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    Jefferson Adams is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. He has covered Health News for Examiner.com, and provided health and medical content for Sharecare.com. His work has appeared in Antioch Review, Blue Mesa Review, CALIBAN, Hayden's Ferry Review, Huffington Post, the Mississippi Review, and Slate, among others.

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    Scott Adams
    This article originally appeared in the Summer 2002 edition of Celiac.coms Scott-Free newsletter.

    On June 2, 2002, hundreds of researchers traveled from all over the world to Paris, France, in order to hear the latest scientific reports on celiac disease research and to present results from their own investigations. Over the course of three days, scientists presented dozens of reports, and displayed over a hundred posters covering all aspects of celiac disease, from laboratory research on the microbiologic aspects of the disease, to quality of life issues in patients who are on the gluten-free diet.
    There were so many exciting reports presented at the conference, and the following describes the research findings from these new reports concerning the screening and clinical presentation of celiac disease, osteoporosis and osteopathy and neurological conditions.
    SCREENING ISSUES IN CELIAC DISEASE
    In order to understand how best to screen populations for celiac disease, it is important to know how celiac disease affects a portion of the population, and how it compares to similar populations in other countries.
    Mayo Clinic Retrospective Study
    Dr. Joseph Murray from the Mayo Clinic conducted a retrospective study on the population of people living in Olmsted County, Minnesota. This county has kept medical records on all of its residents for over 100 years. Dr. Murray looked at the medical records to determine which residents were diagnosed with celiac disease from 1950 to 2001. He found 82 cases of celiac disease, with 58 in females and 24 in males. The average age of diagnosis was 45. Pediatric diagnoses of celiac disease during this time period were extremely rare.
    Dr. Murray found that while the diagnosis rate of dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) remained constant over the 51 year period, the diagnosis rate of celiac disease increased from 0.8 to 9.4 per 100,000 people. He also noted that over time, adults with celiac disease were less likely to present diarrhea and weight loss as symptoms. Encouragingly, he determined that the average life expectancy for a diagnosed celiac in this community was no less than that of the normal population, despite the fact that celiac disease was often diagnosed later in life.
    What does this mean?
    The celiac disease diagnosis rate in this county is much lower than the actual incidence rates that have been reported in other studies; however, that rate has greatly increased over the past 51 years. It is also noteworthy that so few children were diagnosed with celiac disease. The analysis highlights interesting and useful information about the presentation of celiac disease in adults, and about the potential life expectancy for people with celiac disease who are diagnosed later in life.
    United States and Europe Compared
    Dr. Carlo Catassi of Ancona, Italy is currently a visiting researcher at the University of Maryland Celiac Research Center. He presented an analysis of the similarities and differences between the clinical presentations of celiac disease in the United States and Europe.
    Dr. Catassi established that the prevalence of celiac disease in the U.S. and Europe are the same and range between 0.5 to 1.0 percent of the general population. The prevalence in at-risk populations is much higher, ranging between 5 and 10 percent, and the prevalence in people with Type 1 Diabetes is approximately 5 percent in both the U.S. and Europe.
    He found that the typical (symptomatic) cases of celiac disease were less common in the U.S., and that the latent (asymptomatic) cases were much more common. Dr. Catassi stated that these differences could be due to genetic factors (for example, there are more Asians in the United States than in Europe), but are more likely due to environmental factors. He noted that infants born in the U.S. are often breastfed longer than their European counterparts. There is also a lower gluten intake in the first months of life for infants in the U.S. The timing of the introduction of cereals could help explain why many American children have somewhat milder symptoms and a more unusual presentation of the disease.
    What does this mean?
    Dr. Catassis analysis underscores the need to better educate physicians in the U.S. so that they learn to see typically atypical signs of celiac disease in children and adults. He also reinforced the importance of breastfeeding as a protective factor for children with a genetic predisposition to celiac disease, which could also improve the outlook for European children in the future.
    United States Prevalence Research
    Dr. Alessio Fasano presented a poster which outlined his recent findings that are a follow-up to his now famous 1996 blood screening study. The original study found that 1 in 250 Americans had celiac disease. It was performed using anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), and when a blood sample tested AGA positive it was confirmed using anti-endomysial (EMA) antibody testing.
