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Gluten Contributes to Irritable Bowel Syndrome Even in Non-Celiacs
Celiac.com 05/18/2011 - Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is based on a clinical description only; there are no pathophysiological pathways definitively associated with it. It is characterized as gastrointestinal symptoms with no discernable cause. A diagnosis of IBS depends on recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort for at least three days per month in the last three months, with the onset of the discomfort either associated with a change in frequency or appearance of stool or alleviated by defecation. A number of different mechanisms have been suggested as potential causes of IBS. These range from psychological origins, to increased visceral hyperalgesia (sensitivity to pain), to the low grade gut inflammation and altered gastrointestinal permeability and motility observed in IBS patients. Complicating matters is that most patients exhibit only a subset of symptoms. Since gluten has been demonstrated to negatively affect even people without celiac disease by an unknown mechanism (see Study Shows Gluten Intolerance Without Celiac Disease), and the underlying causes of IBS remain unclear, Dr. Elena Verdu wondered if gluten might contribute to IBS.
Like those with IBS, patients with gluten sensitivity lack the antibodies against tissue transglutaminase that are the hallmark of celiac disease but nonetheless suffer immune mediated inflammation in their gut. Interestingly, when IBS patients without celiac eliminated gluten from their diet, 68% of them reported more severe pain, bloating, and tiredness upon gluten rechallenge. But how – by what mechanism? No changes were detected in intestinal permeability or fecal lactoferrin, a marker of intestinal inflammation. However, it is possible that these phenomena persisted, just at below the level of detection.
Based on these data, and other evidence that is rapidly accruing suggesting that gluten can negatively affect those without celiac disease, Dr. Verdu suggests that IBS patients might be screened for anti-gliadin antibodies even if they lack antibodies against tissue transglutaminase. These nonspecific antibodies can indicate an immunological response to gluten, and thus their presence could used to determine if their symptoms might be alleviated by adherence to a gluten free diet. She makes sure to point out, though, that this is probably not the case for all IBS patients.
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Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) often occur together, and research indicates that many people with IBS plus FMS (IBS/FMS) might actually suffer from undiagnosed celiac disease.... [READ MORE]
Can a Gluten-free Diet Reduce Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?
A team of researchers recently conducted a controlled trial of gluten-free diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea to gauge the effects on bowel frequency and intestinal function.... [READ MORE]
Celiac Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Gluten Sensitivity
The causes and mechanisms that fuel the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, along with the individual perceptions of those symptoms are varied and, in many cases, not well understood.... [READ MORE]
No Link Found Between Celiac Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Mayo Clin Proc 2004;79:476-482.... [READ MORE]
Diana Gitig Ph.D.
Diana received her B.A. in Biochemistry from the University of Pennsylvania, and then a Ph.D. in Cell Biology and Genetics from Cornell. Now she is a freelance science writer and editor in White Plains, New York.Â Her son was diagnosed with celiac disease in 2006, at the age of five, and she has been keeping her family healthy by feeding them gluten free treats ever since.