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Predictors for Celiac Disease in Adult Cases of Duodenal Intraepithelial Lymphocytosis
Jefferson Adams is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. His poems, essays and photographs have appeared in Antioch Review, Blue Mesa Review, CALIBAN, Hayden's Ferry Review, Huffington Post, the Mississippi Review, and Slate among others.
He is a member of both the National Writers Union, the International Federation of Journalists, and covers San Francisco Health News for Examiner.com.View all articles by Jefferson Adams
Researchers I. Aziz, T. Key, J.G. Goodwin, and D.S. Sanders wanted to identify the predictors of celiac disease in patients presenting with D-IEL. For their study, they reviewed 215 adults with D-IEL who had undergone prospective and systematic evaluation for celiac disease and other recognized associations. They confirmed celiac disease based on presence of HLA-DQ2 and/or DQ8, persistence or progression of D-IEL following a gluten challenge, and an improvement in symptoms with a gluten-free diet.
To compare factors in celiac and non-celiac cases, and to determine their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), the team used binary logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex. They diagnosed celiac disease in 48 cases (22%) and non-celiac in 167 cases (78%). They found no statistical difference between the celiac and non-celiac group in terms of baseline demographics, anemia, hematinics, or clinical symptoms, such as diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain.
Compared with their non-celiac counterparts, celiac patients were significantly more likely to have a positive family history of celiac disease (21% vs. 3.6%, OR 6.73; PPV 62.5%, NPV 81%, specificity 96.4%), positive HLA-DQ status (100% vs. 49.1%; PPV 36.4%, NPV 100%, specificity 50.9%), and presence of endomysial antibody (EMA) (48% vs. 0%; PPV 100%, NPV 87%, specificity 100%); all P≤0.001.
A total of 29.2% celiac and 83.2% non-celiac cases showed normal tissue transglutaminase antibody (TTG) levels (OR 0.084, P<0.001; PPV 9.2%).
Between the groups, there was no difference in the prevalence of TTG levels 1 to 2×upper limit of normal (29.2% celiac vs. 14.4% non-celiac; PPV 33% to 38%). However, TTG levels between 3 and 20×ULN were much more common in the celiac group (33.3% vs. 2.4%, PPV 66.6% to 89%), whereas a TTG>20×ULN was exclusive to celiac disease (8.3%, P<0.001, PPV 100%).
For patients with D-IEL, only a positive EMA or TTG greater than 20×ULN at the outset can yield an immediate celiac diagnosis. On their own, factors such as gastrointestinal symptoms, family history, anemia, or other celiac serology results do not reliably distinguish celiac from non-celiac patients.
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Low Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer Among Patients with Celiac Disease, Inflammation, or Latent Celiac Disease
A number of small studies have shown a connection between celiac disease and various gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, but the results haven't been corroborated by larger studies, or by blood and biopsy analysis of large populations.... [READ MORE]
IL-15 Triggered Pathway in Intraepithelial Lymphocytes Emerges as New Factor in Type II Refractory Celiac Disease and Enteropathy-associated T Cell Lymphoma
Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma is a serious complication of celiac disease, and a major cause of mortality in untreated celiac disease.... [READ MORE]
Increased Risk of Additional Lymphoma Types in those with Untreated Celiac Disease
Gut 2005;54:54-59.... [READ MORE]
People with Celiac Disease are Three Times More Likely to Develop Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)
JAMA 2002;287:1413-1419.... [READ MORE]