• Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Celiac.com E-Newsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsCeliac.com E-Newsletter

  • Announcements

    • admin

      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   09/30/2015

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to FREE Celiac.com email alerts   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease? - list blood tests, endo with biopsy, genetic test and enterolab (not diagnostic) Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes Where can I buy gluten-free stuff? Support this site by shopping at The Celiac.com Store.

New Poll
0

Curious about what race is most prone to celiac?  

27 members have voted

  1. 1. What nationality/race are you?

    • white
    • black
    • arabic
      0
    • hispanic
      0
    • asian
      0
    • cosmopolitan/multi
    • native american/eskimo
      0
    • aboringinal/other
      0


29 posts in this topic

Recommended Posts

maximoo    39

I went to a gluten-free expo today & was surprised to see that 95% of the people who attended were white ( and over 60!) And I would say there were about 3 000 people. I am white in my 40's but have a "cosmopolitan" family. It just got me thinking why there were hardly any other types of people in attendance. I have heard/read that it is people of European descent that are most prone to celiac. Is this true?

I love all people & this poll in no way makes any difference to me what race anybody is. Like I said its just simple curiosity & I truly hope nobody thinks of it in any other way.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Ads by Google:
Ads by Google:


psawyer    687

The genes are common among those of Caucasian European background. There is also a higher consumption of wheat-based goods in that culture. In western society, everybody eats a lot of wheat. :o

Your poll choices seem incomplete. You allow for Arabic, although Arabia is part of Asia, which is also an option. I suppose there are some Arabic people in North Africa. The First Nations peoples of North America seem to be excluded. Hmm--what about the aboriginal people of Australia. Maybe there should be an "other" option. :blink:

FWIW, I am Caucasian ("white") with one grandparent each with ancestry from Scotland, England, Norway and Sweden.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
rosetapper23    236

I'm white, and my celiac genes originated along the Danish line of the family; however, I've met at least a dozen African-Americans and Hispanics who have been diagnosed with celiac in the past five years. Also, I've met quite a few Asians who, while not officially diagnosed with celiac, claimed to be gluten sensitive.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
maximoo    39

Thx Peter I added 2 more options. I just created the poll off the top of my head, and there is certainly room for improvement And yes many Arabics are from africa. One of my very best friends is arabic born in Morocco which of course is in africa.

My own ancestry is European--irish, spanish & french.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
sa1937    324

I'm Caucasian - half Norwegian and half Danish. I think my late mother (Danish) had undiagnosed celiac. She was one of the youngest of 7 children, now all deceased, so it would be interesting to know if others on that side of the family had celiac. I have no clue as to my dad's side of the family (Norwegian).

My daughter, also celiac, is half Norwegian, 1/4 Danish and 1/4 basically northern European.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Ads by Google:


IrishHeart    1,634

From what I have read, the major nationalities with DXed celiac are European, especially Irish, Italian, the Scandinavian countries, the UK and the Mediterranean countries. North America and Australia and NZ have such large populations of celiacs because of massive immigration and marriages between different nationalities.

The DQ2 genetic information is interesting:

DQ2 is most common in Western Europe and in North and West Africa. Highest frequencies are observed in parts of Spain and Ireland.

The highest risk for coeliac disease is in Western Ireland.

(SOME joke this could be called CELTIC disease) :lol:

DQ2.2 is shorthand for the DQ α2β2 heterodimeric isoform. A small percentage of coeliac disease is associated with this haplotype, and some disease causing gliadins are presented by DQ2.2. The haplotype is found at high frequencies in the Mediterranean and West Africa. The Eurasian geographic distribution of DQ2.2 is slightly greater than DQ2.5. This includes: Iberia, where it is high, reaching a maximum frequency of ~30% in Northern Iberia, and half that in the British Isles. It extends along the Mediterranean and Africa at relatively high frequency and is found in high frequencies in some Central Asian, Mongolians, and Han Chinese.

(condensed from wiki)

I am of mixed- bag heritage, Irish, German, French Canadian, and Armenian. Having the "rare" DQ2.2 combo apparently makes me even "more special" :lol: :lol:

Navigator started a similar thread and people discussed their heritage. Just in case you want to see more

:)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites


Ads by Google:


Nadia2009    2

I went to a gluten-free expo today & was surprised to see that 95% of the people who attended were white ( and over 60!) And I would say there were about 3 000 people.

They were over 60 y.o because at that age they had time to get sick, catch a few autoimmunes disease before the doctor realized "wait...maybe you are celiac after all...sorry for 25 years of misdiagnosis" :blink:

You saw mostly white people either because of the predominance of the illness among Europeans or because doctors don't suggest the test to non whites.

