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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    NO CONNECTION BETWEEN CELIAC DISEASE AND USE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS DURING PREGNANCY


    Jefferson Adams


    • Women who use dietary supplements during pregnancy do not face higher rates of celiac disease in their offspring.


    Celiac.com 05/02/2017 - Do women who use dietary supplements during pregnancy face higher rates of celiac disease in their offspring?


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    To answer this question a team examined the maternal use of vitamin D, n-3 fatty acids (FA) and Fe supplements during pregnancy and looked for any corresponding risk for celiac disease autoimmunity, or celiac disease, in their children.

    The study, known as The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young, or "TEDDY," prospectively followed from birth children with increased genetic risk. The team defines celiac disease autoimmunity as the presence of persistently positive tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA).

    The TEDDY research team includes Jimin Yang, Roy N. Tamura, Carin A. Aronsson, Ulla M. Uusitalo, Åke Lernmark, Marian Rewers, William A. Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Jorma Toppari, Anette G. Ziegler, Beena Akolkar, Jeffrey P. Krischer, Jill M. Norris, Suvi M. Virtanen, and Daniel Agardh.

    For their study, the team enrolled 6,627 children with confirmed celiac disease. They confirmed celiac diagnosis either with biopsy results, and also included those with likely celiac, if they had persistently elevated levels of tTGA>100 AU.

    Of the 6,627 children originally enrolled, 1,136 developed celiac disease autoimmunity at a median 3·1 years of age (range 0·9–10) and 409 developed celiac disease at a median 3·9 years of age (range 1·2–11).

    The data showed that 66% of mothers used supplements containing vitamin D, 17% containing n-3 FA, and 94% containing iron, at 3–4 months postpartum.

    Over the entire pregnancy, mothers consumed an average total intake of 2,014 μg vitamin D (sd 2045 μg), 111 g n-3 FA (sd 303 g) and 8,806 mg Fe (sd 7,017 mg).

    After adjusting for country of residence, child's human leucocyte antigen genotype, sex, family history of celiac disease, any breast-feeding duration and household crowding, Cox's proportional hazard ratios showed no statistically significant association between the intake of vitamin D, n-3 FA or Fe, and risk for celiac disease autoimmunity or celiac disease.

    The use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may improve nutrition, but it is not likely to have any effect upon the risk for celiac disease in the offspring.

    Source:

     

    The researchers in this study are variously associated with the Health Informatics Institute, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, The Diabetes and Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 20502 Malmö, Sweden, Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98122, USA, the Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, the Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Finland, the Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, 20520 Turku, Finland, the Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München and Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes e.V., 80804 Neuherberg, Germany, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MA, the Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, the Unit of Nutrition, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00300 Helsinki, Finland, the Health Sciences Center, Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere, Finland, and the The Science Center, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, 33521 Tampere, Finland.


