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  • Jefferson Adams
    Jefferson Adams

    Study Shows Pea Protein Best for Improving Gluten-free Bread

    Reviewed and edited by a celiac disease expert.

    Celiac.com 05/20/2013 - A team of researchers recently looked at the influence of various proteins on the quality of gluten-free bread formulas. Specifically, the team looked at the influence of different concentrates or isolates of protein on the structure, properties and aging of gluten-free bread.

    Photo: CC-- United States GovernmentThe research team included Rafał Ziobroa, Teresa Witczakb, Lesław Juszczakc, and Jarosław Korusa. They are affiliated with the Department of Carbohydrates Technology, the Department of Engineering and Machinery for Food Industry, and the Department of Analysis and Evaluation of Food Quality, at the University of Agriculture, in Krakow, Poland.



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    For their study they made gluten-free breads from dough that included albumin, collagen, pea, lupine or soy protein.

    They then analyzed the rheological properties of the dough, and found that bread made with added test proteins showed major differences in its visco-elastic properties.

    Different flours had different effects on specific volume of the loaves. Soy protein and collagen reduced bread volume, while lupine and albumin significantly increased bread volume.

    In each case, the added proteins had a noticeable impact on the color and textural properties of bread crumbs.

    Most of the protein preparations significantly decreased hardness and chewiness of the crumb compared to the control sample.

    Overall, the dough that contained pea protein yielded bread with the most acceptable qualities. The study demonstrated that pea protein created the most acceptable flavor, color, smell and bread crumb in the final product.

    Soy protein proved to be the least acceptable of those tested, as it produced loaves with smaller volume and a compact structure. The results of this study show that adding pea protein can improve bread quality, and help to slow staling of starch based bread.

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  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams

    Jefferson Adams is Celiac.com's senior writer and Digital Content Director. He earned his B.A. and M.F.A. at Arizona State University, and has authored more than 2,500 articles on celiac disease. His coursework includes studies in science, scientific methodology, biology, anatomy, medicine, logic, and advanced research. He previously served as SF Health News Examiner for Examiner.com, and devised health and medical content for Sharecare.com. Jefferson has spoken about celiac disease to the media, including an appearance on the KQED radio show Forum, and is the editor of the book "Cereal Killers" by Scott Adams and Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.