    Now that human tissue transglutaminase (tTG) testing is available, Dr. Fasano and his colleagues wanted to see if the results of their original study would be different using the tTG test. He and his colleagues tested the negative samples in the original study, and found 10 more positives using the tTG test. Two of these samples were confirmed positive when checked using the AGA antibody test. Dr. Fasano concluded that the original (1996) prevalence estimate of 1 in 250 understated the true prevalence rate, which could actually be greater than 1 in 200 Americans.
    Dr. Michelle Pietzak, a pediatric gastroenterologist at the University of California at Los Angeles, also presented a poster which described the prevalence of celiac disease in Southern California. In a study of 1,094 participants, Dr. Pietzak found that 8% of Hispanics tested positive for celiac disease. The most common symptoms presented by subjects in her study included abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, joint pain and chronic fatigue.
    What does this mean?
    It is important to understand that the foundation of all U.S. prevalence research on celiac disease began with the blood donor study performed by Dr. Fasano in 1996. His newly revised findings, which have been supported by at least one other major study, show that the prevalence of celiac disease in the U.S. population is much higher than originally believed, and that it could be greater than 1 in 200 people. Additionally, the California study is one of the first to establish a celiac disease prevalence figure for the Hispanic population in the U.S., and if the 8 percent figure is supported by further research it would indicate that celiac disease significantly affects Hispanic Americans.
    OSTEOPOROSIS AND OSTEOPATHY
    Dr. Julio Bai of Argentina presented important information on a condition that affects many people with celiac disease, and one that is often overlooked by physicians—osteoporosis or osteopathy (its milder form). Both children and adults with celiac disease can have low bone mineral density, and its method of treatment can have important consequences.
    Dr. Bai treats adults with bone loss, and has studied the nature of fractures and bone health in adults with celiac disease. In a case-control study of 78 celiac disease patients, Dr. Bai found that symptomatic patients were more likely to experience bone fractures than the normal population. Interestingly, he also found that patients with latent (asymptomatic) celiac disease had lower fracture rates than those with symptoms, and that the rate was equal to that of the normal population. None of the patients, however, experienced a fracture of the more serious type—in the hip, spine or shoulder, and the fractures tended to occur in their arms, legs, hands and feet.
    The doctor also discussed preliminary evidence which showed that most women with osteopathy and celiac disease who go on a gluten free diet will experience an improvement in bone density, while many men do not. There was, however, no difference found between the fracture rates of men and women.
    Dr. Bai also found that nutritional and metabolic deficiencies in patients with celiac disease and osteopathy might also contribute to fractures by weakening the muscles that surround essential bones. He added that immunological factors could also enhance or inhibit bone rebuilding, and that there is a bone-specific tissue transglutaminase (tTG) that plays a role in this process.
    What does this mean?
    It was certainly good news to hear that most people with low bone density due to celiac disease can reverse the damaging process, and if celiac-related fractures do occur they tend to be of the less serious type. Additionally, it was interesting to learn just how important a role muscle health plays in preventing celiac-related fractures.
    Osteopathy in Children
    Dr. Mora, an Italian researcher, presented data on osteopathy in children with celiac disease. His results indicate that a gluten-free diet can improve bone mass, and the effect is maintained even after 10 years. He also added that a gluten-free diet improved the overall bone metabolism of the children, and that the diet alone could cure their osteopathy.
    Osteopenia and Osteoporosis: Conditions Related to Celiac Disease
    In a chart prepared by Dr. David Sanders of the United Kingdom, data on 674 patients, 243 with osteoporosis and 431 with osteopenia, were presented. He found 10 cases of celiac disease among a mostly female population that had an average age of 53. In all ten cases, patients either had a history of iron-deficient anemia or gastrointestinal symptoms. He concluded that all patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis and a history of anemia or gastrointestinal symptoms should be screened for celiac disease.
    What does this mean?
    Dr. Sanders has identified a subset of people with osteoporosis and osteopenia that should be screened for celiac disease—those who have been anemic or have gastrointestinal symptoms. This helps physicians know when to refer patients for celiac disease screening.
    NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS
    Dr. Marios Hadjivassiliou of the United Kingdom presented data on neurological symptoms and gluten sensitivity. In an eight-year study, Dr. Hadjivassiliou screened people who had neurological symptoms of unknown origin using the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) test. He found that 57 percent of these patients had antibodies present in their blood, compared to 12 percent of healthy controls or 5 percent of patients with a neurological condition of known origin.
    From this group, he studied 158 patients with gluten sensitivity and neurological conditions of unknown origin (only 33 percent of these patients had any gastrointestinal symptoms). The most common neurological conditions in this group were ataxia, peripheral neuropathies, myopathy, and encephalopathy (very severe headache). Less common were stiff person syndrome, myelopathy and neuromyotonia.
    He noted that ataxia is not a result of vitamin deficiencies, but is instead an immune-mediated condition. Patients with ataxia have unique antibodies that are not found in patients with celiac disease. Dr. Hadjivassiliou felt that up to 30 percent of idiopathic neuropathies could be gluten-related, and that there is preliminary evidence which indicates that a gluten-free diet is helpful in cases of neuropathy and ataxia.
    What does this mean?
    It is interesting to note that Dr. Hadjivassiliou has studied gluten sensitivity and not celiac disease. The test used in this study is not specific enough to identify people who were likely to have celiac disease. However, his finding that the gluten-free diet may be helpful in people with certain types of neuropathy and ataxia opens the door for further research on these conditions in people with celiac disease.

    Scott Adams
    Celiac.com 03/29/2005 - The Childrens Digestive Health and Nutrition Foundation (CDHNF) with the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) announced today the findings from a survey of 200 pediatricians, family practitioners, and endocrinologists revealing the lack of understanding about celiac disease (celiac disease) in children. The survey was conducted by CDHNF in partnership with Epocrates, Inc., using the Epocrates Honors® Market Research Panel.
    The survey results supported the clear and urgent need to promote awareness of the individuals at risk, the associated conditions, the proper method of screening for celiac disease, and the necessary step of confirming the diagnosis with a small intestinal mucosal biopsy.
    Regarding the diagnosis of celiac disease, only 16% of respondents chose the most appropriate first line serological screening test for celiac disease, which is the IgA-anti-human tissue transglutaminase antibody. If the patient has positive serology for celiac disease, the majority of the survey respondents did not recognize the need to confirm the diagnosis with an intestinal biopsy before starting a gluten free diet.
    Up to 50% of individuals screened with an anti-gliadin antibody test may not have celiac disease at all, particularly if the person has atypical symptoms. The survey suggests that some people unnecessarily are recommended a gluten free diet, while others at risk are not being properly screened, identified and placed on a gluten free diet, said survey co-author and CDHNF Celiac Campaign Scientific Advisor Martha Dirks, MD, Sainte-Justine Hospital, University of Montreal, Canada.
    It is also of concern that the permanent nature of celiac disease is not emphasized by our physician respondents. Less than 65% of respondents recognized that a life-long adherence to a gluten free diet had to be maintained, added Dr. Dirks.
    In terms of recognizing symptoms, two thirds of the respondents felt that they were aware of at least three GI related symptoms of celiac disease and could correctly identify short stature and iron deficient anemia resistant to oral iron as manifestations of celiac disease.
    However, the survey also revealed there is a lack of awareness about associated conditions with celiac disease. For example, an average of 5% of people with Type I diabetes have celiac disease. However, less than 50% of respondents were aware of the association and almost 30% of respondents were against screening individuals with Type I diabetes. In addition, greater than 75% of respondents were unable to identify the condition NOT associated with celiac disease among a list of associated conditions.
    The level of knowledge of celiac disease is not what we like it to be. The survey illustrates that clear educational initiatives are needed to promote appropriate testing of persons at risk for celiac disease such as the recently released NASPGHAN Celiac Guidelines, NIH Consensus Conference, and our CDHNF grand rounds program, said survey co-author and CDHNF Celiac Campaign Scientific Advisor Stefano Guandalini, MD, University of Chicago. Dr. Guandalini added that an area definitely in need to be better known is that of screening for family members of patients with celiac disease. With an incidence higher than 5%, first-degree relatives must be screened for celiac disease, something that is only sporadically recommended.
