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A Nationwide Study of the Association Between Celiac Disease and the Risk of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Celiac.com 10/15/2013 - Most case reports suggest an association between autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) and celiac disease (CD) or positive CD serologic test results, but larger studies are contradictory.

http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1743008A team of researchers recently set out to examine the association between ASDs and CD according to small intestinal histopathologic findings.

The research team included Jonas F. Ludvigsson; Abraham Reichenberg; Christina M. Hultman; and Joseph A. Murray. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, and the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, with the Department of Pediatrics at Orebro University Hospital, Orebro University in Orebro, Sweden, with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of the Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, with the Department of Psychosis Studies at the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College in London, United Kingdom, and with the Department of Psychiatry at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, New York.

For their nationwide case-control study, the researchers used 28 Swedish biopsy registers to gather data on approximately 26,995 individuals with celiac disease, which they defined as the presence of villous atrophy, Marsh stage 3.

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They found 12,304 patients with inflammation (Marsh stages 1-2), 3719 patients with normal mucosa (Marsh stage 0), but positive celiac results for IgA/IgG gliadin, endomysium, or tissue transglutaminase. They then compared these results against and results for 213,208 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The team used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for prior ASD diagnosis according to the Swedish National Patient Register and then conducted a second analysis, using Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for future ASDs in individuals undergoing small intestinal biopsy.

They found that previous ASD was not associated with CD (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.51-1.68) or inflammation (OR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.40-2.64). However, they did finds that previous ASD was associated with a sharp higher risk of having normal mucosa but positive serologic test result for celiac disease (OR, 4.57; 95% CI, 1.58-13.22).

Once the team restricted the data to individuals without no diagnosis for ASD at the time of biopsy, they found that celiac disease (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.13-1.71) and inflammation (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.29-3.13) were both connected with slightly higher risks of later ASDs, compared against the HR of 3.09 (95% CI, 1.99-4.80) for later ASDs in individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serologic test results.

Even though this study showed no connection between previous ASD and celiac disease or inflammation, it did show that individuals with normal mucosa, but positive blood screens for celiac disease, have a much higher risk of ASD.

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Christine
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said this on
21 Oct 2013 11:26:52 AM PDT
Thank you for investigating this increasing and awful difficulty for children and adults with such eminent research. I personally have always believed there was a link between GF/casein and the Autism spectrum. Please continue to do your utmost to help.




