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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    DUNKIN DITCHES GLUTEN-FREE DONUTS


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 02/10/2014 - Dunkin' Donuts is quietly ditching its much publicized, much anticipated campaign to introduce gluten-free donuts across the nation.


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    Photo: CC--Robert BanhInformation is scant, as Dunkin' has not issued any official press release. Dunkin' Donuts did, however, release the following statement to Gluten-Free Living:

    "In 2013, we tested a gluten-free Cinnamon Sugar Donut and Blueberry Muffin in select markets. We are currently assessing the results of this test, as well as feedback from our guests and franchisees, and we do not have plans to launch these products nationally at this time. We are continuing to develop additional gluten-free products for future tests, and we remain committed to exploring ways to offer our guests gluten-free choices."

    Word is that the rollout was doomed partly by complaints about the quality of the gluten-free donuts Dunkin' was offering, among other issues.

    We will do our best to keep you updated on this and other gluten-free stories.

    In the meantime, what do you think of the news? Is it better to not do gluten-free at all than to do it poorly? Are you disappointed? Share your comments below.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Robert Banh
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    Guest Mickey Wesler

    Posted

    I am extremely disappointed - although I am not myself a donut eater - the blueberry muffin was what I had my eye on.

    More than that I am sad that a national company is not going to provide an alternative to those of us who do no eat gluten - no matter the cause - Dunkin' Donuts you have really set back the cause of providing gluten free alternative rather than taking a leadership role. I am sure if you went the muffin route and other "bread or cake" routes we would be happy to have the alternative when we come in for coffee. I am very disappointed in your "give up" attitude rather than choosing to us an alternative with muffins.

    Your were a leader in my mind - now you are giving up rather than going to Plan B. Gluten free foods can be tasty .

    A sorely disappointed gluten free family!

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    I read of Dunkin' Donuts' gluten-free doughnut with interest, but was highly skeptical and am not surprised to find that it failed. I am a life-long foodie about three years into a celiac diagnosis. My conclusion, after tasting lots of gluten-free baked goods, is that I would rather bake/buy authentically, originally gluten-free baked goods (meringues, macaroons, flourless chocolate cake, etc.) and then cheat once every three months with a real piece of pizza, cake, or brownie, than chase the promise of gluten-free baked goods every day of the week and face constant disappointment. With very VERY few exceptions, I do not believe it is possible to make a fluffy, stretchy, moist, light, and tasty baked good -- pizza crust, muffin, sourdough bread, cake, etc. -- without using wheat. That makes me sad, but sorry folks, it's the truth.

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    Guest jose Suerte

    Posted

    It is a little disappointing. DD regular baked good were never anything to go out of ones way for. You can better baked goods (gluten-free and with G) at most grocery stores now.

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    Not disappointed at all! I'm a very sensitive celiac and I would not have taken the risk of cross contamination. 20ppm is 20 parts too many for me! Thanks for trying Dunkin!

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    Their gluten-free donuts were not very good, especially for the price.

     

    The muffins were good, though a bit pricey. But the fact they were sealed and separate from the rest of the products was nice.

     

    Would actually love it if they had gluten-free bagels....

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    If the products were poor - and we can get plenty of that right now - then no one would buy the products. No sense for the customer or the company....

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    Although I am not a huge donut or muffin person, I do on occasion enjoy having a donut or muffin, especially if I am running late. Time crunch is usually when I need a gluten-free option the most, and that is when it is the hardest to find a gluten free choice. With the growth of celiac disease and even those who choose gluten free as an lifestyle, many restaurants and fast food chains are missing the boat on this. Limited options in dining out are one of the reasons many find living gluten-free so hard.

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    Guest Olinda Paul

    Posted

    I am too disappointed that they have temporarily chosen to excel in this field. Granted doing gluten-free is a bit tricky at times. I would rather they regroup and try again than to put out a bad donut/product. They have high standards for themselves and they should have them with gluten-free doughnuts too. Hey, I would LOVE a good donut once in a while. I haven't had a really good one in 17 years. Most of them too dry or contain GM corn or milk products in them too. So if your multi-allergic like me...and many are...you don't get donuts.

    Good for you for re-grouping and trying to get it right. I love that. I would rather have it be an awesome donut than a dry, flavorless product. Here is to hoping for the best.

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    Guest Christy

    Posted

    It is disappointing that they can't come up with a product that tastes good. General Mills managed to come up with gluten free cereals (Chex) that is wonderful. Please keep trying.

