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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   09/30/2015

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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About this blog

Random Ramblings of Mikey's Mind

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NOTE: This is the start of going from point A to point B, the ingestion of gluten to damage of the mucosa, in Celiac Disease. Not saying that any of this is correct, but is my current and I'm sure changing understanding of the process. Any comments/corrections/additions would be greatly appreciated as this is a learning process for me and I'm new to the world of biochemistry, pathology and the immune system. So take any of this for what it's worth. :D

Tissue transglutaminase binds the glidian.

QUESTION: Why and what was bound to the glidian? Was it only the tTG or did the tTG bind something to the glidian?

B-Lymphocyte sees an antigen and via Endocytosis it absorbs the glidian and tissue transglutamise bound to it.

QUESTION: Why did the B Lymphocyte do this? Does it do it to random proteins? Did the protein do something it shouldn't? Did the protein try to enter the GI wall tissue?

Once the B Lymphocyte breaks down the glidian and tissue transglutamise it presents itself to the T Cell as an antigen via the MHC mechanism. If it finds a match then antibodies are produced by the B Cell.

QUESTION? Why is the glidian and ttg seen as antigens? Is this via HLA-DQ2 AND DQ8?
QUESTION? The glidian is forein so this I can understand, but why the ttg, why isn't this seen as part of the body? Perhaps since the ttg is bound to the glidian the B Cell it creates antibodies to all proteins that it took in.
QUESTION? Do the HLA mark the protein as forein or self? I'm guessing it's non self.

Antibodies are produced for the glidian and tissue transglutamise.

For the tissue transglutamise it produces IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG).
For the glidian it produces IgA and IgG anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), IgG and IgA.

QUESTION? Why is the villi being destroyed? Is this an innate (unfocused) attack? Are the antibodies attacking the villi/mucosa or trying to get to something in the villi or mucosa? Perhaps since the bowel lining is high in tTG and thus the attack is on the bowel.

QUESTION? Where do the endomysium IgA anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA) come from? endomysium is part of the muscle, the connective tissue.
QUESTION? WHat about anti-reticulin antibodies? reticulin is part of the lymphatic tissues.

Is Anergy the reason why Celiac isn't always turned on in everyone with the gene?

What does glutamine have to do with anything? Specfically what does this mean?

What other pathogens look like gliadin? Have a similar ammino acid structure?
We have
Human type 12 adenovirus

Here we go, both innate and adaptive are invloved:
That means that normally the immune system tollerates gluten, but once tollerance is broken all bets are off.

"Although at present it is unknown why tolerance in celiac disease is not established or broken, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated. There is strong evidence for the existence of genes or gene variants on chromosomes 5, 6, and 19 that predispose to celiac disease. In addition, type I interferons have been implicated in development of several autoimmune disorders, including celiac disease. Thus, viral infection and/or tissue damage in the intestine may cause inflammation and induce protective Th1-mediated immunity leading to loss of tolerance for gluten. Once tolerance is broken, a broad gluten-reactive T cell repertoire may develop through determinant spreading."

1) [quote]Endocytosis is a process whereby cells absorb material (molecules such as proteins) from outside by engulfing it with their cell membrane.[/quote]

2) [quote]Tissue transglutaminase - binds proteins.[/quote] Among other things.

3) [quote]Gliadin is a glycoprotein, present in wheat and some other cereals, best known for its role, along with glutenin, in the formation of gluten. [/quote]

4) [quote]Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. [/quote]

5) [quote]The T cell receptor or TCR is a molecule found on the surface of T lymphocytes (or T cells) that is responsible for recognizing antigens bound to major histocompatibility complexes (MHC).[/quote]

6) [quote]The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large genomic region or gene family found in most vertebrates. It is the most gene-dense region of the mammalian genome and plays an important role in the immune system, autoimmunity, and reproductive success.[/quote]

7) [quote]An antigen-presenting cell (APC) is a cell that displays foreign antigen complexed with MHC on its surface.[/quote]

8) [quote]B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response).[/quote]

