• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    77,408
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    Lucille Tilelli
    Newest Member
    Lucille Tilelli
    Joined
  • 0

    Gluten-free Celebrity Update


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 07/07/2011 - With diagnosis for celiac disease and gluten intolerance growing by leaps and bounds, it's no wonder that the list of celebrities who eat gluten-free continues to grow as well.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    Like anyone else with celiac disease and gluten-intolerance, for celebrities and athletes who suffer from either condition, consuming gluten damages the lining of the small intestine and reduces absorption of important nutrients.

    People with celiac disease are more likely to have autoimmune disorders, Addison’s disease, Down syndrome, intestinal cancer, intestinal lymphoma, lactose intolerance, thyroid disease, and type-1 diabetes. In the United States, approximately 1 out of 133 people are diagnosed with celiac disease.

    A partial list of some noteworthy celebrities and athletes who reportedly follow a gluten-free diet due to celiac disease, gluten-intolerance, or other reasons include: news host Keith Olbermann, actor Billy Bob Thornton,  Elizabeth Hasselback Katherine, Dutchess of Kent, news anchor Heidi Collins, actresses Gwyneth Paltrow, Jennifer Esposito, Goldie Hahn, Rachel Weisz, Zooey Deschanel, Susie Essman, Emmy Rossum, and Heidi Collins.

    Chelsea Clinton featured a noteworthy gluten-free offering at her wedding reception.

    Athletes include tennis stars Novic Djokovic, who attributes an unbeaten string of wins in part to a switch to a gluten-free diet.

    German tennis star Sabine Lisicki looks to bounce back after collapsing on the verge of a major upset at the French Open; a collapse she attributes to an undiagnosed gluten-sensitivity.

    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    There are no comments to display.



    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoji are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   14 Members, 1 Anonymous, 1,120 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams
    The following is a post by Donald D. Kasarda (kasarda@pw.usda.gov) that was written to Michael Coupland of Kellogg (Cereal Company).
    Dear Michael,
    I have been asked to comment on your reply to Bev Lewis about the absence of gluten (or the barley equivalent) in malt flavoring. I am a cereal chemist who is sometimes asked for advice in regard to the gluten proteins as they relate to celiac disease by celiac patient organizations. I have provided advice to Kellogg in the past in regard to safe processing of a rice cereal (Kenmei) in order to avoid contamination. Kenmei has since been discontinued by the company.
    While it is possible that the malt flavoring you refer to is free of all harmful peptides, your statement that because the flavoring is a water wash of malt, it is free of gluten, is not in itself completely satisfying for the following reasons.
    At present, we are pretty sure that peptides derived from gliadin proteins that consist of as few as 12 amino acids can be toxic. These small peptides are sometimes quite water soluble as well. When malt is prepared by germination of barley, hydrolytic enzymes break down the harmful (to celiac patients) hordein proteins. It is possible that some of the resulting peptides are small enough to be water soluble, but large enough to retain harmful activity in celiac disease. A peptide of molecular weight no greater than about 1300 could potentially still be active in celiac disease.
    Therefore, the water wash could pick up harmful hordein peptides. Furthermore, unless the wash was centrifuged or filtered to clarify it, it could pick up small amounts of suspended particles that could contain hordein proteins or fragments of them that resulted from the protease action during germination.
    The amounts of harmful peptides or proteins that end up in a malt-flavored cereal might well be insignificant for celiac patients, for, after all, the amounts in the wash are likely to be small and the amount of flavoring added to the cereal is probably a small part of the total solids. My main point is that some transfer of harmful peptides to the water wash could occur and unless your researchers have studied this question and have some basis for concluding that the amounts are insignificant (other than because a water wash was used), perhaps it would be best to indicate that some uncertainty still exists.
    Incidentally, my suspicion is that there is not enough of the harmful peptides in Rice Krispies to cause harm to celiac patients, but for me it is only a suspicion in that I know of no experimental measurements or calculations in regard to the question and we still do not have a really solid indication of how little of the harmful proteins or peptides is OK for celiac patients on a daily basis.
    Sincerely,
    Don Kasarda

