0
lao512

Not Sure What To Think - Just Got Blood Test Results

Rate this topic

Recommended Posts

Hi everyone,

 

I am totally new here and don't know much of anything about Celiac. I'm hoping those of you with more experience can shed some light for me. I was diagnosed with Hashimoto's (autoimmune hypothyroid) in 2009, and recently, in January 2013, I was diagnosed as B12 deficient and low Alkaline Phosphatase (a liver enzyme). I've been on B12 shots since January. My B12 and Alkaline Phosphatase tests were repeated a couple of week ago and both were still low. Knowing that I have an autoimmune thyroid disease and that both B12 deficiency and low Alkaline Phosphatase can be caused by malabsorption, my (thankfully thorough) doc ordered some blood tests for Celiac. Here are my results:

 

Gliadin Ab IgA - 6 (normal range <20)

TISSUE TRANSGLUTAM AB IGA - <1 (normal range <4)

GLIADIN IGG - 5 (normal range <20)

RETICULIN AB (IGA) SCREEN - negative

 

I have a couple of questions. First, from the limited material I've read, the Gliadin Ab IgA and GLIADIN IGG are no longer considered the best indicators and are being replaced more and more with Gliadin (Deamidated) tests. Is this true? Also, I haven't been able to find much of any info about the Reticulin AB (IGA) screen test. How good of an indicator is it? Also, it doesn't look like they tested my total IgA, which from what I've read would show if I'm IgA deficient or not.

 

I don't know if I have symptoms or not. I will occasionally (once a month or so) become very bloated, with pain if I press on my abdomen. I've tried bloat medicines (such as gas-x) which provide no relief. After a day or two, the bloat goes away on its own. Also, my bowel movements are not regular. Some days I will have very loose stools (sometimes with and sometimes without the urgency of diarrhea), and sometimes I will go several days without any bowel movement at all. Sometimes I will have very solid stool, but with a very sudden urge to go (I would compare it to the urgency of diarrhea, but with solid stool). I never thought much about all of this until the doc mentioned Celiacs.

 

I also have still had fatigue and brain fog (which I initially assumed were related to my thyroid) even though I'm on thyroid meds and my TSH is normal.

 

Basically, my major question is, should I be satisfied with the blood tests above and a negative Celiac diagnosis, or should I press for additional tests? I'm so confused by everything I've read online and want to be able to properly advocate for myself, but I just don't understand most of it.

 

Thanks for any insight you can provide!

 

 

 

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Ads by Google:
Ads by Google:


Hi everyone,

 

I am totally new here and don't know much of anything about Celiac. I'm hoping those of you with more experience can shed some light for me. I was diagnosed with Hashimoto's (autoimmune hypothyroid) in 2009, and recently, in January 2013, I was diagnosed as B12 deficient and low Alkaline Phosphatase (a liver enzyme). I've been on B12 shots since January. My B12 and Alkaline Phosphatase tests were repeated a couple of week ago and both were still low. Knowing that I have an autoimmune thyroid disease and that both B12 deficiency and low Alkaline Phosphatase can be caused by malabsorption, my (thankfully thorough) doc ordered some blood tests for Celiac. Here are my results:

 

Gliadin Ab IgA - 6 (normal range <20)

TISSUE TRANSGLUTAM AB IGA - <1 (normal range <4)

GLIADIN IGG - 5 (normal range <20)

RETICULIN AB (IGA) SCREEN - negative

 

I have a couple of questions. First, from the limited material I've read, the Gliadin Ab IgA and GLIADIN IGG are no longer considered the best indicators and are being replaced more and more with Gliadin (Deamidated) tests. Is this true? Also, I haven't been able to find much of any info about the Reticulin AB (IGA) screen test. How good of an indicator is it? Also, it doesn't look like they tested my total IgA, which from what I've read would show if I'm IgA deficient or not.

 

I don't know if I have symptoms or not. I will occasionally (once a month or so) become very bloated, with pain if I press on my abdomen. I've tried bloat medicines (such as gas-x) which provide no relief. After a day or two, the bloat goes away on its own. Also, my bowel movements are not regular. Some days I will have very loose stools (sometimes with and sometimes without the urgency of diarrhea), and sometimes I will go several days without any bowel movement at all. Sometimes I will have very solid stool, but with a very sudden urge to go (I would compare it to the urgency of diarrhea, but with solid stool). I never thought much about all of this until the doc mentioned Celiacs.

