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  • Jefferson Adams

    People with Type 1 Diabetes Show Distinct Gut Inflammation and Microbiota

    Jefferson Adams
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    Reviewed and edited by a celiac disease expert.

      New study shows patients with T1D show specific abnormalities in gut inflammation and microbiota.


    Photo: CC--Practical Cures
    Caption: Photo: CC--Practical Cures

    Celiac.com 02/01/2017 - More and more evidence shows a connection between gut inflammation and type 1 diabetes (T1D). A team of researchers recently set out to assess gut inflammatory profiles and microbiota in patients with T1D, and to compare them with healthy controls (CTRL) and with celiac disease patients as gut inflammatory disease controls.

    The research team included Silvia Pellegrini, Valeria Sordi, Andrea Mario Bolla, Diego Saita Roberto Ferrarese, Filippo Canducci, Massimo Clementi, Francesca Invernizzi, Alberto Mariani, Riccardo Bonfanti, Graziano Barera, Pier Alberto Testoni, Claudio Doglioni, Emanuele Bosi, and Lorenzo Piemonti. They are affiliated with the Diabetes Research Institute at the IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan, Italy.



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    The team evaluated inflammatory status and microbiome composition in biopsies of the duodenal mucosa from 19 patients with T1D, 19 with celiac disease, and 16 healthy control subjects, recruited at San Raffaele Scientific Institute, in Milan, Italy, between 2009 and 2015. They assessed inflammation by gene expression study and immunohistochemistry and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyze microbiome composition.

    Compared to CTRL and celiac disease patients, the team found an increased expression of CCL13, CCL19, CCL22, CCR2, COX2, IL4R, CD68, PTX3, TNFα and VEGFA genes in T1D patients. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed T1D specific inflammatory status was mainly marked by increased monocyte/macrophage lineage infiltration, compared to healthy and celiac disease control tissues.

    The T1D duodenal mucosal microbiome also proved to be different from the control groups. This was mainly marked by increased Firmicutes, and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and a reduction in Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes.

    The expression of genes specific for T1D inflammation was associated with the excess of specific bacteria in duodenum. This study shows that patients with T1D show specific abnormalities in gut inflammation and microbiota.

    Greater knowledge of the complex pathogenesis of T1D will likely provide new directions for therapies targeting the gut. Look for more studies in this area in the near future, as scientists look to nail down specific treatments to prevent gut inflammation.

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    Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes are entirely two different diseases. Type 1 diabetes is too little insulin and Type 2 diabetes is too much insulin. But since the treatment is the same, your favorite idiotic medical profession calls them the same disease subtitled 1 and 2. But since the cause is entirely different, how much sense does it make to call them the same thing? But the Medical Deities are driven and wrangled by the pharmaceutical companies, not what is best for the patient. So the two diseases get the same name, only typed differently.

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    It's great that they are studying the digestive effects of diabetes and celiac disease. I would have a little more respect for the study if they had included type 2 diabetics and linked glycemic control (as monitored by bg logs -difficult or A1c- easy). Sugar feeds bacteria and changing the amount of sugar in a culture can change the bacterial mix and therefore the level of inflammation. I know that when my body burnt out my beta cells (type 1 diabetes) I found it much easier to develop gas.

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  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams is Celiac.com's senior writer and Digital Content Director. He earned his B.A. and M.F.A. at Arizona State University, and has authored more than 2,500 articles on celiac disease. His coursework includes studies in science, scientific methodology, biology, anatomy, medicine, logic, and advanced research. He previously served as SF Health News Examiner for Examiner.com, and devised health and medical content for Sharecare.com. Jefferson has spoken about celiac disease to the media, including an appearance on the KQED radio show Forum, and is the editor of the book "Cereal Killers" by Scott Adams and Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.


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