9) [quote]Humoral immunity (HIR) is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). [/quote]

10) [quote]The human leukocyte antigen system (sometimes human lymphocyte antigen) (HLA) is the general name of a group of genes in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on human chromosome 6 (mouse chromosome 17) that encodes the cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins.[/quote]

11) [quote]T cells are a type of white blood cell that play a central role in cell-mediated immunity.[/quote]

12) [quote]T helper cells (also known as effector T cells or Th cells) are a sub-group of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell or leukocyte) that play an important role in establishing and maximising the capabilities of the immune system. Th cells are involved in activating and directing other immune cells, and are particularly important in the acquired immune system.[/quote]

13) [quote]Regulatory T cells (also known as suppressor T cells) are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self.[/quote]
One thing that has recently got my attention is that I found out about two pathogens that seem to look a lot like gliadin. Those two being the fungi [url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candida_albicans"]Candida albicans[/url] and the virus [url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenovirus"]adenovirus[/url] 12. What interests me most is not that I think that they are a cause of Celiac Disease, though who knows for sure, but that this could be the reason why HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 even exist as part of our defence system.

I had wondered after I learned about Celiac Disease and the immune system whether the immune system was just responding to what was an ancient non existent pathogen or perhaps to some current day pathogen and that gluten (and in this case the gliadin part) just looked like the pathogen.

And according to studies (look up gliadin and adenovirus or gliadin and candida) it looks like this may just be the case.

Perhaps folks with these genes were naturually selected (survival of the fittest) because we fought off a pathogen whereas folks without the gene did not. And now with the recent addition (well within the last few thousand I think) of wheat and other glutenous grains (that contain gliadin like parts) we have been under attack by the pathogen of gluten. An infection that the body doesn't seem to ever get rid of until we actually listen to our bodies and remove the wheat, barley and rye from our diets.

I'm sure that there will be more to follow, but this seems like a decent start to tell you where I'm going with this all.

Any and all comments very much appreciated.


And So It Begins

Thought I'd start a blog to see if I can keep track of all my random bablings about Celiac, Gluten Sensitivity, Immune System, Food Sensitivities and Lymphocytic Colitis.

I'll start by saying what I know about what I have.

I was diagnosed with LC (Lymphocytic Colitis) back in December of 2004 (I think that was the time) after getting a Colonoscopy and having biopsies analyzed. I should start a category here for details about this, but for now all I'll say is that a great support forum for this disease can be found here:

After going to this site I discovered one of the reasons why I noticed that I felt better when I did a short stint on the Atkins diet. I noticed at the time that after removing carbs (and hence gluten) from my diet that I felt much better and had fewer GI issues. Well, guess what, some of the folks who have LC also have an intolerance/sensitivity for gluten. Given that the Ttg test for celiac came back negative I decide to venture off (or at least my stool and genes did) to Enterolab.

And here's what I know part 2. I had antibodies IgA for Gliadin as well as antibodies for Tissue Transglutaminase in my stool. I also have the gene for Celiac HLA-DQ2 as well as a gene for Gluten Sensitivity HLA-DQ3 subtype DQ7. So what? I don't have Celiac? Not according to blood tests for those antibodies.

So currently I avoid all Gluten, Dairy, and as much as I can Soy. I have also found sugars to be a problem in too high doses, particularly Fructose. Perhaps it's only the Lactose in dairy I have issues with.

I got some recent ELISA tests done which point towards Gluten, Wheat and Rye being very bad for me. Barley and oats nothing really, the oats didn't really suprise me, but the Barley did. Also had a low reaction for Almond and Whey. Perhaps the Whey is the problem and I'm just more sensitive to low ammounts.

Just today I had a DEXA bone scan which at first glance looks normal. More details once I see my Dr.

I also had blood tests for Celiac and other things which all came back negative or at least below the scale for flagging Celiac. I've had no endoscopy done as the tests haven't warrented it yet.

And with that last bit I'll leave this entry and find something else to ramble on about.

Thanks for reading, comments are welcome to anything I have to say. I'm learning a lot that's for sure.