 

I also have still had fatigue and brain fog (which I initially assumed were related to my thyroid) even though I'm on thyroid meds and my TSH is normal.

 

Basically, my major question is, should I be satisfied with the blood tests above and a negative Celiac diagnosis, or should I press for additional tests? I'm so confused by everything I've read online and want to be able to properly advocate for myself, but I just don't understand most of it.

 

Thanks for any insight you can provide!

Are you still eating gluten? If you went gluten-free before the test it could be false negative.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Are you still eating gluten? If you went gluten-free before the test it could be false negative.

 

I am still eating gluten, although I wouldn't say that my diet in general is high in gluten, as I try to eat mostly "whole" foods such as fruits, veggies, and unprocessed meat. My preferred "starch" side dishes are rice and quinoa. I love bread and pasta, but only eat those a few times a week. I try to stay away from processed foods, so I doubt I'm getting much gluten from additives.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Gliadin Ab IgA - 6 (normal range <20)

TISSUE TRANSGLUTAM AB IGA - <1 (normal range <4)

GLIADIN IGG - 5 (normal range <20)

RETICULIN AB (IGA) SCREEN - negative

 

I have a couple of questions. First, from the limited material I've read, the Gliadin Ab IgA and GLIADIN IGG are no longer considered the best indicators and are being replaced more and more with Gliadin (Deamidated) tests. Is this true? Also, I haven't been able to find much of any info about the Reticulin AB (IGA) screen test. How good of an indicator is it? Also, it doesn't look like they tested my total IgA, which from what I've read would show if I'm IgA deficient or not.

 

....Basically, my major question is, should I be satisfied with the blood tests above and a negative Celiac diagnosis, or should I press for additional tests? I'm so confused by everything I've read online and want to be able to properly advocate for myself, but I just don't understand most of it.

 

Thanks for any insight you can provide!

Welcome to the board.  :)

 

You are right that the AGA tests (anti-gliadin antibodies) are not the best tests and are being phased out. DGP is a MUCH better test. The reticulin test is pretty old too. Very few labs use that anymore. I'm not that sure about it's reliability. On page 11-13 of this report, the various current blood tests for celiac disease are discussed. http://www.worldgastroenterology.org/assets/export/userfiles/2012_Celiac%20Disease_long_FINAL.pdf  The only up to date test you had was the tTG IgA, and it only has a sensitivity of 75-95% meaning that it misses up to 25% of celiac cases. 

 

I agree that you should get your total IgA tested. Approximately 5% of celiacs are deficient in this... which is why they check it. 

 

With your symptoms and Hashimoto's (around 6% of Hashi's patients have celiac disease compared with less than 1% of the regular population), I think celiac disease could be involved, although it could be Non-Celiac Gluten Intolerance/Sensitivity (NCGI) as well. Unfortunately, with NCGI there are no blood tests; diagnosis is through a positive reaction to the gluten-free diet for a few months. Once you have exhausted your testing options, NCGI and the gluten-free diet would be something I would consider.

 

Are you sure your thyroid is adequately managed? I have been gluten-free for a year and I still have some thyroid symptoms like brain fog even though my thyroid labs were declared "normal" by my doctor. I am disregarding my doctor's statement that I am normal and pursuing a TSH closer to a 1, and a Free T4 and Free T3 in the 50-75% range of my lab's reference range. I have switched to desicated thyroid and am starting to feel some energy. :)

 

Good luck. I hope you find your answers.  Keep asking questions, there are a lot of knowledgable people around here.  :)

  • Upvote 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

here's a pubmed abstract relating to this, but I don't have the full text

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23365209

 

http://www.celiac.com/articles/23250/1/Antireticulin-Antibodies-Obsolete-as-Test-for-Celiac-Disease/Page1.html

 

any chance you can get the DGP igg/iga combo tested?