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  • Related Articles

    Wendy Cohan, RN
    Celiac.com 11/12/2008 - It's not as hard as you might think!  It's easy to start with the big items—a gluten-free turkey, gluten-free stuffing, gluten-free pumpkin pie, and of course, gluten-free gravy.  All are easily achievable by the average home cook, and no one will be able to tell anything is different or unusual—just a lovingly prepared meal full of flavor.
    Order an organic turkey from New Seasons or Whole Foods in plenty of time, or choose a less expensive option such as Norbest, Riverside, or Honeysuckle White (my favorite).  Some commercially produced turkeys contain gluten in the broth used to inject them full of flavorings, salt, and fat.  It is important to avoid eating gluten with your conscientiously prepared meal by choosing a gluten-free turkey as your centerpiece.  Check the label and it should say no MSG and no gluten on the front or under the nutrition label on the back.  Season turkey with high quality herbs like sage, thyme, and rosemary, or go Latin with cumin, chilies, and lime, but forgo additional salt.  Most turkeys are pre-salted—some excessively so.  The turkeys I surveyed at my discount grocer ranged in Sodium Content/Serving from 160 mg. to 325 mg.  Honeysuckle White, which I cooked at my Thanksgiving Prep class, had 200 mg. and I did not need to add any salt when cooking.  It was moist, flavorful, and delicious.
    Gluten-free stuffing is easy, just buy or make the best gluten-free bread, cube it and dry in a low temperature oven.  Angeline's bread, available locally here in the Pacific Northwest, makes excellent stuffing (it does contain milk powder).  You can also make a wild rice/brown rice and dried cranberry pilaf style stuffing, which can be cooked separately, or used to stuff the bird.  You can make terrific stuffing using my recipe for focaccia bread, available in my Thanksgiving Planner (see below).
    Use sweet rice flour to replace the traditional wheat flour in thickening gravy.  If it's not quite thick enough you can add a little tapioca or potato starch.
    I’ll inject a note of caution here, for those folks with gluten-related bladder problems. If you still have a sensitive bladder, take it easy on the cranberry sauce.  I know, it’s recommended to prevent bladder problems, but in reality, it is quite harsh on the bladders of those who already have them.  You may be able to tolerate a little apple cider, though, and herb tea is a good option, especially some nettle leaf tea before you have dinner, whether it’s one you’re preparing or not—nettle leaf can help to minimize any food sensitivity reactions you may have, although it can’t prevent a reaction to gluten, so do maintain your gluten-free diet, and don’t be afraid to ask your host or hostess about ingredients.  It’s best to do it before-hand rather than at the dinner table.  Think about how relaxed you’ll be if you already have your game plan when you get to the table, and know exactly what you can eat, and which dishes you’ll need to politely pass on to the next guest.
    For pumpkin pie, all you really need to do is make a killer pie crust and make sure your filling is dairy free if necessary.  You can substitute Earth Balance for regular margarine—it's gluten-free and dairy-free, or if you tolerate dairy products, use butter.  Or, you can use oil to make pie crust.  I’ll include recipes for both crusts, and the pies, here.  To replace milk in your pumpkin custard for the pie, there are many options to choose from:  rice, soy, almond, hazelnut, or hemp, but for extra richness, try coconut milk—it has a very mild taste and won't overwhelm the pumpkin flavor.  I'm very happy with the recipe I included in my Thanksgiving Planner & Recipe Guide.
    Poached pears or other fruit make a lovely alternative to pie, especially when prepared with the finest ingredients and served in an attractive dessert bowl.  I use my Mom’s retro 1940’s curvy glass bowl, which always brings back happy memories.  No, I wasn’t actually around yet when she got the bowl!
    Here’s the menu for my 2008 Thanksgiving dinner:

    Sangria with Cranberries Yeasted Pumpkin Bread Traditional Roasted Thanksgiving Turkey Traditional Tukey-Sage Stuffing (Made with Focaccia Bread) Traditional Turkey Gravy Mashed Yukon Gold Potatoes Yam Gratin with Spiced Pecans Green Salad with Satsumas, Avocados, And Lime Dressing Wild-Rice-Cranberry-Pecan Pilaf (Alternate Stuffing) Oven Roasted Green Beans or Asparagus Cranberry Pineapple Salsa Pumpkin Pie with Coconut Whipped Cream (Optional)
    To view my Thanksgiving menu, or order my Thanksgiving Planner & Recipe Guide, go to my Gluten-Free Choice Web site (see the link in my biography on the upper-right), and look under the “Gluten Free Resource Guide” tab.  At the bottom of the page, below the Thanksgiving Menu, you’ll see how to order the guide.
    TWO GLUTEN-FREE PIE CRUSTS
    Tender Gluten-Free Pie Crust
    (Adapted from Karen Robertson)
    Ingredients:
    1 ¼  cup gluten-free flour blend (+ up to 1 tablespoon more as needed)
    ¼ cup tapioca starch
    ¼ cup potato starch
    1 ½ teaspoon guar gum or 1 ¼ teaspoon xanthan gum, not both
    2 teaspoons fructose
    9 tablespoons Earth Balance Vegan margarine or shortening*
    1 large egg + 1 egg yolk
    1 ½ tablespoons apple cider vinegar or cold water
    (if using shortening, add ½ teaspoon salt)
    Directions:

    Mix together dry ingredients, then cut in margarine or shortening carefully until there are no lumps larger than pea-size. Beat together the eggs, and water or vinegar. Make a well in dry ingredients and add egg and liquid mixture, stirring carefully with fork to combine. When dough is just barely beginning to hold together, turn out onto a floured surface and flatten and fold, and flatten and fold again.  Do not overwork dough. Roll out carefully between wax paper. Remove top sheet of wax paper, and invert crust into pan.  Using wax paper, press crust into pan and form, then remove wax paper.  Use a similar technique for top crust if using.