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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/12/2013 - A number of studies have suggested a connection between infant feeding patterns and the development or clinical expression of celiac disease. However, until recently, it remained unclear whether infant feeding actually affects the occurrence and/or the clinical presentation of celiac disease.
    A recent study that shows important differences in celiac disease rates between two groups of 12-year-olds indicates a possible strategy for preventing celiac disease.
    The notable difference between the two groups was simple infant feeding practices. The study findings suggest that gradual introduction of gluten in small amounts during ongoing breastfeeding provides protection against celiac disease.
    The study was conducted by Anneli Ivarsson, MD, PhD; Anna Myléus, MD, PhD; Fredrik Norström, PhD; Maria van der Pals, MD; Anna Rosén, MD, PhD; Lotta Högberg, MD, PhD; Lars Danielsson, MD; Britta Halvarsson, MD, PhD; Solveig Hammarroth, MD; Olle Hernell, MD, PhD; Eva Karlsson, MD; Lars Stenhammar, MD, PhD; Charlotta Webb, MD; Olof Sandström, MD, PhD; and Annelie Carlsson, MD, PhD.
    They are variously affiliated with the Departments of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Medical Biosciences, Clinical and Medical Genetics, and Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics at Umeå University in Umeå, Sweden; the Department of Pediatrics in Clinical Sciences at Skånes University Hospital at Lund University, in Lund, Sweden; the Pediatric Clinic of Norrköping Hospital in Norrköping, Sweden, the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine in the Division of Pediatrics at Linköping University in Linköping, Sweden; the Pediatric Clinic of Norrtälje Hospital in Norrtälje, Sweden; the department of Pathology and Cytology of Aleris Medilab in Täby, Sweden; and the Pediatric Clinic of Växjö Hospital in Växjö, Sweden.
    To accomplish their goal, the team crafted a 2-phase cross-sectional screening study of 13,279 children from two separate birth groups: the first born during the Swedish celiac disease epidemic of 1993, and the second born in 1997, after the epidemic ended.
    The team investigated and compared the overall rates of celiac disease in the two groups, each at twelve years old, and compared the results against each group's ascertained infant feeding patterns.
    To report and confirm all previously diagnosed cases of celiac disease, they analyzed blood samples for serological markers of celiac disease, and referred all children with positive values for small intestinal biopsy.
    The team used questionnaires to determine infant feeding practices for both groups. They expressed prevalence comparisons as prevalence ratios, and found that the total prevalence of celiac disease was 29 in 1000 for the 1993 group, and and 22 in 1000 1997 group.
    Children born in 1997 substantially less likely to develop celiac disease compared with those born in 1993 (prevalence ratio: 0.75; 95% conï¬dence interval: 0.60–0.93; P = .01).
    Again, the difference between the groups was in infant feeding patterns. Specifically, the groups differed in the percentages of infants introduced to dietary gluten in small amounts during ongoing breastfeeding. Many more children in the 1997 group had gluten introduced into their diets in small amounts during ongoing breastfeeding, as compared to the 1993 group.
    Overall, the signiï¬cantly lower rates of celiac disease in the 1997 group indicate that gradual introduction of gluten-containing foods from 4 months of age, preferably during ongoing breastfeeding, offers a possible way to prevent or lower celiac disease risk.
    Source:
     Pediatrics 2013;131:e687–e694. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1015

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/12/2013 - Pregnant women with higher levels of issue transglutaminase (anti-tTG), an antibody common in people with celiac disease, at risk for low fetal and birth weight in their babies, according to a new study in Gastroenterology.
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    They conducted a population-based prospective birth cohort study of 7046 pregnant women. Serum samples were collected during the second trimester of pregnancy and analyzed for levels of anti-tTG.
    Based on these levels, they grouped each woman into groups of negative anti-tTG (≤0.79 U/mL; n = 6702), intermediate anti-tTG (0.8 to ≤6 U/mL; n = 308), or high anti-tTG individuals (over 6 U/mL; n = 36). They then collected data for fetal growth and birth outcomes from ultrasound measurements and medical records.
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    The birth outcome data revealed that newborns of women in the intermediate and positive anti-tTG groups weighed 53 g (95% CI, -106 to -1 g) and 159 g (95% CI, -316 to -1 g) less at birth, respectively, than those of women in the negative anti-tTG group. Of mothers in the intermediate anti-tTG group, those with HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 had reduced birth weights that were double those of mothers without HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8.
    This study led the researchers to conclude that levels of anti-tTG in pregnant women are inversely associated with fetal growth. The higher the anti-tTG in women, the lower the birth weights of their babies. So, women with the highest levels of anti-tTG (over 6 U/mL) saw the greatest reduction in birth weight of their babies.
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    Source:
    Gastroenterology. 2013 Apr;144(4):726-735.e2. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.01.003.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/03/2014 - It is important for pregnant women seeking medical consultation to get good, evidence-based information. This is especially true for pregnant women with celiac disease, who might wonder whether they face an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes and pregnancy complications as a result of their disease.
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    Source:
    Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109:1653-1661.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/12/2015 - Some researchers have suspected that certain prenatal and perinatal factors might affect risk for development of celiac disease, but there is very little data. With this in mind, a team of researchers set out to determine if any prenatal and perinatal factors might affect risk for development of celiac disease in children.
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    Source:
    Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2014.10.012

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    Celiac.com 04/26/2018 - Emily Dickson is one of Canada’s top athletes. As a world-class competitor in the biathlon, the event that combines cross-country skiing with shooting marksmanship, Emily Dickson was familiar with a demanding routine of training and competition. After discovering she had celiac disease, Dickson is using her diagnosis and gluten-free diet a fuel to help her get her mojo back.
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    Tammy Rhodes
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    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
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    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.