 

 

 The reticulin test is pretty old too. Very few labs use that anymore. I'm not that sure about it's reliability.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Ads by Google:


I emailed the doc to ask about the DGP igg/iga and total iga tests. I'm waiting to hear back and will post again when I hear from them.

As for my thyroid, my most recent TSH was 1.3. I've noticed great improvement in many other thyroid related symptoms (hair loss, dry skin, brittle nails, menstrual issues) since getting it down to that level. I'm slated for a TSH/Free t4/Free t3 test next month, so I'll be interested to see what that shows.

Thanks for all of the input. If anyone else has anything to add, I'd be happy to hear it!

  • Upvote 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

excellent!  i'm hopeful they'll say absolutely  :)

 

I emailed the doc to ask about the DGP igg/iga and total iga tests. I'm waiting to hear back and will post again when I hear from them.
 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

So, the doctor's office called me back on Friday to answer my questions. Regarding the Total Serum IgA, the nurse said the doctor never orders that test, because it's too specialized and only GIs should order it.

 

Regarding the AGA IgA/IgG vs the DGP IgA/IgG, she said they don't know anything about how sensitive the AGA tests are vs the DGP tests and that they would have to call the lab and ask them. Based on what the lab says, the doc will decide if she will order the DGP tests (but she will not order the Total Serum IgA).

 

I also asked what could be causing the B12 deficiency if it's not celiac (we know I'm eating enough of it and we've ruled out pernicious anemia). The nurse's response was "some people are just b12 deficient." That doesn't make sense to me. If I'm eating enough of it, and my levels are low, there must be a reason my body isn't absorbing it.

 

They haven't checked any of my other nutrient levels, such as iron, vitamin D, etc. I pointed that out to nurse and she said she would ask the doc about it.

 

So, I'm once again waiting for them to call me. In the mean time, I've started to keep a journal of what I eat and how I feel. I had some pretty bad GI issues over the weekend and spent most of yesterday laying on the couch not really feeling like doing anything. I don't know if this is all in my head, like confirmation bias - someone said the word "celiac" and now I'm viewing every little thing through that lense. Or if I really have been missing/writing off symptoms for a while and now I'm just more aware.

  • Upvote 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

here's a good Pub Med Abstract regarding AGA (they list it as antibodies against native gliadin) vs DGP:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20171961

 

that's frustrating that they won't test your total igA  <_< why don't doctors know if they use ttg iga they have to measure the total iga to make sure it's valid...argh

 

any chance that you take any type of PPI or acid suppressing drug?  they can lower B12.  however if you're getting enough of it, and you're still deficient in it, that indicates malabsorption.  the answer "some people are just B12 deficient," is a cop out IMO

 

the journal is a great idea  :)

 

keep us updated!

 

So, the doctor's office called me back on Friday to answer my questions. Regarding the Total Serum IgA, the nurse said the doctor never orders that test, because it's too specialized and only GIs should order it.

 

Regarding the AGA IgA/IgG vs the DGP IgA/IgG, she said they don't know anything about how sensitive the AGA tests are vs the DGP tests and that they would have to call the lab and ask them. Based on what the lab says, the doc will decide if she will order the DGP tests (but she will not order the Total Serum IgA).

 

I also asked what could be causing the B12 deficiency if it's not celiac (we know I'm eating enough of it and we've ruled out pernicious anemia). The nurse's response was "some people are just b12 deficient." That doesn't make sense to me. If I'm eating enough of it, and my levels are low, there must be a reason my body isn't absorbing it.

 

They haven't checked any of my other nutrient levels, such as iron, vitamin D, etc. I pointed that out to nurse and she said she would ask the doc about it.

 

So, I'm once again waiting for them to call me. In the mean time, I've started to keep a journal of what I eat and how I feel. I had some pretty bad GI issues over the weekend and spent most of yesterday laying on the couch not really feeling like doing anything. I don't know if this is all in my head, like confirmation bias - someone said the word "celiac" and now I'm viewing every little thing through that lense. Or if I really have been missing/writing off symptoms for a while and now I'm just more aware.

  • Upvote 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I don't get the "it is to specialized" line, on the total IgA testing.  Makes.no.sense.   at.all.