    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 03/06/2012 - I was disappointed to read the opinion article by   Dr. Di Sabatino and Dr. Corazza  published in February 2012 by Annals of Internal Medicine (1).  The article itself is mostly  reasonable and thoughtful. However,  they implicitly assert gluten to be a healthy food by stating that they wish to prevent "a gluten preoccupation from evolving into the conviction that gluten is toxic for most of the population" (1).  In that single statement they are making dietary recommendations in the absence of evidence; the very situation they claim to want to rectify.
    Their published opinion has spawned a number of articles online and in the popular press which  seem to ignore all of the concessions to non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the source article. Some of these spin-off commentaries even use the original article to support their suggestions that a gluten free diet is inappropriate even for those with symptoms that are relieved by the diet. This definitely contravenes the opinions expressed by Di Sabatino and Corazza.  For instance, one of them states "That hasn’t stopped many people from declaring they are gluten sensitive, even though they may not be." (2)
    Please take a moment to consider this proposition. The gluten free diet is restrictive, inconvenient, and expensive. Why would anyone continue to follow such a diet without being convinced that it was valuable to them?  Di Sabatino and Corazzo freely acknowledge that there is a dearth of diagnostic tests and protocols for non-celiac gluten sensitivity.  
    Doctors  Di Sabatino and Corazza  not only acknowledge non-celiac gluten sensitivity as a cause for symptoms very similar to those of celiac disease, they  call for further research to develop and codify diagnostic protocols that will help clinicians better recognize and treat this newly recognized ailment. They go on to acknowledge that conditions including "headache, lethargy, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ataxia, or recurrent oral ulceration" in the absence of celiac disease often improve or resolve on a gluten free diet.  Their unfortunate denial of gluten as toxic seems to have invited much of the spin-off conjecture under such titles as "Gluten-free diets not always necessary, study suggests" (3).   Even the characterization of this opinion article as a study is misleading in the extreme.       
    Di Sabatino and Corazza focus mostly on gastrointestinal symptoms when discussing non-celiac gluten sensitivity.  It is clear that their focus does not extend far beyond such symptoms. What is also clear is that many cases of non-celiac gluten sensitivity, just like celiac disease, manifest with a wide range of signs and symptoms including neurological illnesses. Dr. Marios Hadjivassiliou, chief neurologist at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield, U.K. has repeatedly demonstrated that a majority of his patients with neurological disease of unknown origin show evidence of gluten sensitivity, the majority of whom do not have celiac disease (4). 
    My disappointment stems not so much from doctors Di Sabatini and Corazza's article and their assertion that gluten grains are not toxic to the general population, as from the spin-off claims that the gluten free diet is being excessively followed  in the belief that it is more healthful.  A rapidly growing body of evidence is showing  that increasing numbers of ailments among increasing numbers of people are driven by this ubiquitous food.  Gluten may well be toxic for most of the population. We don't know.  We can't know that without more research. 
    The growing numbers of people who are willing to accept the inconvenience and expense of a gluten free diet because of the benefits they experience should be considered.  Gluten may be toxic to many more people than are currently identifiable by available testing. Asserting one side or the other of this argument is at least premature. At most it could prove very harmful to those individuals who listen and obey the voices of experts, even when they err and when relayed inaccurately by the media.  
    For a more detailed account of this controversy please see the spring 2012 issue of the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity.
    Sources:

    Di Sabatino A, Corazza G. Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity: Sense or Sensibility? Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:309-311. http://www.latimes.com/health/boostershots/la-heb-gluten-sensitivity-20120221,0,4517592.story http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-57381966-10391704/gluten-free-diets-not-always-necessary-study-suggests/ Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

