This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.
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What are the major symptoms of celiac disease?
Celiac Disease Symptoms
What testing is available for celiac disease? - list blood tests, endo with biopsy, genetic test and enterolab (not diagnostic)
Celiac Disease Screening
Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results
Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free?
How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful?
The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free
Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested?
Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing
Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases?
Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders
Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid?
Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients)
Is there a list of gluten free foods?
Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients)
Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages
Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free?
Where does gluten hide?
Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet
Where can I buy gluten-free stuff?
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I think a lot of us can identify with his symptoms. The pattern you are seeing on his skin is likely something called livedo reticularis. In myself it seems to be related to inflammation. Before diagnosis the only thing that would alleviate this for me was an acupuncture session. it would be gone for a couple hours then reappear. I think it is associated with inflammation. Mine reappears if I am glutened or very cold.
You mention he had routine labs. Did they do a celiac panel? he may want to ask at his local hospital if they have a fund for folks without insurance. While my local hospital didn't cover doctors visits they did cover any lab tests and if they don't cover in full they may have a sliding fee scale. the other option is to have him go gluten free but it is best to try and get a diagnosis before deleting gluten if possible.
It might be helpful for him to come here if he is willing.
Celiac is genetic. That is why it is advised that all first degree relatives of folks diagnosed get tested before they go gluten free. If you have other family members who haven't been tested it would be best to have them blood tested before they go gluten free. You may want to consider going back to eating gluten for a bit so you can be tested.
You mentioned that you noticed a difference in pain when "Going gluten-free". If you did this before you got tested, especially for an extended period of time, this might unfortunately interfere with a diagnosis. I personally am not sure if I would want to be diagnosed as the symptoms are beyond debilitating, but it might be different for you.
Like Jmg mentioned, it might be more helpful if you created your own thread instead of replying to this one. I made this thread because I was curious about what diagnosed celiacs went through before they discovered they had the disease and I felt that I could relate to a lot of the terrible symptoms. Replying to this thread instead of creating a new one might interfere with the answers you're looking for, but if you ask me, it seems like gluten might be a problem for you even if you don't have celiac.