In Dangerous Grains, the author (a doctor) says that 1/18 Sahraoui teenager has celiac disease or gluten intolerance. Sahraoui have black africa, arab and berber origins. I don't know where he got his numbers but if that's true, it would mean younger generation of Western Morrocans or North-W Africans have more celiac than Norvegian?! (1/70 for that country according to the same book). In poorer areas people tend to eat bread or any staple food that is cheap...couscous is 100% wheat. Everywhere, people are eating more wheat today and genetically modified wheat.

There are probably less researches done on non-whites and celiac. It would be good to know where in Africa, where in Asia etc those with celiac or gluten intelerance are from. I mean which part of their continent of origin. Then, maybe we will discover there are pockets of areas where gluten is well spread outside of Europe. Right now, doctors will not think of testing some non white person even if they have strong symptoms even if they can't control their diabetes 1 and have other autoimmune diseases. They are brainwashed at their medical school learning you have to be Irish, English or Scandivian to have celiac.

My two cents of non white person with gluten intolerance on doctors and celiac.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
IrishHeart    1,634

In Dangerous Grains, the author (a doctor) says that 1/18 Sahraoui teenager has celiac disease or gluten intolerance. Sahraoui have black africa, arab and berber origins. I don't know where he got his numbers but if that's true, it would mean younger generation of Western Morrocans or North-W Africans have more celiac than Norvegian?! (1/70 for that country according to the same book). In poorer areas people tend to eat bread or any staple food that is cheap...couscous is 100% wheat. Everywhere, people are eating more wheat today and genetically modified wheat.

There are probably less researches done on non-whites and celiac. It would be good to know where in Africa, where in Asia etc those with celiac or gluten intelerance are from. I mean which part of their continent of origin. Then, maybe we will discover there are pockets of areas where gluten is well spread outside of Europe. Right now, doctors will not think of testing some non white person even if they have strong symptoms even if they can't control their diabetes 1 and have other autoimmune diseases. They are brainwashed at their medical school learning you have to be Irish, English or Scandivian to have celiac.

My two cents of non white person with gluten intolerance on doctors and celiac.

You are spot-on about the middle age and older people who are finally DXed after a life time of illness and health problems related to UN-DXed celiac. It's a disgrace. I am one of them. :angry:

Also, Florida (and my friend lives right where the expo was held) is a state of many retirees--which may also explain- in part-- the large number of over-60 predominantly white crowd you saw at the expo?

Actually, I do not think they are brainwashed about celiac and which populations have it at all. I think they know very little, period. My doctor, a recent grad, told me they hardly even mention it. It is still a presumed "rare disease of childhood" :blink: He is appalled at the whole thing as he sees so much of it in his practice. He thinks it is the most under-diagnosed disease in the world. He said "You are a walking textbook celiac".

Yet no one saw it in me?? :blink: Good thing I figured it out or I'd be dead by now.

Dr. Fasano wrote this article in 1996 called "Where have all the American Celiacs gone?" because when he came to this country, he did not understand why there were so few of us. He saw that it was grossly under-diagnosed back then.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8783750

Unless someone bothers to read about the genetics of HLADQ2, they may never know the predominant countries where celiac genes are found. Likely no doctors are interested. If we are healthy, who would fill their waiting rooms? No $$$$ in that! :rolleyes:

It is Western Ireland, in fact, but there are more, including Northern Africa.

Since North America is largely a nation of immigrants, it is dangerous for any doctor to assume which patient is more predisposed to developing celiac because we are a nation of mixed heritages.

You are so right; they symptom-treat all the various AI diseases, rather than finding the CAUSE. They do not suggest the testing for celiac to hardly anyone. It is the last thing they think of. Even when I asked for it to be done, I met with resistance. Repeatedly.

There is research ongoing that tells where these pockets of people are, but I quickly grabbed this and condensed it from wiki:

DQ2 is most common in Western Europe, North and West Africa. Highest frequencies are observed in parts of Spain and Ireland; this distribution correlates with the frequency of two of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases. There is also an increase in DQB1*0201 in Central Asia, peaking in Kazakhstan and declining slowly east to west into China and finally Southeast Asia. DQA1*0501 : DQB1*0201. DQ2.5 is one of the most predisposing factors for autoimmune disease. DQ2.5 is encoded, often, by a haplotype associated with a large number of diseases. This haplotype, HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2, is associated with diseases in which HLA-DQ2 has suspect involvement. Direct involvement of DQ2 is certain in coeliac disease.

