Celiac.com Sponsor (A1):



Celiac.com Sponsor (A1):


  • Join Our Community!

    Ask us a question in our celiac / gluten-free forum.

  • Record is Archived

    This article is now archived and is closed to further replies.

    Jefferson Adams

    Rod-shaped Bacteria in Proximal Small Intestine Tied to Celiac Disease in Children

    Jefferson Adams
    0
    Reviewed and edited by a celiac disease expert.

    Research indicates that rod-shaped bacteria, of the species Clostridium, Prevotella, and Actinomyces, in the proximal small intestine may contribute to some cases of celiac disease in children.

    Recent data builds on previous research by the team from 1985 to 1996, which proved that rod-shaped bacteria were present in the proximal small intestine of Swedish children with celiac disease, but not in those without celiac disease.



    Celiac.com Sponsor (A12):




    For the current study, Sten Hammarström and colleagues from Umeå University in Sweden used an electron microscope to scan proximal small intestine biopsies from 45 children with celiac disease taken between 2004 and 2007, and 18 without the condition.

    To identify the bacteria, they used 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing in DNA extracted from biopsies washed with solution containing an agent that enriches bacteria attached to the epithelial lining.

    In healthy children with no celiac disease, Streptococcus and Neisseria bacteria are most common of the normal, mucosa-associated microbial flora of the proximal small intestine, along with a limited number of other genera, including Veillonella, Gemella, Actinomyces, Rothia, and Hemophilus.

    Surprisingly, the researchers found that microbial flora of the proximal small intestine in biopsies from celiac disease patients differed only slightly from that of the control subjects. Only a single biopsy tested positive for rod-shaped bacteria.

    This finding made the team to look more closely at the microbial flora of nine frozen celiac disease samples that showed the presence of rod-shaped bacteria. In these samples, microbial flora were substantially richer in Clostridium, Prevotella, and Actinomyces compared with biopsies lacking rod-shaped bacteria.

    The researchers also note that all three types of bacteria could be found in two current celiac disease biopsies taken from children born during the celiac disease epidemic in Sweden in 1985–1996, when the earlier study was carried out. During this time, rates of celiac disease in children younger than 2 years of age increased four-fold.

    “We hypothesize that the increased frequency of rod-shaped bacteria in the jejuna mucosa of celiac disease children at least partly was due to the changes in infant-feeding practice during that time,” write the researchers.

    The changes resulted from new national feeding recommendations for infants to delay the introduction of gluten-containing foods from 4 to 6 months. This meant that many more children consumed their first gluten without the protective benefits of breastfeeding, the researchers write. The recommendation was later reversed.

    The study by Hammarström and co-workers supports their conclusion that these rod-shaped bacteria may contribute to celiac disease in genetically susceptible individuals by uptaking and transforming gluten into large immunogenic peptides, which can then cross with the bacterium through the epithelium, or interfere with the barrier action of the epithelium to permit the passage of gluten into the under-laying tissue.

    “Such bacteria could be seen as an adjuvant promoting T-cell activation,” they say. “Whether the identified bacteria have any of these properties remain to be elucidated.”

     

    Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104: 3058–3067

    0

    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    There are no comments to display.



    Guest
    This is now closed for further comments

  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams is Celiac.com's senior writer and Digital Content Director. He earned his B.A. and M.F.A. at Arizona State University, and has authored more than 2,500 articles on celiac disease. His coursework includes studies in science, scientific methodology, biology, anatomy, medicine, logic, and advanced research. He previously served as SF Health News Examiner for Examiner.com, and devised health and medical content for Sharecare.com. Jefferson has spoken about celiac disease to the media, including an appearance on the KQED radio show Forum, and is the editor of the book "Cereal Killers" by Scott Adams and Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.


  • Celiac.com Sponsor (A17):
    Celiac.com Sponsor (A17):





    Celiac.com Sponsors (A17):




  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams
    Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 May;99(5):894-904 Celiac.com 06/08/2004 – To determine what triggers celiac disease, researchers recently used an electron microscope to look at the jejunal biopsies of several groups of children: A group with untreated celiac disease, one with treated celiac disease, another with challenged celiac disease, and a healthy control group. The researchers discovered rod-shaped bacteria attached to the small intestinal epithelium in both the treated and untreated celiac-disease groups, but not in the healthy control group.
    The researchers conclude: "Unique carbohydrate structures of the glycocalyx/mucous layer are likely d...

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/15/2010 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate mucosal expression of claudins 2, 3 and 4 in the proximal and distal parts of duodenum in children with celiac disease. The team included Dorottya Nagy Szakál, Hajnalka GyÅ‘rffy, András Arató, Áron Cseh, Kriszta Molnár, Mária Papp, Antal DezsÅ‘fi, and Gábor Veres. They are variously associated with the Department of Pediatrics, and the Department of Pathology at Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary, and the Department of Medicine at the University of Debrecen in Debrecen, Hungary.
    Duodenal biopsy is an important tool for properly diagnosing celiac disease. However, th...

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/19/2010 - Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut triggered by an adverse immune response to dietary gluten proteins in genetically susceptible individuals. One of the first ways the body responds to offending proteins in an adverse celiac disease response is by producing mucous via IgA secretion in an effort to neutralize offending antigens and pathogens.
    A team of researchers recently sought to better document the relationships between immunoglobulin-coated bacteria and bacterial composition in feces of celiac disease patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD) and healthy controls. The research...