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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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Brownie88

An Aussie G'day!

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Hi all, I am a 23 year old female from Geraldton, Western Australia. I have had positive blood work, am awaiting my biopsy results and have had a positive reaction to my new gluten-free diet. I have been gluten-free for only two weeks!!! I am working on creating new eating habits, being very careful and not being tempted (as yet). But I am feeling healthier everyday, so I don't feel I could be tempted. Still have a lot to learn, so if anyone has any advice they would like to offer that they maybe wish they receive when starting this diet that would be great! :)

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Don't be in a hurry to eat at restaurants until you have mastered the nuances of the diet.

Don't go running out right away and buying substitute gluten free foods for everything you are used to eating. Eat a mostly whole foods diet to start, along with a good gluten free bread and some gluten free pasta. Save the scrutiny of supermarket labels for a later time :)

Buy a crockpot and put it to good use (along with a crockpot cookbook - if necessary - although you can throw a bunch of things in a crockpot and it will usually come out good if you are at all used to cooking.

Develop a thick hide and don't be offended at how people react to your diet. Don't make a big deal of it either - just a simple "no thank you" when refusing food will often work, or "I don't feel well when I eat that". It is not necessary to educate the whole world to gluten free although in some circumstances it will be appropriate. The exception to this is when you start eating in restaurants and then you must tell them you are celiac or they will think you are following the fad, trendy, gluten free way of eating and won't take enough care with your food. They must know that gluten will make you sick, that you have celiac disease and will take you seriously.

So glad you are feeling better gluten free. Keep up the good work, and welcome to the board. :)

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Don't be in a hurry to eat at restaurants until you have mastered the nuances of the diet.

Don't go running out right away and buying substitute gluten free foods for everything you are used to eating. Eat a mostly whole foods diet to start, along with a good gluten free bread and some gluten free pasta. Save the scrutiny of supermarket labels for a later time smile.gif

Buy a crockpot and put it to good use (along with a crockpot cookbook - if necessary - although you can throw a bunch of things in a crockpot and it will usually come out good if you are at all used to cooking.

Develop a thick hide and don't be offended at how people react to your diet. Don't make a big deal of it either - just a simple "no thank you" when refusing food will often work, or "I don't feel well when I eat that". It is not necessary to educate the whole world to gluten free although in some circumstances it will be appropriate. The exception to this is when you start eating in restaurants and then you must tell them you are celiac or they will think you are following the fad, trendy, gluten free way of eating and won't take enough care with your food. They must know that gluten will make you sick, that you have celiac disease and will take you seriously.

So glad you are feeling better gluten free. Keep up the good work, and welcome to the board. smile.gif

I was def in too much of a hurry to eat out I think..and taking too many 'risks'. I am not being careful enough and paying the price! especially experiencing bad 'brain fog' atm. But at least I am realising and know now that I have a LOT to improve on.

I think it is good advice to just say "no thanks" to food.. cos I feel like coeliac is all I talk about lately (I must sound annoying as).

I am struggling to find more wholegrains in my diet and squirm at paying $7 for a loaf of gluten-free bread or for a small box of gluten-free cereal. Why does it have to be so expensive.

Oh and I have been using my slow cooker heaps lately! Heaps easy.

Thanks for your comments and advice.

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Join the WA Coeliac Society ..

New members are provided with a resource kit that includes:

•Coeliac Australia's Handbook

•Coeliac Australia's Recipe Book

•Coeliac Australia's Ingredient List for label reading

•Information on gluten free foods and eating out in WA

•A back issue of The Australian Coeliac

They also run workshops and supermarket tours ....

Yes I will need to do this. I really need the extra support!

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Hello from Perth! It took a bit for us to understand how important an unprocessed foods diet was for us. We were living in the States and recently moved to Australia, in part because living gluten free is proving to be much easier for us here. We really enjoy going to all the farmer markets that are available here. If you do get cravings, just go for some of the gluten free stuff made in Australia. They make some very nice gluten free foods here. I would love to hear more about gluten free in Geraldton, as we want to head up that way. We are planning a trip to Esperance soon, and we have had no trouble travelling throughout the Southwest. Of course, we primarily go to markets and make our food, but we often stumble on some really great gluten free eats here. We love Australia's awareness of gluten free!

Welcome to gluten free living!

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Ah yes, Aus, home of the gluten-free corn thins! I get corn thins at a local organic market near DC. They make a nice sub for rice cakes. Corn tortillas are a nice sub for bread and generally much cheaper than a gluten-free bread. You can rinse them in water and nuke them or warm them in covered skillet to soften.

Some starting the gluten-free diet tips for the first 6 months:

Get tested before starting the gluten-free diet.

Get your vitamin/mineral levels tested also.