    The survey indicates the need to provide medical professionals with as much information as possible about celiac disease. As a result, Epocrates has teamed up with CDHNF to distribute the CDHNFCD guidelines, gluten free diet guide and other educational resources to over 140,000 medical professionals via their DocAlert® messaging technology which will allow medical professionals to save the guidelines summary to their hand-held device and request additional information via e-mail.
    Epocrates continues to focus on patient care and safety, and our members look to us to provide the latest, most current information on drugs and diseases such as that provided through this campaign. We are pleased to support this effort to promote child health and wellness, said Kirk Loevner, Epocrates President and CEO.
    The NASPGHAN and CDHNF survey was conducted through the Epocrates Honors market research panel, which enables healthcare professionals to share their clinical expertise. Typically, this research consists of online surveys that take between 10 to 45 minutes to complete. Criteria to participate vary by study. In exchange for their participation, users receive an honorarium. Fifty-seven of the nations largest healthcare market research companies conduct hundreds of studies annually by accessing the industry-leading Epocrates Honors panel of more than 121,000 U.S. physicians and 254,000 allied healthcare professionals including physician assistants, nurse practitioners, RNs, dentists, pharmacists and others.
    About NASPGHAN and CDHNF
    The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, founded in 1972, is the only society in North America and the largest in the world, dedicated to serving the Pediatric Gastroenterology and nutrition communities. NASPGHAN was established to advance the understanding of the normal development and physiology of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver in infants, children, and adolescents, and to foster the dissemination of this knowledge through scientific meetings, professional education, public education, and interaction with other organizations concerned with Pediatric Gastroenterology and nutrition. Visit our website at www.naspghan.org.
    The Childrens Digestive Health and Nutrition Foundation was established in 1998 by NASPGHAN. CDHNF is the leading physician source of information on pediatric gastrointestinal, liver and nutritional issues. CDHNF is dedicated to improving the care of infants, children and adolescents with digestive disorders by promoting advances in clinical care, research and education. In addition to the pediatric GERD education campaign, CDHNF also leads a campaign on Celiac Disease. Additional information on CDHNF and its campaigns can be found at www.cdhnf.org.
    About Epocrates, Inc.
    San Mateo, CA-based Epocrates is transforming the practice of medicine by providing innovative clinical tools at the point of care and deploying leading-edge technologies that enable communication. The company has built a clinical network connecting more than 1 in 4 U.S. physicians, students at every U.S. medical school and hundreds of thousands of other allied healthcare professionals with other healthcare stakeholders. Epocrates products have shown a positive impact on patient safety, health care efficiency and patient satisfaction.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 09/26/2012 - After bringing home a gold medal in the pole vault, American Olympian Jenn Suhr, 30, plans to celebrate with 'a giant slice of gluten-free pizza! I follow a gluten-free diet, but I can’t wait for some good pizza,' she said.
    Olympians who plan to celebrate with their favorite foods after their performances include swimmer Matt Grevers, 27, gymnast John Orozco, and shooter Jamie Gray, among others.
    Grevers, who won gold in the 100m backstroke and a silver in the 4x100m freestyle relay, who headed straight for the nearest McDonald's, where he ordered a vanilla milkshake. 'It was delicious,' he added.
    The same was true for gymnast John Orozco, whose pre-Olympic training diet consisted of lean meats and vegetables.
    Orozco went big and ate pizza, chicken nuggets from McDonald’s,' and 'a big cookie. The 19-year-old paid a bit of a price for his exuberance: 'After that my stomach was destroyed,' he said.
    After his gold medal performance in shooting, Jamie Gray collecting his medal, and headed straight to USA House, where he treated himself to a steak, cooked rare.
    'It was awesome. They didn’t have it in the buffet so the chef made it and brought it out himself.'
    Silver medal hurdler Michael Tinsley may have to wait a bit longer to celebrate: He wants a burger from his favorite spot in Austin, Texas.
    Read more: Daily Mail

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/30/2014 - Is it for a movie about the powerful effects of celiac disease? A pair of aspiring filmmakers think so.