    SOY-FREE, EGG-FREE OIL-BASED PIE CRUST
    (Adapted from Betty Hagman’s recipe)Ingredients:
    1 cup gluten-free flour blend
    ½ cup potato starch
    ½ cup sweet rice flour
    3 teaspoons xanthan gum
    1 teaspoon salt
    2 teaspoons fructose
    3 tablespoons cold rice milk
    2/3 cup vegetable oil
    Directions:

    Mix together all dry ingredients, then mix together rice milk and oil. Make well in dry ingredients and add rice milk/oil mixture, stirring gently with fork to combine. Proceed as directed in previous recipe. PUMKIN PIE (Gluten-Free)
    Choose either one of the pie crust dough and make as directed.  Place in pie plate, and carefully cover inside of crust with foil.  Fill pie crust with dried beans or rice, and pre-bake crust about 10 minutes at 350.  When edges are set, remove foil and beans, and bake another 5 minutes, or until bottom crust is beginning to crisp slightly.
    Here’s the filling:
    This makes enough for two 8 inch pies, so if you’re only doing one, cut it in half.
    Filling Ingredients:
    2 15-ounce cans of pumpkin, not pumpkin pie filling, or 1 29-ounce can of pumpkin
    4 whole eggs
    2 tablespoons gluten-free flour blend
    1 teasoon sea salt
    1 teasoon cinnamon
    ¼ teasoon cloves
    ½ teasoon allspice
    1 teasoon ginger
    ½ cup fructose
    1/3 cup dark agave syrup
    2 teasoons vanilla extract
    2/3 cup full fat (not light) coconut milk
    2/3 cup unsweetened rice or almond milk
    Directions:
    If making only half the recipe, you can make this in the blender, which is very quick and easy, and also makes it easier to pour into the crust.  The full recipe will exceed the capacity of most blenders.

    Mix all ingredients together in large mixing bowl, in approximately the order they are listed.  Blend until thoroughly mixed. Pour into pre-baked pie shell, and bake for fifty minutes at 325.  Remember to reduce oven temperature after pre-baking the pie shells.  Check for doneness every 5 minutes thereafter, by inserting a paring knife into the pie; it should come out clean.
    FOCACCIA BREAD WITH CARAMELIZED ONIONS

    Prepare liquid ingredients in a small bowl:

    1 teaspoon apple cider vinegar 1 tablespoon fructose 1 tablespoon agave syrup 1/3 cup vegetable oil (light tasting olive oil works well) 2 eggs + 1 egg white at room temperature, or equivalent egg substitute (Ener-G foods, or flax seed & boiling water – beaten with fork until foamy) 1 ¾ cups warm milk substitute (rice milk etc.) (110-115 degrees)
    …and prepare dry ingredients in separate bowl, combining with whisk
    1 package active dry yeast (equiv. to 1 tablespoon) + 1 teaspoon yeast 1 teaspoon fructose 3 ¼ cups all purpose baking mix (2 parts brown rice flour, 1 part sorghum flour, 1 part tapioca starch, ½ part potato starch) ¼ cup teff flour ¾ cup amaranth flour 4 teaspoons guar gum 1 ½ teaspoons salt ¾ teaspoon garlic powder
    Directions:
    Combine all wet ingredients and beat together with whisk.  Add flour mixture all at once, stirring on low until combined.  Increase speed to medium and beat for 3 full minutes.  Let dough rest in bowl, covered with towel for 10 minutes, and it will firm up slightly.  Wash and dry hands, then coat with gluten-free cooking spray.  Scoop 2 equal portions of dough onto prepared pizza pans, sprayed lightly with cooking spray.  Pat dough into smooth round, and begin to work dough out into a round about ½” thick and about 10 inches in diameter.  When dough begins to stick to hands, rinse hands in warm water, shake it off, then continue to spread dough.  When dough reaches desired shape and size, use fingers to lightly dimple dough, and sprinkle lightly with granulated garlic. Cover with towel, and place in warm, draft-free place to rise for 40 minutes. Preheat oven to 375F and bake for 8-10 minutes.  Remove bread from oven and brush with olive oil - add caramelized* onions and return to oven for an additional 10-15 minutes.
    *To caramelize onions, place 1 tablespoon olive oil over medium heat, Add 2 cups sliced sweet onions; cook slowly, stirring often until softened and taking on dark caramel color.  This cooking process basically released the sugars from the onions.  You can add a little water, wine, or chicken broth to prevent sticking to bottom of pan.  Also be sure to scrape bottom of pan well each time you stir during cooking.