DQ2.2 is shorthand for the DQ α2β2 heterodimeric isoform. The isoform is encoded almost exclusively by the DQA1*0201:DQB1*0202 haplotype. The haplotype is linked to DR7. A small percentage of coeliac disease are associated with this haplotype, and some disease causing gliadins are presented by DQ2.2. The haplotype is found at high frequencies in the Mediterranean and West Africa. The Eurasian geographic distribution of DQ2.2 is slightly greater than DQ2.5. Compared to DQ2.5, the freqeuncy in Sardinia is low, but in Iberia it is high reaching a maximum frequency of ~30% in Northern Iberia, and half that in the British Ilses. It extends along the Mediterranean and Africa at relatively high frequency and is found in high frequencies in some Central Asian, Mongolians, and Han Chinese. It does not appear to have an indigenous presence in the West Pacific Rim or the New World and DQ2.2 presence in Southeast Asia and Indonesia is likely the result of gene flow from India and China in post-neolithic times. The haplotype shows considerable diversity in Africa and this has translated to Iberia with 2 addition haplotypes, DQA1*0303:DQB1*0202 and DR7:DQA1*0201:DQB1*0303. The expansion of DQ2.2 into Europe appears to have been slightly later or biased by some constriction between Iberia and the rest of the continent.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
GFinDC    609

Caucasian with a little Cherokee Indian thrown in. Irish, British and German ancestry too. My cat is gray though. Poll didn't mention cats but why leave them out? :D

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites


Ads by Google:


Nadia2009    2

You are spot-on about the middle age and older people who are finally DXed after a life time of illness and health problems related to UN-DXed celiac. It's a disgrace. I am one of them. :angry:

Also, Florida (and my friend lives right where the expo was held) is a state of many retirees--which may also explain- in part-- the large number of over-60 predominantly white crowd you saw at the expo?

Actually, I do not think they are brainwashed about celiac and which populations have it at all. I think they know very little, period. My doctor, a recent grad, told me they hardly even mention it. It is still a presumed "rare disease of childhood" :blink: He is appalled at the whole thing as he sees so much of it in his practice. He thinks it is the most under-diagnosed disease in the world. He said "You are a walking textbook celiac".

Yet no one saw it in me?? :blink: Good thing I figured it out or I'd be dead by now.

Dr. Fasano wrote this article in 1996 called "Where have all the American Celiacs gone?" because when he came to this country, he did not understand why there were so few of us. He saw that it was grossly under-diagnosed back then.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8783750

Unless someone bothers to read about the genetics of HLADQ2, they may never know the predominant countries where celiac genes are found. Likely no doctors are interested. If we are healthy, who would fill their waiting rooms? No $$$$ in that! :rolleyes:

It is Western Ireland, in fact, but there are more, including Northern Africa.

Since North America is largely a nation of immigrants, it is dangerous for any doctor to assume which patient is more predisposed to developing celiac because we are a nation of mixed heritages.

You are so right; they symptom-treat all the various AI diseases, rather than finding the CAUSE. They do not suggest the testing for celiac to hardly anyone. It is the last thing they think of. Even when I asked for it to be done, I met with resistance. Repeatedly.

There is research ongoing that tells where these pockets of people are, but I quickly grabbed this and condensed it from wiki:

DQ2 is most common in Western Europe, North and West Africa. Highest frequencies are observed in parts of Spain and Ireland; this distribution correlates with the frequency of two of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases. There is also an increase in DQB1*0201 in Central Asia, peaking in Kazakhstan and declining slowly east to west into China and finally Southeast Asia. DQA1*0501 : DQB1*0201. DQ2.5 is one of the most predisposing factors for autoimmune disease. DQ2.5 is encoded, often, by a haplotype associated with a large number of diseases. This haplotype, HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2, is associated with diseases in which HLA-DQ2 has suspect involvement. Direct involvement of DQ2 is certain in coeliac disease.

DQ2.2 is shorthand for the DQ α2β2 heterodimeric isoform. The isoform is encoded almost exclusively by the DQA1*0201:DQB1*0202 haplotype. The haplotype is linked to DR7. A small percentage of coeliac disease are associated with this haplotype, and some disease causing gliadins are presented by DQ2.2. The haplotype is found at high frequencies in the Mediterranean and West Africa. The Eurasian geographic distribution of DQ2.2 is slightly greater than DQ2.5. Compared to DQ2.5, the freqeuncy in Sardinia is low, but in Iberia it is high reaching a maximum frequency of ~30% in Northern Iberia, and half that in the British Ilses. It extends along the Mediterranean and Africa at relatively high frequency and is found in high frequencies in some Central Asian, Mongolians, and Han Chinese. It does not appear to have an indigenous presence in the West Pacific Rim or the New World and DQ2.2 presence in Southeast Asia and Indonesia is likely the result of gene flow from India and China in post-neolithic times. The haplotype shows considerable diversity in Africa and this has translated to Iberia with 2 addition haplotypes, DQA1*0303:DQB1*0202 and DR7:DQA1*0201:DQB1*0303. The expansion of DQ2.2 into Europe appears to have been slightly later or biased by some constriction between Iberia and the rest of the continent.