    Jessie Hoyt, who was diagnosed with celiac disease in 2006, and her husband Chris Fondulas, have turned their experience with her celiac disease into a screenplay titled "The Curse of Don Scarducci."
    In this case, the person with the disease is a mobster, who gets diagnosed with celiac disease after symptoms interfere with his gangster lifestyle.
    Faced with a life without pizza, pasta or bread, the don changes his lifestyle and his diet, and he becomes a regular person.
    The couple recently spent time shooting in Brooklyn, with more scenes slated to be filmed later.
    The project seems to be off to an auspicious start. Fondulas' script won first place in the best short screenplay category in the 2011 L.A. Comedy Shorts Film Festival.
    The script was also a 100 Round Pick at the Table Read My Screenplay contest at the Sundance Film Festival that year.
    So, what do you think? Promising or kitschy sounding? About time someone did a movie with a good celiac angle? Or, why bother? Are you inclined to check it out when it’s done? Share your thoughts and comments on the project below.
    Meantime, stay tuned for the latest on this and other gluten-free stories. 

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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/21/2018 - Would you buy a house advertised as ‘gluten-free’? Yes, there really is such a house for sale. 
    It seems a Phoenix realtor Mike D’Elena is hoping that his trendy claim will catch the eye of a buyer hungry to avoid gluten, or, at least one with a sense of humor. D’Elena said he crafted the ads as a way to “be funny and to draw attention.” The idea, D’Elena said, is to “make it memorable.” 
    Though D’Elena’s marketing seeks to capitalizes on the gluten-free trend, he knows Celiac disease is a serious health issue for some people. “[W]e’re not here to offend anybody….this is just something we're just trying to do to draw attention and do what's best for our clients," he said. 
    Still, the signs seem to be working. D'elena had fielded six offers within a few days of listing the west Phoenix home.
    "Buying can sometimes be the most stressful thing you do in your entire life so why not have some fun with it," he said. 
    What do you think? Clever? Funny?
    Read more at Arizonafamily.com.

    Advertising Banner-Ads
    Bakery On Main started in the small bakery of a natural foods market on Main Street in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Founder Michael Smulders listened when his customers with Celiac Disease would mention the lack of good tasting, gluten-free options available to them. Upon learning this, he believed that nobody should have to suffer due to any kind of food allergy or dietary need. From then on, his mission became creating delicious and fearlessly unique gluten-free products that were clean and great tasting, while still being safe for his Celiac customers!
    Premium ingredients, bakeshop delicious recipes, and happy customers were our inspiration from the beginning— and are still the cornerstones of Bakery On Main today. We are a fiercely ethical company that believes in integrity and feels that happiness and wholesome, great tasting food should be harmonious. We strive for that in everything we bake in our dedicated gluten-free facility that is GFCO Certified and SQF Level 3 Certified. We use only natural, NON-GMO Project Verified ingredients and all of our products are certified Kosher Parve, dairy and casein free, and we have recently introduced certified Organic items as well! 
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/20/2018 - Currently, the only way to manage celiac disease is to eliminate gluten from the diet. That could be set to change as clinical trials begin in Australia for a new vaccine that aims to switch off the immune response to gluten. 
    The trials are set to begin at Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre. The vaccine is designed to allow people with celiac disease to consume gluten with no adverse effects. A successful vaccine could be the beginning of the end for the gluten-free diet as the only currently viable treatment for celiac disease. That could be a massive breakthrough for people with celiac disease.
    USC’s Clinical Trials Centre Director Lucas Litewka said trial participants would receive an injection of the vaccine twice a week for seven weeks. The trials will be conducted alongside gastroenterologist Dr. James Daveson, who called the vaccine “a very exciting potential new therapy that has been undergoing clinical trials for several years now.”
    Dr. Daveson said the investigational vaccine might potentially restore gluten tolerance to people with celiac disease.The trial is open to adults between the ages of 18 and 70 who have clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and have followed a strict gluten-free diet for at least 12 months. Anyone interested in participating can go to www.joinourtrials.com.
    Read more at the website for Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre.

    Source:
    FoodProcessing.com.au

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.