  • Upvote 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites


Ads by Google:


I don't get the "it is to specialized" line, on the total IgA testing. Makes.no.sense. at.all.

Agreed. There is no logic to that. Ttg IgA and aga IgA tests aren't specialized, but total IgA is? That's a BS line if I've ever heard one. Just how is one supposed to get referred to a GI if they have negative IgA results because they're IgA deficient but no one knows it?

I'd push for the total IgA test.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I'm back! Finally heard back from the doctor's office today and I am infinitely frustrated. The nurse said she talked to the lab and they said that the panel that was done (TTG IgA, AGA IgA & IgG, and RETICULIN IgA) is entirely sufficient for diagnosing celiac, and that therefore the doctor will not order any additional tests (such as DGP IgA & IgG and total IgA).

 

Apparently the lab did suggest that they test me for food allergies (including wheat), but the doc doesn't want to do that either. The nurse asked if I'd had any changes in my bowel movements, and I said it's hard to say, because they've never been regular - sometimes I won't have one for days on end, and then other times I'll have D for several days in a row - she said "well, if it's always been like that, then there's no change." I can't help but think, though, that it shouldn't have "always been like that" in the first place - that's like saying the brakes on my car have never worked, so I'm not going to fix them now.

 

I asked again about the b12 deficiency and the nurse said to keep getting the monthly shots and have my levels tested again in 10 weeks. She then said that the doc did want me to get an EMG / nerve conduction test (because one of the b12 symptoms I'm having is peripheral neuropathy). I just had one in March (and it was normal)! I told the nurse that and all she could say was "oh, the doctor must not have seen that." That makes me wonder if she's even looking at my chart at all - it was just a few months ago, it's not like it would be buried somewhere from years ago!

 

any chance that you take any type of PPI or acid suppressing drug?  they can lower B12.  however if you're getting enough of it, and you're still deficient in it, that indicates malabsorption.  the answer "some people are just B12 deficient," is a cop out IMO

 

I am not taking any type of PPI or acid suppressing drug, so that can't be causing the b12 deficiency. Does anyone here with b12 deficiency have any advice? Would a gastro doc be able to help diagnose what's causing that? I'm thinking maybe I could kill two birds with one stone by seeing one - find out what's causing the b12 deficiency and get a better idea of whether or not celiac or NCGS is involved.

 

As I mentioned before, I started keeping a food/symptom journal last week. I also started to eat gluten more consistently - as I was not necessarily eating it every day. I don't know if it's just because I've been paying closer attention, but I feel like I have been more bloated, gassy, and had more urgent bowel movements in the past week and half that I've been eating gluten every day. It's not always consistent, though. Sometimes an hour or two will go by before I have symptoms, sometimes it won't be until the next morning, and sometimes it's right away. I had pasta and garlic bread for dinner one night last week and felt ok that evening and then the next morning I looked like I was 4 months pregnant. Then on Saturday morning I ate a bagel and immediately had D and felt sick to my stomach for most of the rest of the day. Is this inconsistency common with celiac or NCGS?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Hmm, because the doctor did not order the "too specialized" total serum IgA, the AGA IgA, tTG IgA, and reticulin IgA could be invalid if you are IgA deficient; it's unlikely that you are one of the 1/20 celiacs who is deficient but it is possible. The AGA IgG has a really weak sensitivity of 17-100%, that means the test misses up to 83% of celiacs it tests for... not so good. The AGA test is not often used anymore (but you know that) and the reticulin test was used 20 years ago.... how old is your doctor??  LOL :blink:  That test is rarely rarely used anymore because superior tests have been introduced.

 

Could you go to another doctor or get into a gastro in a timely manner?  If not, you could try ordering a home Biocard test which tests for IgA and tTG IgA (in high levels). At least with the Biocard test you would know if your other IgA based tests are accurate.

 

I don't have a B12 deficiency but I know that the methylcobalamin sublingual B12 is better absorbed that a regular b vitamin that is digested in your small intestine.  Who knows, maybe the fact that I have good levels of B12 is because of that vitamin.

 

And yes, inconsistent BM's are common in both celiac disease and NCGS.