    Jules Shepard
    This recipe calls for my Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour™.  You can find the recipe for this flour in mycookbook, Nearly Normal Cooking for Gluten-Free Eating or in various media links on my website, or you can also this truly all purpose flourready-made at my site. It produces amazing results in all your gluten-free baking.

    Sweet Potato Bundt Cake

    The leaves are nearly gone, but sweet potatoes and pumpkins are still calling to me from my kitchen!  I decided to experiment with sweet potato cake – something I haven’t tried yet (I love challenges!). This one is light, mild and oh so yummy! I offer two possible glazes, but it’s nice on its own too. Enjoy!

    Ingredients:
    2 ¼ cup Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour™
    1 tablespoon gluten-free baking powder
    ½ teaspoon guar gum (optional)
    1 cup granulated sugar
    ¼ cup brown sugar
    1 package gluten-free vanilla instant pudding dry mix (3.4 oz)
    Dash of salt
    1 teaspoon cinnamon
    ½ teaspoon nutmeg
    1 teaspoon cardamom (or 2 ½ teaspoons pumpkin pie spice in lieu of the 3 separate spices)
    2 teaspoons gluten-free vanilla extract
    ¼ cup vanilla yogurt (soy or dairy)
    4 eggs or egg replacer equivalent
    ½ softened butter or Earth Balance Buttery Sticks (vegan alternative)
    2 tablespoons ground flax seeds or flax seed meal
    ¼ cup boiling water
    1 large cooked, peeled and mashed sweet potato (approx. 1 cup)
    Directions:
    Preheat oven to 325 F static or convection setting.

    Boil ¼ cup of water and add flax seed meal. Stir and set aside. Cook, peel and mash the sweet potato and set aside.

    In a large mixing bowl, stir the eggs or egg replacer until well mixed. To the eggs, add all dry ingredients, yogurt, vanilla and softened butter or Buttery Sticks. Mix well then stir in the slightly cooled flax seed meal and the mashed sweet potato last.

    Butter or oil a bundt pan and dust with Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour™ or corn starch. Pour the well-mixed batter into the pan and smooth out the top with a rubber spatula. Bake in preheated static oven for approximately 50 minutes or convection oven for approximately 35 minutes. The cake is done when a cake tester inserted into the center comes out clean. Let the cake sit in the pan until slightly cooled, then invert onto a serving plate.

    Glazes:

    Lemon Glaze:
    1 cup sifted powdered sugar
    1 teaspoon finely shredded lemon peel
    3 teaspoons milk
    1 teaspoon lemon juice
    Mix all the ingredients together until smooth. Drizzle over top of the cake.

    Honey-Orange Glaze:
    ½ cup honey
    1 teaspoon finely shredded orange peel
    ½ cup orange juice (with or without pulp)
    Combine ingredients in a small saucepan over medium-high heat. Stir until boiling and remove from heat. Let sit until slightly cooled, then drizzle over the cake.

    The finished Sweet Potato Bundt Cake (Gluten-Free)