Don't eat in restaurants

Eat only whole foods not processed foods.

Eat only food you cook yourself, think simple foods, not gourmet meals.

Take probiotics.

Take gluten-free vitamins.

Take digestive enzymes.

Avoid dairy.

Avoid sugars and starchy foods.

Avoid alcohol.

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Hello from Perth! It took a bit for us to understand how important an unprocessed foods diet was for us. We were living in the States and recently moved to Australia, in part because living gluten free is proving to be much easier for us here. We really enjoy going to all the farmer markets that are available here. If you do get cravings, just go for some of the gluten free stuff made in Australia. They make some very nice gluten free foods here. I would love to hear more about gluten free in Geraldton, as we want to head up that way. We are planning a trip to Esperance soon, and we have had no trouble travelling throughout the Southwest. Of course, we primarily go to markets and make our food, but we often stumble on some really great gluten free eats here. We love Australia's awareness of gluten free!

Welcome to gluten free living!

WOW that is a big move! Glad to hear you are enjoying it. I think I am lucky to be in Australia as I have been discovering great gluten free foods... sometimes I think it would be a bit easier to live in the city (as there are more options).

But Geraldton isn't too bad.. there are quite a few restaurants that cater Gluten-free that are great! And Woolworths, Coles and most IGA supermarkets here have vast gluten-free sections. There is also the farmer's markets.

Some restaurants you may want to visit in Geraldton are, (Geraldton restaurants are more expensive than Perth)

L'Italliano's - has amazing gluten pasta, they also occassionally have gluten-free pizza bases but never had them the two times I wanted it!! So yet to try. But if you called in advanced and booked I am sure they could ensure they have it.

Salt Dish - has the freshest and most flavoursome food. Only open for breakfast and lunch, Tues-Sat. Although, a bit expensive - it is probably my favourite treat! Has gluten-free items marked on the menu, and there is a few.

Tide's Restaurant - Overlooking the City (good way to see surroundings), yet to try but have heard only good things. My dietician, who is coeliac recommends it.

Also, a cute place to visit is Culinary HQ, they sell gourmet foods but you can buy pre-made meals to dine-in or takeaway but you can actually buy the sauces, toppings, and some of the ingredients to make the meals yourself. The staff can tell you what is gluten-free. And they also sell delicious macarons (naturally gluten-free).

But I am a bit of a foodie myself so I feel lucky I enjoy making (and eating) whole foods which helps. I also buy my veg from a vegie stall from a local.. tastes so much better.

Hope that helps with your Geraldton visit!! If you want help with more info about geraldton, I'd be happy to help.

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Ah yes, Aus, home of the gluten-free corn thins! I get corn thins at a local organic market near DC. They make a nice sub for rice cakes. Corn tortillas are a nice sub for bread and generally much cheaper than a gluten-free bread. You can rinse them in water and nuke them or warm them in covered skillet to soften.

Some starting the gluten-free diet tips for the first 6 months:

Get tested before starting the gluten-free diet.

Get your vitamin/mineral levels tested also.

Don't eat in restaurants

Eat only whole foods not processed foods.

Eat only food you cook yourself, think simple foods, not gourmet meals.

Take probiotics.

Take gluten-free vitamins.

Take digestive enzymes.

Avoid dairy.

Avoid sugars and starchy foods.

Avoid alcohol.

My biopsy results did come back positive so I have been gluten-free for about 2-3 months (not long).

Yes, I love corn thins.. I acutally have them for lunch today. They are great because they are high in fibre and can replace bread! I normally top mine with hommus, ham and tomatoes.. mmm. I am yet to find a corn tortilla that I like, do you know any good brands? I found a gluten-free wrap (a bit similar to lebanese bread), I plan to make a pizza with it!!

In the new year, I will cut out dairy and alcohol for a while I think and see if that helps as I am still experiencing some sickness :(

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My biopsy results did come back positive so I have been gluten-free for about 2-3 months (not long).

Yes, I love corn thins.. I acutally have them for lunch today. They are great because they are high in fibre and can replace bread! I normally top mine with hommus, ham and tomatoes.. mmm. I am yet to find a corn tortilla that I like, do you know any good brands? I found a gluten-free wrap (a bit similar to lebanese bread), I plan to make a pizza with it!!

In the new year, I will cut out dairy and alcohol for a while I think and see if that helps as I am still experiencing some sickness :(

HI Brownie

Mission brand corn tortillas are what I like. They have white corn and yellow corn varieties. I like the yellow corn versions better. The yellow are thinner and more flexible. Corn Thins with peanut butter are a great snack! Or with guacamole. I get them in Maryland in Hyattsville a the Yes Organic Market. Just in case someone local is looking for them, I know you are near the source of them though.

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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
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    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
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    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
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    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6