 

Geez, how frustrating for you... don't pull out all your hair yet.  ;)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

There are online labs where you can order complete celiac blood panels...and anything else you want. I'm in the US...don't know where you're at.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thanks for the input, everyone!

 

Could you go to another doctor or get into a gastro in a timely manner?  If not, you could try ordering a home Biocard test which tests for IgA and tTG IgA (in high levels). At least with the Biocard test you would know if your other IgA based tests are accurate.

 

I called this morning and scheduled an appointment with a gastro on July 29th - the earliest they could get me in. The practice was recommended to me by a friend who has celiac, so I'm hopeful that they will know what they're doing.

 

There are online labs where you can order complete celiac blood panels...and anything else you want. I'm in the US...don't know where you're at.

 

Thanks for the tip! I'm in the US, too, so I will definitely check that out. It might given me some extra info to share with the doc - and save time of him having to order it.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now
0

  • Who's Online   9 Members, 1 Anonymous, 503 Guests (See full list)

  • Top Posters +

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/21/2018 - Would you buy a house advertised as ‘gluten-free’? Yes, there really is such a house for sale. 
    It seems a Phoenix realtor Mike D’Elena is hoping that his trendy claim will catch the eye of a buyer hungry to avoid gluten, or, at least one with a sense of humor. D’Elena said he crafted the ads as a way to “be funny and to draw attention.” The idea, D’Elena said, is to “make it memorable.” 
    Though D’Elena’s marketing seeks to capitalizes on the gluten-free trend, he knows Celiac disease is a serious health issue for some people. “[W]e’re not here to offend anybody….this is just something we're just trying to do to draw attention and do what's best for our clients," he said. 
    Still, the signs seem to be working. D'elena had fielded six offers within a few days of listing the west Phoenix home.
    "Buying can sometimes be the most stressful thing you do in your entire life so why not have some fun with it," he said. 
    What do you think? Clever? Funny?
    Read more at Arizonafamily.com.

    Advertising Banner-Ads
    Bakery On Main started in the small bakery of a natural foods market on Main Street in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Founder Michael Smulders listened when his customers with Celiac Disease would mention the lack of good tasting, gluten-free options available to them. Upon learning this, he believed that nobody should have to suffer due to any kind of food allergy or dietary need. From then on, his mission became creating delicious and fearlessly unique gluten-free products that were clean and great tasting, while still being safe for his Celiac customers!
    Premium ingredients, bakeshop delicious recipes, and happy customers were our inspiration from the beginning— and are still the cornerstones of Bakery On Main today. We are a fiercely ethical company that believes in integrity and feels that happiness and wholesome, great tasting food should be harmonious. We strive for that in everything we bake in our dedicated gluten-free facility that is GFCO Certified and SQF Level 3 Certified. We use only natural, NON-GMO Project Verified ingredients and all of our products are certified Kosher Parve, dairy and casein free, and we have recently introduced certified Organic items as well! 
    Our passion is to bake the very best products while bringing happiness to our customers, each other, and all those we meet!
    We are available during normal business hours at: 1-888-533-8118 EST.
    To learn more about us at: visit our site.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/20/2018 - Currently, the only way to manage celiac disease is to eliminate gluten from the diet. That could be set to change as clinical trials begin in Australia for a new vaccine that aims to switch off the immune response to gluten. 
    The trials are set to begin at Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre. The vaccine is designed to allow people with celiac disease to consume gluten with no adverse effects. A successful vaccine could be the beginning of the end for the gluten-free diet as the only currently viable treatment for celiac disease. That could be a massive breakthrough for people with celiac disease.
    USC’s Clinical Trials Centre Director Lucas Litewka said trial participants would receive an injection of the vaccine twice a week for seven weeks. The trials will be conducted alongside gastroenterologist Dr. James Daveson, who called the vaccine “a very exciting potential new therapy that has been undergoing clinical trials for several years now.”
    Dr. Daveson said the investigational vaccine might potentially restore gluten tolerance to people with celiac disease.The trial is open to adults between the ages of 18 and 70 who have clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and have followed a strict gluten-free diet for at least 12 months. Anyone interested in participating can go to www.joinourtrials.com.
    Read more at the website for Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre.

    Source:
    FoodProcessing.com.au

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.