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Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes Differences Needed In Simple Terms

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so i'll start with I know Type 1 is autoimmune and Type 2 isn't but after reading various literature, I'm still confused between how you get diagnosed with the different types.  Even though Type 1 is common in children, it can be diagnosed anytime in life, correct?  Type 2 is reversible, but Type 1 isn't?

 

Can anyone explain to me the differences between the two in easy to understand terms?

 

Thanks!

 

 

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The two types have similar symptoms, but the cause differs.

Type 1, formerly (incorrectly) known as juvenile diabetes is an autoimmune wherein the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin are destroyed. These cells are called the Islets of Langerhans. The body can no longer produce any insulin, and frequent injections are required (several per day). The trigger is not known, but there is no correlation to diet or weight. It usually presents in people less than twenty. It is also called Insulin Dependent Diabetes, since needed insulin can only be obtained by injection. Oral medications do not help.

Type 2 is not an autoimmune condition. The Islets of Langerhans are intact, but may be producing reduced quantities of insulin. The body has become resistant to insulin. Body weight and diet are contributing factors. Weight loss and reduction of the carbohydrate content of the diet are the primary treatments. Oral medications to address insulin resistance are useful. If the insulin production is not sufficient to meet needs, injected insulin may be part of the treatment plan.

In some cases, with exercise and weight loss, type 2 can eventually be controlled by diet alone, without medications. The person still has diabetes, but it is controlled through diet alone.

Type 1 requires injected insulin (along with diet and exercise) for life. The future may have alternatives, but that is the reality today.

You may see a reference to "type 3" diabetes. This is not something new, but refers to a type 1 diabetic who fails to keep to the dietary requirements, tries to compensate with extra insulin, gains considerable weight, and becomes insulin-resistant, thus developing type 2 diabetes as well as type 1. One plus two equals three.

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Sometimes they call late onset diabetes of adulthood (LADA or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults) is referred to as type 1.5 because it sets in so slowly. LADA can take years to fully turn into type 1 whereas in kids it seems to happen faster, within days to weeks instead. Because LADA takes so long to set in, patients often have symptoms of type 2 and are misdiagnosed. In the end though, type 1.5 ends up like type 1's who can no longer make insulin due to autoimmune pancreatic damage.

It's confusing, isn't it? I've been reading like crazy lately too. Lol

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thanks for the explanations!!

 

Since I've been reading about pancreatic insufficiency, I was talking with a friend and explaining it, and she asked the question that if one has pancreatic insufficiency and their pancreas is not fully functioning, wouldn't you think that could lead to diabetes?  It seemed to make sense to me, so I started reading about Type 1 and 2 but had a hard time grasping the differences.  

 

I had an elevated neutral fat stool test and the most likely cause for it is pancreatic insufficiency, and for the neutral fat to be increased and be positive for that particular test, it means one's pancreas is functioning at less than 10%.  

 

here's the link to an article regarding:

Is Pancreatic Diabetes (Type 3c Diabetes) Underdiagnosed and Misdiagnosed?

 

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/31/Supplement_2/S165.full

 

This is the conclusion:  Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, as determined by both direct and indirect function tests, is very frequent in patients with diabetes and is often associated with steatorrhea. It not only affects patients with type 1 diabetes (up to 50%), but is also observed in type 2 diabetic patients. In addition to impaired exocrine function, pancreatic morphological changes are present in up to 40% of the cases. Several hypotheses have been generated to interpret these findings and are consistent with the explanation that type 3c diabetes is indeed more common than previously believed. It might affect at least 8% of all patients with diabetes. Of particular interest is the presence of genetic mutations that can induce both exocrine and endocrine failure, which has recently been demonstrated for the CEL gene. Furthermore, it has been suggested that β-cell regeneration is disturbed in pancreatic diseases, which could explain reduced β-cell mass and diabetes in chronic pancreatitis. Incretin secretion is impaired in steatorrhea, since the extent of incretin secretion depends on regular digestion of nutrients. The implications of the above-described findings deserve more attention, since they are likely to change the clinical workup of patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance and could change the current paradigm of diabetes epidemiology. Diagnostic and screening strategies must be adapted to detect exocrine diseases at earlier stages and possibly to stop progression to overt exocrine and endocrine pancreas insufficiency. In patients with steatorrhea, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is warranted for treating symptoms and preventing qualitative malnutrition. Furthermore, it seems very likely that pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy will augment incretin secretion and thus become a valuable treatment modality.

 

I found this quote by the author of the study:  “Diabetes can be caused by exocrine disease, and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency can be caused by diabetes," explains Philip D. Hardt, a physician and researcher with the University Hospital of Giessen and Marburg in Giessen, Germany, and author of a review on this topic published in Experimental Diabetes Research. "Both are possible.”

 

http://www.everydayhealth.com/health-report/exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency/know-the-symptoms-of-epi.aspx

 

I'd like to get all my testing completed, and no matter the outcome, start taking pancreatic enzymes...

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Type 2 is the most common, even in children. It is not reversible in my opinion. Some say that type 2 is also auto immune. The Dr. can do tests to see how much insulin is being produced. Type 1 people produce no insulin. Type 2 people often produce tons of insulin but are highly insulin resistant. But there is so much we just don't know. There are over 300 variants of diabetes which is why it can be so difficult to control. Some people who control their diabetes think they have reversed it. But have them eat pizza, sushi and sweets for a few days! They'll see that they still have it.

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