Irishheart,

Thank you for the article above. I would like to understand more about these HLA and DQ2 genes but I don't get it. I read quite a bit on haplotypes and genes but with the focus on ancestry. I should research more on genes and celiac.

You are right on doctors ignorance on celiac and gluten intolerance. My doctor didn't even know what to write on my blood test order sheet; he wrote specific tests not the whole celiac panel. Well, we all know doctors work for the big rich pharmaceutical cartel.

Sorry to hear you had to fight resistance from your doctor and had years of misdiagnosis. It is :( some of us have to have their intestines damaged and health compromised before getting help. I am thankful to the Internet and international message boards mostly this one for my own diagnosis. After googling and looking for answers to my flu symptoms, lethargy, itching, IBS and mood changes, I landed here when I learned that candida symptoms are similar to gluten intolerance symptoms. I was helped and supported by people here who went through same issues. My blood test was inconclusive but I knew it...my body reacted and 2 days off gluten took me from depression and feeling of insanity to normal state of mind.

Now, back to genes and celiac: trying to find a haplotype that would cover from West of the Mediterranean to Mongolia, I googled and found the map below. Are haplotypes HLA and DQ2 inherited from the Mtdna (mother line) like on this world Mtdna? Maybe I should post it in one of the more popular section of the forum to have more answers.

http://www.scs.illinois.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
love2travel    396

1/4 English + 3/4 German = Me! :)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
IrishHeart    1,634

Now, back to genes and celiac: trying to find a haplotype that would cover from West of the Mediterranean to Mongolia, I googled and found the map below. Are haplotypes HLA and DQ2 inherited from the Mtdna (mother line) like on this world Mtdna? Maybe I should post it in one of the more popular section of the forum to have more answers.

http://www.scs.illinois.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf

Yes, good idea to start a new thread and see if people know any more about this. I have seen a few posts but not collected in one thread.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
squirmingitch    495

Half Dutch here & half ?English? (Mom always said her family were muttssmile.gif).

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites


Ads by Google:


IrishHeart    1,634

Half Dutch here & half ?English? (Mom always said her family were muttssmile.gif).

Being a "mutt" myself, my Dad said we made the best and prettiest pets. :lol:

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
squirmingitch    495

Being a "mutt" myself, my Dad said we made the best and prettiest pets. :lol:

laugh.giflaugh.giflaugh.giflaugh.giflaugh.gif

I agree!cool.gif

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
xjrosie    4

1/4 English + 3/4 German = Me! :)

:( I wish I was that simple!

MOSTLY Polish, but also Irish, French, German, Italian, British/English (don't know how to address it), Native American, and a teeny tinesy bit Spanish. My folks got around!

If you look at me, you can definitely see the Polish and Native American, but the only reason I know about any of the others is from my family tracing our ancestry.

Then, my kids are all of that plus French Canadian!

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
IrishHeart    1,634

:( I wish I was that simple!

MOSTLY Polish, but also Irish, French, German, Italian, British/English (don't know how to address it), Native American, and a teeny tinesy bit Spanish. My folks got around!

If you look at me, you can definitely see the Polish and Native American, but the only reason I know about any of the others is from my family tracing our ancestry.

Then, my kids are all of that plus French Canadian!

Going by my Dad's "mutt theory" then---You and your children must be absolutely gorgeous. :)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
love2travel    396

:( I wish I was that simple!

MOSTLY Polish, but also Irish, French, German, Italian, British/English (don't know how to address it), Native American, and a teeny tinesy bit Spanish. My folks got around!

If you look at me, you can definitely see the Polish and Native American, but the only reason I know about any of the others is from my family tracing our ancestry.

Then, my kids are all of that plus French Canadian!

Can you imagine if you were all to get together and celebrate with traditional dishes ubiquitous to that ethnicity? Wow. If that happens I would like to be there. :P

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
IrishHeart    1,634

Can you imagine if you were all to get together and celebrate with traditional dishes ubiquitous to that ethnicity? Wow. If that happens I would like to be there. :P

Man, what a culinary festival THAT would be...... :) Count me in!

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
love2travel    396

Man, what a culinary festival THAT would be...... :) Count me in!

