stress that the determination of gluten in these types of products is very unreliable and we have to count with false positive as well as false negative values. The gluten proteins could have been broken down to small (but still toxic) peptides and in that case a sandwich-type ELISA might produce false negative results because in that case you always need to two epitopes (binding sites for the antiserum) on one molecule to get a positive reaction. A competitive type assay would be the choice for this type of product, but we haven’t tried this type of analysis yet. We did use it on a soy sauce, which was prepared with wheat gluten and didn’t find any gliadin, which might be an indication that gluten had been broken down to very small peptides with less than one binding site.
    Best wishes,
    Frederik Willem Janssen, Zutpen, The Netherlands. 
     

    admin
    White vinegar or just plain vinegar are typically distilled, and, if so, are gluten-free. Distilled vinegar can be distilled from wheat, corn, potatoes, beets, wood, apples and many other things. Most in the USA are not made from wheat, but are instead made from corn, potatoes or wood, which are all safe (Heinz white vinegar is distilled from corn). Distilled vinegars that are made from wheat are probably gluten-free because of the distillation process described in Frederik Willem Janssens article on this site.
    Distilled vinegar made from wood are gluten-free. Wood-based vinegar is often the vinegar used in processed foods.
    Flavored vinegars are made with white, distilled vinegar, and flavorings are then added. Some of these may also not be gluten-free (the cheapest vinegars are used since the flavors are masked by the herbs and flavoring).
    Malted vinegars are usually not gluten-free.
    Red and white wine and balsamic vinegars are gluten-free.

    Rebecca  Herman
    Celiac.com 06/27/2011 - In order to protect the propriety of their products, distilleries can be reluctant to disclose process details. Yet their disclosure is crucial for those of us who are unable to consume gluten.  Recently, I investigated a potato vodka and gin distillery in Freeport, Maine where this is not the case.
    Don Thibodeau, president of Green Thumb Farms, launched Maine Distilleries in 2004 with his brother, Lee Thibodeau, and managing partners, Bob Harkins, director of sales and marketing, and Chris Dowe, head distiller.  Maine Distilleries is dedicated to the production of three spirits that are sold under its Cold River label.
    Green Thumb Farms, a 2,000-acre family-owned farm located in Fryeburg, Maine, produces potatoes, beans, and corn in the alluvial soils of the Cold River.  I started my visit there with Don.  The farm’s clients include Frito-Lay and super market chains Whole Foods Market and Shaws.  For as long as they can remember, Don and Lee had discussed vodka production as a potential use for the farm’s off-grade, cull potatoes which are too small, too big or too blemished to sell.
    “If the potatoes are not beautiful,” explained Don, “they don’t go into the bag.”  Nowadays, customers also look for clean potatoes.  In years past, potatoes were bagged dirty, because they stay fresher that way.
    The cleaning and sorting of potatoes is a complex process involving several pieces of equipment including one called an “Odenburg.”  An Odenburg is an automatic grader with beams of light, or electronic eyes, that sense variations in color - and sorts potatoes accordingly.  Yes, customers are even selective about color.
    As production increases at the distillery, Maine Distilleries will look beyond Green Thumb Farms for cull potatoes, which is really good news for the potato farmers of Maine.  According to the Maine Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Resources, Maine ranks eighth in the country in the production of potatoes.
    At Maine Distilleries, a small, copper pot “still” stood out from the rest of the equipment.  It belonged to Don’s and Lee’s late father, Larry, a third-generation Presque Island area potato farmer.  Don and Lee grew up listening to stories their father told of making potato vodka during the prohibition period.  Many of the local potato farmers in years past had stills just like this one.
    Larry’s old copper pot was small enough to fit in the back seat of my car.  As I began my tour, I couldn’t help but wonder what Larry might think of Maine Distilleries’ very large, copper pot still.  The still’s enrichment column is two stories high.
    Assistant distiller, Ben Francis, gave me a tour of the facility and its five processes, which are mashing, fermentation, distillation, blending and bottling.  We began at the mashing kettle.  Potatoes are conveyed (on a belt) to the mashing kettle from a nearby storage area.  Mashing breaks the potatoes’ starches down into sugars, which takes approximately 12 hours.
    The resulting mash, also called “potato soup,” is discharged through piping to fermentation kettles.  Yeast is added to the potato soup in the fermentation kettles, and consumes the sugar, producing ethanol.  Fermentation takes one to two days, according to Chris Dowe, the head distiller, and the yeast is kosher and naturally gluten free.
    The resulting “potato wine” is about 9 percent ethanol.  Water and solids make up the remaining volume.  The potato wine is discharged through piping from the fermentation kettles into holding tanks in the distillation room.  Each batch is distilled three times in the copper bottom still in order to separate the ethanol from the water and the solids.  After the first distillation, the ethanol is approximately 50 percent; after the second distillation, 95 percent; and after the third distillation, 96 percent.  Boiling point is crucial to the success of distillation.
    The enrichment column extending from the copper pot still is kept cooler at the base in order to prohibit the water and the solids from vaporizing and traveling up along the column with the ethanol, which has a much lower boiling point.
    Most large commercial distilleries use continuous, stainless steel stills.   But distilled spirits experts claim that hand-crafted spirits that are produced in small batches in copper stills are superior to continuous, stainless steel methods.  Maine Distilleries’ copper pot still was itself hand-crafted in Stuttgart, Germany.  Stuttgart is known for its custom copper fabricators as well as this particular copper pot still design.
    After the third distillation, the resulting ethanol is blended with deionized spring water to produce Cold River’s vodka.  The spring water originates from the Cold River/Saco Valley aquifer at Green Thumb Farms.  Some manufacturers add compounds (such as glycerol) to improve the smoothness or taste of a vodka; such is not the case here.  Maine Distilleries has been selling Cold River’s classic vodka since 2005.
    In 2009, Maine Distilleries launched its second product, Cold River’s blueberry-flavored vodka.  It was a logical choice, explained Ben, because Maine is the world’s largest producer of blueberries.  Maine Distilleries uses low-bush, wild blueberries from Jasper Wyman & Son, of Milbridge, Maine,  a family-owned enterprise that is known as the leading U.S. grower, packer, and marketer of wild blueberries.
    To make blueberry-flavored vodka, Maine Distilleries infuses macerated blueberries in its classic vodka.  After several days of infusing, the ethanol is drawn off and blended with the deionized spring water and a small amount of cane sugar.  No artificial flavors or aromas are added to this product.
    In August 2010, Maine Distilleries launched its third product, Cold River’s gin.  Botanicals are added to the classic vodka to make the gin.  The botanical blend, which dates back to the early days of British gin, contains juniper berries, coriander, lemon peel, orange peel, orris root, angelica root, and cardamom.  After the botanicals are added to the classic vodka, it is distilled for a fourth time and then blended with the deionized spring water to produce Cold River’s gin.
    Alcohol beverage labeling is regulated by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau of the U.S. Treasury.  Under the Bureau’s current labeling regulations, Maine Distilleries is not permitted to print “gluten-free product” on its bottles.  Since the passage of the U.S. Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act in 2004, the Bureau has promised to finalize and implement labeling regulations that would require allergen statements on all bottles.  Three million people with celiac disease and another 18 million with gluten sensitivity have been eagerly awaiting the final approval of these long overdue regulations.
    Cold River’s classic vodka has acquired an impressive number of awards for such a new product.  In September 2007, it earned a Five-Star Premium Recommendation from Spirits Journal. In 2008, it was named to Wine Enthusiast’s prestigious list of “Top 50 Spirits,” and earned the magazine’s sole “Classic (96-100) / Highest Recommendation” rating for 2008.  It went on to earn Double Gold at San Francisco’s 2008 World Spirits Competition, and was featured as “The Best American Vodka” in spirits expert F. Paul Pacult’s Kindred Spirits 2.
    Are Cold River’s vodkas and gin gluten free?  Until the new regulations are finalized, it’s tough to say.  Meanwhile, disclosure at Maine Distilleries is as clear as the Cold River.
    FOR MORE INFORMATION:
    Green Thumb Farms
    http://greenthumbfarms.com
    Maine Distilleries
    http://www.mainedistilleries.com
    Gluten Free Dietician - Labeling of Alcohol
    http://www.glutenfreedietitian.com/newsletter/2011/01/18/gluten-free-labeling-of-alcohol/
    Note:  Alcohol beverage labeling for gluten free beer; or, wine and cider containing less than 7 percent alcohol (by volume), is regulated by the Food & Drug Administration.