    Dr. Tom O'Bryan
    Celiac.com 11/07/2013 - Several of the world's most prominent scientists, researchers, healthcare practitioners, nutritionists, patients, caregivers and others interested in improving the lives of those living with gluten-related disorders will gather online, November 11-17, 2013, for the first-ever Gluten Summit: A Grain of Truth.  An excerpt from two of the iconic speakers is below.
    Have you ever wondered what "the Godfather of celiac disease diagnosis" thinks about the fact that celiac disease is generally only recognized and treated if a patient has total villous atrophy (all the shags are worn away)? I went to the source!
    I had the tremendous honor of traveling to Wolfson College, Oxford University in the United Kingdom to interview Dr. Michael Marsh, "the Godfather of celiac disease diagnosis", after whom the Marsh classification of intestinal damage in celiac disease was named.
    Dr. Marsh has a powerful message for the world about the critical importance of identifying and treating the early stages of celiac disease in patients before it reaches the end-stage of total villous atrophy (Marsh III). In 2006 Dr. Marsh stood up at the International Celiac Disease Symposium in New York and asked the panel the hard question "If a patient has positive blood tests and a negative biopsy, and you do not recommend a gluten-free diet, and the patient dies of lymphoma in two years, which one of you will be able to say that you practiced a good standard of care medicine?" This was a wake-up call to the world, and five years later non-celiac gluten sensitivity was recognized as a separate condition in a consensus by 16 global experts.
    In the first interview he has ever given, in the 21st birthday year of the Marsh classification system, Dr. Marsh speaks out on:
        Why normal villi can also be associated with a state of gluten sensitivity     Why physicians must not wait for total villous atrophy to occur before treating gluten sensitive patients with a gluten-free diet     Why a variety of disciplines beyond immunologists must now join together to study the early stages of celiac disease     Dr. Marsh calls them out! Dr. Hadjivassiliou - How GLUTEN can affect your NERVOUS SYSTEM!
    Dr. O'Bryan: A suggestion that you have made in a number of your papers over the years is that "It is time to move on from gut to brain." Can you tell our listeners what you mean by this?
    Prof. Hadjivassiliou: Sure. I think it was a comment in relation to try and escape from the existing belief that sensitivity to gluten is primarily or even exclusively a disease of the gut. You can see why it's always been thought of as a gastrointestinal disease, simply because that's where gluten gets ingested and absorbed. However, we are talking about an autoimmune disease, and therefore the manifestations of an autoimmune disease can be very diverse...It's about time we thought of this as a systemic disease that can affect different parts of the body rather than concentrating solely on the bowel. My main interest was whether patients can manifest exclusively with neurological (nervous system) problems.
    Prof. Hadjivassiliou goes on to explain:
        The ratio of patients with nervous system issues vs. intestinal issues     Why an early diagnosis is CRITICALLY IMPORTANT     Why neurological patients may take longer to see results when they start a gluten-free diet     The true impact of an accidental gluten exposure on a person whose nervous system is affected by gluten Visit theglutensummit.com for a link to the world's first ever online Gluten Summit, which will take place from Nov.11-17, 2013, to listen to the entire interview with Prof.Hadjivassiliou and many, many more interviews with the experts on gluten-related disorders and diet, and their impact you and your children's health. The Gluten Summit is a unique and FREE event which aims to move the question, "Is gluten the cause?" into today's conversation between patients and healthcare professionals potentially improving the lives of millions now.

    Scott Adams
    Celiac.com 12/30/2014 - As 2015 fast approaches, Celiac.com's editors have taken some time to put together a list of Celiac.com's most important celiac disease and gluten-free diet news published over the past year, at least according to our site's many readers. It is basically a summary of 2014's biggest celiac-related stories. We wish you a Happy (and healthy) New Year!
    Gluten-free and Gluten-safe Halloween Candy for 2014 More than Half of All Chain Restaurants to Offer Gluten-free Dishes Non-classical Symptoms Common for Vast Majority with Celiac Disease Can Ketogenic Low Carb and Gluten-free Diets Benefit People with Celiac and Other Diseases? Seven Common Myths About Celiac Disease and Gluten-free Eating Celiac Patients Tolerate Wheat Spaghetti After Hookworm Treatment The Daily Show's Jon Stewart Nails Celiac Disease! Vitamin Deficiencies and Celiac Disease The Problem with Oats in the Gluten Sensitive Diet Does Obesity Play a Major Role in Triggering Autoimmune Diseases?

