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Can Breast Feeding During Infancy Lower the Risk for Celiac Disease?

Celiac.com 10/12/2012 - What is the relationship between breastfeeding, the age of gluten introduction and rates of celiac disease?

A number of studies have shown that increased breastfeeding may provide some protection against celiac disease. However, one study found no change in the overall prevalence of celiac disease in breastfed infants compared to controls, suggesting that breastfeeding may only delay the presentation of the disease but, does not prevent it. Other studies show no significant difference in the prevalence of celiac disease between breastfed and non-breastfed patients.

Photo: CC--shinglebackData from the Swedish celiac disease epidemic suggest a 3% prevalence of celiac disease in the children born during the epidemic. An analysis by Ivarsson et al. of children born during the epidemic, found that children under 2 years of age had a lower risk of celiac disease if they were still being breastfed when dietary gluten was introduced (odds ratio 0.59, 95, with a confidence interval 0.42–0.83). Children who continued breastfeeding after gluten was introduced to their diet showed a further decrease in the risk for celiac disease (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.26–0.51).

A meta-analysis that included the Ivarsson data, showed celiac disease risk was significantly lower in infants who were breastfed at the time of gluten introduction (pooled OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.40–0.59), compared to infants who were not breastfed at the time of first gluten exposure.

A later study, by Akobeng and others, estimated that breastfeeding all babies in the UK at the time of gluten introduction, would prevent 2500 cases of celiac disease every year.

The best data currently available on celiac disease and the age of gluten introduction comes from a prospective study by Norris et al. The study followed 1560 children in Denver between 1994 and 2004. This study showed that children exposed to gluten in the first 3 months of life had a fivefold increased risk of having celiac disease than children exposed to gluten between 4 and 6 months of age, while children exposed to gluten at 7 months old or later had an almost twofold increased risk compared with those exposed at 4 to 6 months (hazard ratio 1.87, 95% CI 0.97–3.60).

When the analysis was limited to biopsy-diagnosed celiac disease, the hazard ratio was 23.97 (95% CI 4.55–115.9) for children exposed to gluten during the first 3 months of life compared to the 4–6 months exposure group, and 3.98 (95% CI 1.18–13.46) in the group exposed at 7 months or later

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What remains unclear, is whether breastfeeding and the age of introduction of gliadin prevent celiac disease or merely delay its onset.

To clarify the relationship between breastfeeding, the age at which gluten is introduced into the diet, and celiac disease, the EU has funded a prospective study, called PREVENTCD, FP6, in 10 European centers. The PREVENTCD study recruited pregnant women with a family history of celiac disease, and determined HLA4 of the newborn at birth.

By the end of December 2010, researchers had recruited a total of 1345 children at birth and enrolled 986 with positive HLA DQ status.

Researchers instructed mothers to breastfeed for 6 months, if possible. Beginning at the age of 4 months, the researchers placed the infants into randomized study groups, and fed them 100 mg of gliadin or a non-gliadin placebo every day.

The full data won't be available until all children reach the age of 3 years of age, but the researchers hope that the study will offer definitive answers on the relationship between breastfeeding and the age of gluten introduction and rates of celiac disease.

Until new information become available, the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition recommendations remain in effect. This recommendations state that gluten should be introduced to infants no earlier than 4 months of age, and no later than 7 months, and that the introduction should be gluten be made while the infant is still being breastfed.

This information was compiled by researcher R. Shamir of the Institute for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Liver Diseases, at the Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University in Ramat Aviv, Israel.

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5 Responses:

 
Lori
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said this on
15 Oct 2012 8:46:31 AM PST
A very complicated theory to pursue. One vital point missing, in my opinion, is the diet of the mother. if the mother is undiagnosed (or boarderline) reactive to gluten and dairy, then the breastmilk may contain offending proteins. This was definitely the case for me and my daughter. Thankfully we figured things out by the time she was 7 years old. The whole family of 4 is GF for over a decade now!

 
Megan
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said this on
20 Oct 2012 6:20:51 AM PST
I think Lori makes a good point. My four-year-old son was EBF until six months, and breast fed until 15 months. At that time I was undiagnosed celiac and consuming gluten. From two months on, his weight dropped markedly. Though he had some screening for celiac early on for small stature, we're only now approaching a diagnosis now that I'm diagnosed.

What I think is really key in Sweden is that they probably have many fewer undiagnosed mothers. I really think we should push OBs and REs to be screening for celiac much better. My untreated celiac may have stunted my first son's growth and probably is the reason I required fertility treatments to get pregnant a second time.

 
sed
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said this on
15 Oct 2012 10:50:24 AM PST
Thanks, as a celiac with a newborn, this was a clear and helpful synopsis of the data.

 
Wendy
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said this on
16 Oct 2012 6:04:05 AM PST
All these different studies are frustrating. I have celiac disease and I kept all of my 3 children gluten-free for the first year of their lives, as studies at THAT time showed that it could reduce risk. Now, I should have introduced it between 4-6 months for a reduced risk? Arrrrg. What's next?

 
Mary
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said this on
04 Nov 2012 5:35:01 AM PST
Excellent and interesting information; I was misdiagnosed for many years and most likely was a celiac throughout all three pregnancies. I breastfed all three children for at least 9 months, and introduced foods as normally scheduled while still breastfeeding. My daughters are now 32, 31, and 26, and none are celiacs, so far. However, one has been diagnosed with Crohn's Disease and one has digestive issues that her doctors have not yet been able to diagnose.




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