Wouldn't it be great? Notice how I have the uncanny ability of turning every topic into food? :lol:

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
IrishHeart    1,634

Wouldn't it be great? Notice how I have the uncanny ability of turning every topic into food? :lol:

Uncanny? no, LOVEY, my sweet---I'd say it's in your blood :lol: (mine too)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now

0

  • Forum Statistics

    • Total Topics
      107,924
    • Total Posts
      938,743
  • Member Statistics

    • Total Members
      65,853
    • Most Online
      3,093

    Newest Member
    Mollyt
    Joined
  • Popular Now

  • Topics

  • Posts

    • Popcorn, wine, as well as coffee are my favorite things.  Have you identified what is left to enjoy?  
    • I think you need to take a little time to learn about DH and celiac disease.  Celiac and DH are technically autoimmune disorders.  This is about DH: https://celiac.org/celiac-disease/understanding-celiac-disease-2/dermatitis-herpetiformis/ Learning about celiac disease (overview): https://celiac.org/celiac-disease/understanding-celiac-disease-2/what-is-celiac-disease/ Testing for celiac disease via blood test: https://celiac.org/celiac-disease/understanding-celiac-disease-2/diagnosing-celiac-disease/screening/ I think the full panel is around $400 and the basic budget screening which is pretty darn good (TTG IgA) is under $100.   If you are paying for your medical care (even under insurance) you have the RIGHT to copies of everything.  So, when your doctor orders a lab test, ask for a copy of the order, so YOU know what he is ordering.  Then you can google to see if he/she is ordering the right things.  Get a copy of the results.  Get a copy of the costs/receipt if you are paying out of pocket.  Put your requests in writing.   I think some labs and doctors use the term for gluten allergy incorrectly.  1.  There is a wheat allergy (IgE) that is like a peanut allergy which can cause anaphylactic reactions (throat swelling, breathing issues, drop in blood pressure).  There are some blood tests that are about 50% accurate, along with skin scratch tests (also not super accurate.   2.  There is celiac disease (autoimmune that when exposed to gluten attacks the intestinal track, skin or brain) triggered by gluten (I gave you the blood tests: TTG, DGP EMA).  3) Non-celiac Gluten sensitivity or Intolerance which is like celiac in terms of symptoms, but no antibodies are generated and intestinal damage does not occur.  This diagnosis is reached when you have failed the first two as there are n tests for it.   Read through the DH section of this forum for symptoms and tips.   I hope this helps.   Finally, if you really suspect DH, you  can always go gluten free.  Keep in mind that you need to be strict and you need to adhere to the diet for at least six months to a year.  
    • I mean I might get a prescription refill, or a new vitamin pill for example, and take it for awhile, with absolutely no symptoms.  As we know, no symptoms does not mean no damage being done.   I will feel fine for weeks, but then I start feeling awful, like a bad flu coming on.  I never did get the intestinal symptoms others get.  This for me is the hardest part of having Celiac's, figuring out what did it.  Last month I ended up with pneumonia because I thought the achey symptoms I was having was from gluten, maybe from cross contamination even though my kitchen is off limits to gluten, maybe from some new prescription, maybe from some new tea I was trying, maybe from new vitamins (marked gluten free but not certified, those have gotten me before), so I stopped taking all of that but didn't feel better and kept getting worse.   It took me awhile to figure out I actually had a flu and by that time it went to my lungs and had to go to urgent care. 
    • If you get accidentally glutened, how do you keep doing it for several weeks? Or do you mean you get glutened once and several weeks later you react? 
    • I think, at least from my personal experience, that these tests are accurate if you were diagnosed including blood work that was positive.  All of the tests on my panel were positive by large numbers at diagnosis and over the next year, they went to very low normal for the ranges given.  My GI symptoms were gone by then and the lingering neuro ones took longer to heal but they did. I would assume in a highly symptomatic Celiac, that resolution of symptoms, normalization of the blood work and weight gain would indicate healing.  Whether I am 100% healed or not doesn't matter as my health is far better today than it was in my youth.  I have not developed any more AI diseases than the 4 I already have and I call that a big win. I think doctors do not take into account enough symptom resolution, weight gain for the skinny Celiac's or weight loss for those on the opposite end of the spectrum, as important markers for healing.  I am not even sure if it is totally necessary for a person to heal 100% as there is overlap in the small intestine and nutrients are absorbed not in just one place, making it a brilliant design, when you think of it.  If your health has improved dramatically on the gluten-free diet, along with the other things mentioned, then consider yourself healed well enough that you've regained your health back.  Repeat endoscopy's are really for those still having problems.
  • Upcoming Events