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    It is disappointing that they can't come up with a product that tastes good. General Mills managed to come up with gluten free cereals (Chex) that is wonderful. Please keep trying.

    GM didn't exactly come up with Rice Chex...they only had to make 1 substitution to get rid of barley malt for a gluten-free sweetener.

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    I read of Dunkin' Donuts' gluten-free doughnut with interest, but was highly skeptical and am not surprised to find that it failed. I am a life-long foodie about three years into a celiac diagnosis. My conclusion, after tasting lots of gluten-free baked goods, is that I would rather bake/buy authentically, originally gluten-free baked goods (meringues, macaroons, flourless chocolate cake, etc.) and then cheat once every three months with a real piece of pizza, cake, or brownie, than chase the promise of gluten-free baked goods every day of the week and face constant disappointment. With very VERY few exceptions, I do not believe it is possible to make a fluffy, stretchy, moist, light, and tasty baked good -- pizza crust, muffin, sourdough bread, cake, etc. -- without using wheat. That makes me sad, but sorry folks, it's the truth.

    Apparently you don't take being a celiac seriously enough if you are cheating every three months with a wheat product. Do you understand what you are doing to your body by doing that? Your choice....

    That being said - after eating gluten-free for over 30 years I can tell you there are plenty of recipes that will give you cakes, muffins, macaroons, and yes pizzas that taste just as good as they did with the wheat.

    You need to make a commitment to your body that you want it to live and not want to kill it off - and you will go searching for these wonderful recipes 'foodie' and you will soon discover that wheat is not all that it's cracked up to be.

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    Guest Dolores

    Posted

    I am a grandmother of a celiac so I know the trials and tribulations that she goes through. We were both so much looking forward to a breakthrough of a gluten-free donut, not only so much to provide for a gluten-free donut but as an encouragement to the food industry to provide more delicious tasting gluten-free foods. It has not been an easy road because it is a struggle to find products that taste "almost" normal. I remember when my grandchild was diagnosed with celiac in high school she cried, "But, I am a teenager part of enjoying being in high school is getting together and eating pizza with everyone." I encourage the food industry to look at how profitable it would be to them to produce good tasting gluten-food products at a reasonable price. All mothers and grandmothers of celiacs, and celiacs, will agree with me!!

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    Guest sc'Que?

    Posted

    GM didn't exactly come up with Rice Chex...they only had to make 1 substitution to get rid of barley malt for a gluten-free sweetener.

    Thank you, admin, for pointing this out. Many miss this point.

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    Guest NY Gluten Free

    Posted

    I too am disappointed that Dunkin' is not going thru with gluten-free. I was looking forward to the muffins. I currently get gluten-free muffins via the internet out-of-state and have them shipped to my home. The cost is high and I was hoping Dunkin' could have saved me some money so I could get them locally.

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    I read of Dunkin' Donuts' gluten-free doughnut with interest, but was highly skeptical and am not surprised to find that it failed. I am a life-long foodie about three years into a celiac diagnosis. My conclusion, after tasting lots of gluten-free baked goods, is that I would rather bake/buy authentically, originally gluten-free baked goods (meringues, macaroons, flourless chocolate cake, etc.) and then cheat once every three months with a real piece of pizza, cake, or brownie, than chase the promise of gluten-free baked goods every day of the week and face constant disappointment. With very VERY few exceptions, I do not believe it is possible to make a fluffy, stretchy, moist, light, and tasty baked good -- pizza crust, muffin, sourdough bread, cake, etc. -- without using wheat. That makes me sad, but sorry folks, it's the truth.

    Enid,

    I am a huge foodie!! and you haven't been looking in the right place. Almost 7 years ago I had a son and we almost both died. After and extended coma I was diagnosed with celiac and my son as well. But he is also HIGHLY allergic to CORN. So we eat NO processed food because many food additives are made from corn. A lot of celiac patients can't tolerate any grains even soy (that is me, can't even have coffee or chocolate without a reaction). I make a wonderful bread that is fluffy and moist and airy. It is made with cashews and eggs. The recipe is from a book called

    AGAINST ALL GRAIN. It is awesome!!! Guest have eaten it then asked cause they thought I couldn't have grains in my home. They are shocked to learn it was made with no grain. The gluten-free label is meaningless until they make gluten free mean NO gluten. currently gluten free means less then 20 parts per million. And don't get me started on the cross contamination in packaging and factories.

    Anyway, if you want awesome recipes that are completely grain and dairy free this is an awesome book. P.S. YOU have to try the Dairy free "New England Clam Chowder" it is unbelievable how good it is.