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Feeneyja, This will be a little long but I will try to be brief as possible. See this discussion thread that talks about how Pellagra is often diagnosed as other disease's today because doctor's rarely recognize it today in a clinical setting. Pellagra's is described as the 3 D's if you don't count the 4th D of death if it goes long enough and is not diagnosed in a timely manner. Dementia (Neurological) Digestive (GI problems), Dermatitis issues (Ezcema, Psorsias, Acne etc.) According to mdguidelines website http://www.mdguidelines.com/pellagra indicates that quoting ?The diagnosis of pellagra is straightforward when the classic rash is present but may be elusive if there are only gastrointestinal and/or neurological manifestations.? And why I believe in many cases Pellagra goes undiagnosed today. Because doctor's have forgotten how it presents. A longer researcher article about the neurological presentations of pellagra mention the many ways a Niacin deficiency can present itself. Here is the link https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cggr/2012/302875/ and I will quote some of the neurological/dementia related symptom's of an undiagnosed pellagra patient. "Mental symptoms were wider than dementia, in that depression, fatigue, psychomotor retardation, mania, obsessions, and a whole range of psychoses with auditory and visual hallucinations were well described, along with personality change and sociopathic and drug and alcohol addictive behaviours. Panic disorders were seen as was a general inability to deal with physical or mental stress. Poor brain development such as hydrocephalus or cerebral palsy was also common. Acute delirium or even coma occurred, with some patients having myoclonus and other extrapyramidal signs reminiscent of the spongiform encephalopathies. The dementias of pellagra included features akin to Lewy body, Alzheimer?s, frontotemporal, vascular, and prion diseases. Parkinsonism was also common and a festinant gait was first described in pellagrins. Tremors of various descriptions, including asymmetric rest tremors, were noted and some patients had typical paralysis agitans. Pellagrins had a characteristic expressionless facies, so some signs of parkinsonism were present in most cases. Many features of pellagra closely resemble the nonmotor aspects of PD. The neurological manifestation did not stop there because other degenerative conditions, such as an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like picture, were described, with fasciculation of the tongue and upper and lower motor neuron signs. Cerebellar syndromes occurred and vertigo was frequent. Headaches, sensory and pain syndromes, epilepsy, and involuntary movements were noted as well as sleep disturbances. Cord lesions were also seen, as was optic atrophy, so there were multiple sclerosis (MS), like variants." It is me again. You can see the neurological symptom's of Pellagra are severe and wide ranging. Taking Niacinamide 3/day for 6 months can alleviate many of these symptom's if your daughter has subclinical pellagra and the doctor's don't know to look for it. I had deep depression for many, many years and I shudder to think now that only a Vitamin could of helped me 30+ years ago and the doctor's didn't know to look for it. Shoot it isn't just Niacin. All B-Vitamin's help your stress levels. IF you have stress B-Vitamins can help your stress levels. I take Folic Acid for Blood pressure problems and it keeps my BP with in a normal range. A article on celac.com discussed this topic in detail a few months ago. https://www.celiac.com/articles/24658/1/A-Differential-Diagnosis-How-Pellagra-Can-be-Confused-with-Celiac-Disease/Page1.html I hope it is helpful. Good luck on your continued journey. If you have never heard of Pellagra you are not alone. Dr. Heaney discusses why this is so in his online article Pellagra and the 4 D's. http://blogs.creighton.edu/heaney/2013/11/18/pellagra-and-the-four-ds/ If you don't have time to read the whole hindawi article I also suggest this shorter but informative blog about why a Niacin deficiency can cause dementia related conditions. https://pellagradisease.wordpress.com/ Then decide for yourself and your daughter's sake to decide whether to take Niacinamide or not to see if it helps the D's symptom's she is experiencing (Digestive, Dementia etc.) The International Journal of Celiac Disease makes note of this in their research that Pellagra could be contributing to symptom's being diagnosed as Celiac disease today instead of a possible (co-morbid) Pellagra that causes the same symptom's. When they discuss how Pellagra and Celiac disease are related (Co-Morbid) in a Celiac diagnosis are surprised to find that in 58% of Celiac's -- can also be diagnosed with Pellagra. See this link http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijcd/3/1/6/ Quoting 3. Pellagra and celiac disease "The two diseases can be connected in two aspects. 58% of pellagra patients were shown to have malabsorption and many had intestinal pathology on biopsies [36, 37]. Alternatively, Pellagra was described in celiac disease [38]. The skin manifestations in pellagra might have some additional etiologies, since multiple nutrient deficiencies are at the origin of the cutaneous manifestations in celiac disease. The following nutritional deficiencies inducing skin rashes, were describe in celiac disease: Zinc, Iron, Vitamin A, E, B12, niacin, folate, selenium and essential fatty acids [39, 40]." If one is being diagnosed incorrectly the other co-morbid conditions can continue to cause Celiac like symptom's. But if the majority of those who have been diagnosed as Celiac could be helped by taking Niacinamide I see no you reason you shouldn't try it. Or at least research it some more. Again good luck on your continued journey. 2 Timothy 2: 7 ?Consider what I say; and the Lord give thee understanding in all things? this included. Posterboy by the grace of God,

Read this posted on the FDA.gov site: https://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation/allergens/ucm362880.htm

Color me confused. I went to Costco yesterday and there were 2 products there that had GLUTEN FREE plastered on the box but then in the ingredients was a: May contain wheat. How is this possible? How can they still put gluten-free on the box? We should be able to trust gluten-free labeling no?? And second question: How many of you would still buy that item? I REALLY wanted to buy the Island Way Sorbet for my daughter as it is her FAVE. But I didn't want to take the risk. Maybe when she is healthier? I mean it is SORBET?! LOL So frustrating!

JMG I have never laughed so hard! This was the best epic comment I've read! Thankyou so much! Your all teaching me so much! Love the 'my glass to go' idea!! I will be adopting this... can't believe the mucky glasses we must be drinking from! Shocking! Im still baffled how so many people don't understand cross contamination i.e. The crumbs on the work surface to cut the lime for your tasty beverage! Your all amazing Thankyou x

Yes! I never really had GI symptoms, but I did have palpitations and restless leg syndrome from anemia. These went away within the first month. But myalgia and joint aches aren't better after 1 year. Waiting to get my antibodies re-tested and see if they're negative.....