    Jules Shepard
    Ok, I know these cookies aren't free from peanuts, but they are peanut butter cookies, after all!  If you can do almonds, but not peanuts, definitely try this recipe with almond butter – yum!
    For the rest of us with other dietary restrictions, take heart! These cookies fit the bill! They're delicious, and still gluten-free, dairy-free, egg-free, soy-free, and sugar-free! Yes, they even have a low glycemic index! Enjoy these cookies on their own, or add chocolate chips (dairy-free chips are great too!) for a change of pace. High protein, loads of vitamins and minerals, dietary fiber – it's all there, and in a cookie!!!  Maybe I should have called these “Guilt-Free Cookies”!!!
    Don't be daunted by some of the unusual flour ingredients. Try them if you will, or just use my all purpose blend instead, for a quick and easy recipe substitution.
    Ingredients:
    1 ½ cups peanut butter (natural or no sugar added)
    ¾ cup agave nectar (light or dark)
    1 Tbs. gluten-free vanilla extract
    ¼ cup unsweetened applesauce
    ½ tsp. salt
    1 cup Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour*
    ¾ cup buckwheat flour (or Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour)
    2 Tbs. mesquite flour (or Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour)
    2 Tbs. almond meal (or Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour)
    ½ cup+ chocolate chips (optional)
    Cinnamon and sugar (or granulated splenda) mixture (or cinnamon only) for tops of cookies
    *Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour may be made using the recipe found in my cookbook, Nearly Normal Cooking for Gluten-Free Eating, or on my Web site.
    Directions:
    Preheat oven to 350 F.
    Blend peanut butter and all liquid ingredients together, then add in the dry ingredients, mixing until fully incorporated.
    Prepare a cookie sheet lined with parchment paper. Roll balls of dough approximately the size of ping pong balls in your hands and place on the prepared cookie sheet. Dip a fork in the cinnamon-sugar mixture and press into each cookie to flatten with a criss-cross design.

    Bake for 10-12 minutes and remove to cool on the pan.

    Finished "Free-From" Peanut Butter Cookies
     


    Jules Shepard
    Correctly measure your flour. When measuring flour, don’t scoop from the bag with your measuring cup.  This compresses the flour.  Use a spoon to scoop flour into the measuring cup and level off with a knife. This will ensure that your flour is measured properly. Bring your ingredients to room temperature before mixing. It is particularly important for yeast recipes to bring all of your ingredients, such as eggs, to room temperature before adding them together to make bread. Yeast needs warmth to grow and if your ingredients are too cold, it may prevent full yeast growth. Make sure your loaf of bread is actually fully cooked. It is very important not to take your bread out of the oven before it is fully cooked. If the bread has a rubbery layer at the bottom, this usually means it was not fully cooked. The best way to tell if the bread is done is to take a baking thermometer and insert it all the way into the bottom of the loaf. The temperature should be approximately 210 F when it is done. Your bread will keep its shape better overcooked than undercooked, so if in doubt, keep it in the oven a bit longer! My recipes have plenty of moisture, so you shouldn’t worry too much about the bread drying out. If baking by oven method, use metal pans. I have found that glass bread pans do not work as well as metal pans in fully cooking a loaf of bread. Metal pans do not have to be fancy or expensive, and you can often even find them in your local grocery store. Rising issues. A great method for letting your yeast breads rise before baking is to turn on your oven to 200F, then turn it off when it has reached temperature. Put your un-raised bread into the warmed oven with an oiled piece of wax paper on top and let it rise according to directions. Once raised, removed the wax paper and bake according to directions. How to prevent your bread from sinking. When your bread is done cooking, turn off the oven and open the door so that the bread can cool slowly. Taking the bread out of a hot oven and quickly transferring it to a cool counter can sometimes cause the loaf to sink in. If it still sinks, it may have too much moisture in it to support itself fully. It should still taste great, but if you have your heart set on a nice crowned loaf, next time try cutting back on the liquid a bit in that recipe or adding ¼ cup of flaxseed meal to help support the bread's structure and enhance its nutritional value, all in one! Altitude and even the day's weather can affect sometimes picky yeast recipes. How to make a multi-grain loaf of bread. To make a more “whole grain” bread, take a basic recipe (for example, Jules’ Sandwich Bread recipe).  In place of the 2 cups of Jules Gluten Free All Purpose flour, add only 1 ¾ cups.  Replace the final ¼ cup with flax seed meal, buckwheat flour, gluten-free oat flour, brown rice flour, or teff flour.  These flours will add more whole grain flavor and additional fiber.  You can also add seeds (flax seeds, sesame seeds, etc.) to add crunch and fiber.  With this amount of different flours, you do not need to adjust the recipe at all.   
     


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