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    Guest maxiesmom

    Posted

    I read of Dunkin' Donuts' gluten-free doughnut with interest, but was highly skeptical and am not surprised to find that it failed. I am a life-long foodie about three years into a celiac diagnosis. My conclusion, after tasting lots of gluten-free baked goods, is that I would rather bake/buy authentically, originally gluten-free baked goods (meringues, macaroons, flourless chocolate cake, etc.) and then cheat once every three months with a real piece of pizza, cake, or brownie, than chase the promise of gluten-free baked goods every day of the week and face constant disappointment. With very VERY few exceptions, I do not believe it is possible to make a fluffy, stretchy, moist, light, and tasty baked good -- pizza crust, muffin, sourdough bread, cake, etc. -- without using wheat. That makes me sad, but sorry folks, it's the truth.

    Enid, I disagree with you. I bought King Arthur muffin mix and am very happy with the results. the muffins came out moist, fluffy and tasty. I myself do not need to eat gluten-free foods, I made them for my husband who has a wheat allergy. Domata flour is also very good and my friends couldn't tell that the cookies I made with it were gluten-free.

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    Guest Marcie

    Posted

    I am happy to get an update on this subject to share with my CSA Chapter #110 support group.

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    Guest Steve

    Posted

    My son who is celiac will be greatly disappointed when I tell him. I had emailed Dunkin' Donuts and they told me by the end of 2013. He was so excited they were gonna have donuts. He's been gluten-free for 7 years now.

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    Guest Mike

    Posted

    I read of Dunkin' Donuts' gluten-free doughnut with interest, but was highly skeptical and am not surprised to find that it failed. I am a life-long foodie about three years into a celiac diagnosis. My conclusion, after tasting lots of gluten-free baked goods, is that I would rather bake/buy authentically, originally gluten-free baked goods (meringues, macaroons, flourless chocolate cake, etc.) and then cheat once every three months with a real piece of pizza, cake, or brownie, than chase the promise of gluten-free baked goods every day of the week and face constant disappointment. With very VERY few exceptions, I do not believe it is possible to make a fluffy, stretchy, moist, light, and tasty baked good -- pizza crust, muffin, sourdough bread, cake, etc. -- without using wheat. That makes me sad, but sorry folks, it's the truth.

    Don't agree, we make a lot of very good baked goods, pizza, muffins, cake, that extended family members who eat wheat say are very good. Just a matter of learning how, and some things (biscuits) don't work.

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    If they can't do it we'll then don't do it! The last thing us celiacs need is a company doing gluten-free half assed! I live in Sacramento ca and we go to apple hill every year. One place decided to start making gluten-free apple pies but when I called she told me her oat topping was not made with gluten-free oats because they were too expensive! I told her she cannot sell them as gluten-free, and is opening up herself to a lawsuit! I pray that this year she is using gluten-free oats or there will be hell to pay!

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    Apparently you don't take being a celiac seriously enough if you are cheating every three months with a wheat product. Do you understand what you are doing to your body by doing that? Your choice....

    That being said - after eating gluten-free for over 30 years I can tell you there are plenty of recipes that will give you cakes, muffins, macaroons, and yes pizzas that taste just as good as they did with the wheat.

    You need to make a commitment to your body that you want it to live and not want to kill it off - and you will go searching for these wonderful recipes 'foodie' and you will soon discover that wheat is not all that it's cracked up to be.

    Totally agree!! I'm not willing to be sick just to cheat. I'll wait... Or make my own.

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    I read of Dunkin' Donuts' gluten-free doughnut with interest, but was highly skeptical and am not surprised to find that it failed. I am a life-long foodie about three years into a celiac diagnosis. My conclusion, after tasting lots of gluten-free baked goods, is that I would rather bake/buy authentically, originally gluten-free baked goods (meringues, macaroons, flourless chocolate cake, etc.) and then cheat once every three months with a real piece of pizza, cake, or brownie, than chase the promise of gluten-free baked goods every day of the week and face constant disappointment. With very VERY few exceptions, I do not believe it is possible to make a fluffy, stretchy, moist, light, and tasty baked good -- pizza crust, muffin, sourdough bread, cake, etc. -- without using wheat. That makes me sad, but sorry folks, it's the truth.

    I am a celiac and if I decided to cheat as you mention, I would end up on the bathroom floor vomiting for hours. It is not worth it! Once I went on the no gluten diet I could not go back without HUGE side effects.

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    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
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    NO SYMPTOMS
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    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6