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/16/2018 - Summer is the time for chips and salsa. This fresh salsa recipe relies on cabbage, yes, cabbage, as a secret ingredient. The cabbage brings a delicious flavor and helps the salsa hold together nicely for scooping with your favorite chips. The result is a fresh, tasty salsa that goes great with guacamole.
    Ingredients:
    3 cups ripe fresh tomatoes, diced 1 cup shredded green cabbage ½ cup diced yellow onion ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro 1 jalapeno, seeded 1 Serrano pepper, seeded 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 2 garlic cloves, minced salt to taste black pepper, to taste Directions:
    Purée all ingredients together in a blender.
    Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. 
    Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper, as desired. 
    Serve is a bowl with tortilla chips and guacamole.

    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 06/15/2018 - There seems to be widespread agreement in the published medical research reports that stuttering is driven by abnormalities in the brain. Sometimes these are the result of brain injuries resulting from a stroke. Other types of brain injuries can also result in stuttering. Patients with Parkinson’s disease who were treated with stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, an area of the brain that regulates some motor functions, experienced a return or worsening of stuttering that improved when the stimulation was turned off (1). Similarly, stroke has also been reported in association with acquired stuttering (2). While there are some reports of psychological mechanisms underlying stuttering, a majority of reports seem to favor altered brain morphology and/or function as the root of stuttering (3). Reports of structural differences between the brain hemispheres that are absent in those who do not stutter are also common (4). About 5% of children stutter, beginning sometime around age 3, during the phase of speech acquisition. However, about 75% of these cases resolve without intervention, before reaching their teens (5). Some cases of aphasia, a loss of speech production or understanding, have been reported in association with damage or changes to one or more of the language centers of the brain (6). Stuttering may sometimes arise from changes or damage to these same language centers (7). Thus, many stutterers have abnormalities in the same regions of the brain similar to those seen in aphasia.
    So how, you may ask, is all this related to gluten? As a starting point, one report from the medical literature identifies a patient who developed aphasia after admission for severe diarrhea. By the time celiac disease was diagnosed, he had completely lost his faculty of speech. However, his speech and normal bowel function gradually returned after beginning a gluten free diet (8). This finding was so controversial at the time of publication (1988) that the authors chose to remain anonymous. Nonetheless, it is a valuable clue that suggests gluten as a factor in compromised speech production. At about the same time (late 1980’s) reports of connections between untreated celiac disease and seizures/epilepsy were emerging in the medical literature (9).
    With the advent of the Internet a whole new field of anecdotal information was emerging, connecting a variety of neurological symptoms to celiac disease. While many medical practitioners and researchers were casting aspersions on these assertions, a select few chose to explore such claims using scientific research designs and methods. While connections between stuttering and gluten consumption seem to have been overlooked by the medical research community, there is a rich literature on the Internet that cries out for more structured investigation of this connection. Conversely, perhaps a publication bias of the peer review process excludes work that explores this connection.
    Whatever the reason that stuttering has not been reported in the medical literature in association with gluten ingestion, a number of personal disclosures and comments suggesting a connection between gluten and stuttering can be found on the Internet. Abid Hussain, in an article about food allergy and stuttering said: “The most common food allergy prevalent in stutterers is that of gluten which has been found to aggravate the stutter” (10). Similarly, Craig Forsythe posted an article that includes five cases of self-reporting individuals who believe that their stuttering is or was connected to gluten, one of whom also experiences stuttering from foods containing yeast (11). The same site contains one report of a stutterer who has had no relief despite following a gluten free diet for 20 years (11). Another stutterer, Jay88, reports the complete disappearance of her/his stammer on a gluten free diet (12). Doubtless there are many more such anecdotes to be found on the Internet* but we have to question them, exercising more skepticism than we might when reading similar claims in a peer reviewed scientific or medical journal.