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/19/2013 - There's a bit of controversy following an interim ruling by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) that has permitted a number of companies to advertise certain products as 'gluten-free.'
    Blue Ice vodka’s American Potato Vodka became the first spirit to receive gluten-free labeling in May 2013. The 'gluten-free' label, says Thomas Gibson, the chief operating officer for 21st Century Spirits, Blue Ice’s parent company, assures American Potato Vodka consumers that it is 100-percent gluten free.
    So are vodkas and other distilled spirits labeled as 'gluten-free' just using the term as a marketing gimmick?
    The reality is that, unless gluten is added afterward, all pure distilled vodkas and spirits are, in fact, gluten-free, even those fermented with wheat or wheat-based ingredients.
    Because of the distillation process, the resulting alcohol does not contain detectable gluten residues or gluten peptide residues, says Steve Taylor, co-director of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln’s Food Allergy Research and Resource Program, and one of the country’s leading gluten testers.
    Taylor calls gluten-free vodka a “silly thing. … All vodka is gluten-free unless there is some flavored vodka out there where someone adds a gluten-containing ingredient."
    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics maintains that all distilled spirits are gluten-free unless gluten is added after distillation.
    So, I guess the good news is that people with celiac disease or gluten-sensitivity can choose vodka that is gluten-free but not labeled 'gluten-free,' or vodka that is gluten-free and which is also labeled 'gluten-free.'
    Doubtless, many people with celiac disease and gluten-sensitivity will still choose potato and other non-wheat based vodkas. Taylor agrees, noting that many people with celiac disease are extra-cautious, but that their concerns are "not science-based" when it comes to vodka.
    Source:
    Scientific American.

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    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com