    There are many reports in such journals connecting brain and neurological ailments with gluten, so it is not much of a stretch, on that basis alone, to suspect that stuttering may be a symptom of the gluten syndrome. Rodney Ford has even characterized celiac disease as an ailment that may begin through gluten-induced neurological damage (13) and Marios Hadjivassiliou and his group of neurologists and neurological investigators have devoted considerable time and effort to research that reveals gluten as an important factor in a majority of neurological diseases of unknown origin (14) which, as I have pointed out previously, includes most neurological ailments.
    My own experience with stuttering is limited. I stuttered as a child when I became nervous, upset, or self-conscious. Although I have been gluten free for many years, I haven’t noticed any impact on my inclination to stutter when upset. I don’t know if they are related, but I have also had challenges with speaking when distressed and I have noticed a substantial improvement in this area since removing gluten from my diet. Nonetheless, I have long wondered if there is a connection between gluten consumption and stuttering. Having done the research for this article, I would now encourage stutterers to try a gluten free diet for six months to see if it will reduce or eliminate their stutter. Meanwhile, I hope that some investigator out there will research this matter, publish her findings, and start the ball rolling toward getting some definitive answers to this question.
    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
    5. Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H, Giraud AL. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009 Oct;132(Pt 10):2747-60. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
    6. Galantucci S, Tartaglia MC, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Filippi M, Agosta F, Dronkers NF, Henry RG, Ogar JM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain. 2011 Jun 11.
    7. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    8. [No authors listed] Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48
    9. Molteni N, Bardella MT, Baldassarri AR, Bianchi PA. Celiac disease associated with epilepsy and intracranial calcifications: report of two patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Sep;83(9):992-4.
    10. http://ezinearticles.com/?Food-Allergy-and-Stuttering-Link&id=1235725 
    11. http://www.craig.copperleife.com/health/stuttering_allergies.htm 
    12. https://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/73362-any-help-is-appreciated/
    13. Ford RP. The gluten syndrome: a neurological disease. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Sep;73(3):438-40. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    14. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/14/2018 - Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a rare complication of celiac disease that has high death rates. To diagnose RCDII, doctors identify a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). 
    However, researchers really don’t have much data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. Such data could provide useful comparison information for patients with RCDII, among other things.
    To that end, a research team recently set out to try to get some information about the frequency and importance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. The research team included Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, and Govind Bhagat.
    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and the Department of Medicine at the Celiac Disease Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA. Their team analyzed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active celiac disease, 172 celiac disease on gluten-free diet, 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without celiac disease. 
    Clonal TCR-GRs are not infrequent in cases lacking features of RCDII, while PCPs are frequent in all disease phases. TCR-GR results should be assessed in conjunction with immunophenotypic, histological and clinical findings for appropriate diagnosis and classification of RCD.
    The team divided the TCR-GR patterns into clonal, polyclonal and prominent clonal peaks (PCPs), and correlated these patterns with clinical and pathological features. In all, they detected clonal TCR-GR products in biopsies from 67% of patients with RCDII, 17% of patients with RCDI and 6% of patients with gluten-free diet. They found PCPs in all disease phases, but saw no significant difference in the TCR-GR patterns between the non-RCDII disease categories (p=0.39). 
    They also noted a higher frequency of surface CD3(−) IELs in cases with clonal TCR-GR, but the PCP pattern showed no associations with any clinical or pathological feature. 
    Repeat biopsy showed that the clonal or PCP pattern persisted for up to 2 years with no evidence of RCDII. The study indicates that better understanding of clonal T cell receptor gene rearrangements may help researchers improve refractory celiac diagnosis. 
    Source:
    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023