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Found 2,289 results

  1. Celiac.com 12/06/2018 - The growing popularity of gluten-free foods has led to numerous new products for consumers, but it has also led to some problems. One recent study showed that up to one-third of foods sold as gluten-free contain gluten above 20ppm allowed by federal law. Other studies have shown that restaurant food labeled as “gluten-free” is often contaminated with gluten. The problem of gluten in commercial food labeled gluten-free is not isolated to the United States. Recent studies abroad show that the problem exists in nearly every gluten-free market in every country. In Australia, for example, researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne found detectable gluten in almost 3% of 256 commonly purchased “gluten-free” manufactured foods, a study published in the Medical Journal of Australia on Monday says. Furthermore, the study shows that nearly 10% of restaurant dishes sold as "gluten-free" contain unacceptable levels of gluten. Now, the Australians have a stricter standard than nearly anyone else, so look for them to be on top of potential problems with gluten contamination in gluten-free products. The study did not name the food manufacturers responsible for the contaminated products, but did note that better, more frequent gluten testing by manufacturers would make gluten-free foods safer for people with celiac disease. In a related study, the same researchers found in May that nearly one in ten samples of “gluten-free” dishes from restaurants within the City of Melbourne contained gluten levels in excess of the official Food Standards Australia New Zealand definition of gluten-free. “It’s troubling to think that these foods could be hindering the careful efforts of patients trying their best to avoid gluten,” an author of the study, Dr Jason Tye-Din, said. A spokeswoman from Coeliac Australia said the organization was taking the findings seriously. “The research team that conducted this study has liaised with the food companies and is following up the positive samples with further retesting to ensure the issue is resolved,” she said. In addition to urging consumers to be diligent in reading labels, and to report any suspect products, “Coeliac Australia advises all people with coeliac disease to have regular medical check-ups as they do have a serious autoimmune condition and medical assessment is important to determine that their gluten-free diet is going well and no complications are developing.” Read more at: TheGuardian.com
  2. Celiac.com 12/10/2018 - More and more people are eating gluten-free for non-medical reasons. These days, people with celiac disease make up a small percentage of overall gluten-free food sales. However, the effects of eliminating or reducing wheat, barley and rye ingredients from the diets of in healthy adults have not been well studied. A team of researchers recently set out to assess the effects of a gluten-free diet in healthy adults. To make their assessment, the researchers conducted a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial of 60 middle-aged Danish adults with no known diseases. The trial included two 8-week assessments comparing a low-gluten diet of 2 grams of gluten per day, and a high-gluten diet of 18 grams of gluten per day, separated by a washout period of at least six weeks with habitual diet including 12 grams of gluten per day. Compared with a high-gluten diet, the data show that a low-gluten diet triggers slight changes in the intestinal microbiome, increases food and drink intake and postprandial hydrogen exhalation, and reduces self-reported bloating. The team’s data indicate that results of a low-gluten diet in non-celiac adults are likely triggered by qualitative changes in dietary fiber. Studies like this are important for understanding the effects of a gluten-free diet in both celiacs and non-celiacs alike. Better understanding of a gluten-free diet will help doctors, celiac patients, and healthy individuals to make better, more informed dietary decisions. Source: Nature Communications; volume 9, Article number: 4630 (2018) The research team included Lea B. S. Hansen, Henrik M. Roager, Nadja B. Søndertoft, Rikke J. Gøbel, Mette Kristensen, Mireia Vallès-Colomer, Sara Vieira-Silva, Sabine Ibrügger, Mads V. Lind, Rasmus B. Mærkedahl, Martin I. Bahl, Mia L. Madsen, Jesper Havelund, Gwen Falony, Inge Tetens, Trine Nielsen, Kristine H. Allin, Henrik L. Frandsen, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Juul Holst, Morten H. Sparholt, Jesper Holck, Andreas Blennow, Janne Marie Moll, Anne S. Meyer, Camilla Hoppe, Jørgen H. Poulsen, Vera Carvalho, Domenico Sagnelli, Marlene D. Dalgaard, Anders F. Christensen, Magnus Christian Lydolph, Alastair B. Ross, Silas Villas-Bôas, Susanne Brix, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Karsten Buschard, Allan Linneberg, Jüri J. Rumessen, Claus T. Ekstrøm, Christian Ritz, Karsten Kristiansen, H. Bjørn Nielsen, Henrik Vestergaard, Nils J. Færgeman, Jeroen Raes, Hanne Frøkiær, Torben Hansen, Lotte Lauritzen, Ramneek Gupta, Tine Rask Licht and Oluf Pedersen. They are variously affiliated with the National Food Institute; the Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark; the Department of Bio and Health Informatics; the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark in Lyngby, Denmark; the Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences; the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports; the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports; and the Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen in Frederiksberg, Denmark; the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; the Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre in Hvidovre, Denmark; the Department of Radiology, Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark; the Department of Autoimmunology & Biomarkers, Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen, Denmark; the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden; the School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland in Auckland, New Zealand; the Bartholin Institute, Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark; the Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark in Frederiksberg, Denmark; the Research Unit and Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, the Capital Region of Denmark in Herlev, Denmark; with Clinical-Microbiomics A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, KU Leuven–University of Leuven, Rega Institute; and VIB, Center for Microbiology in Leuven, Belgium; with Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen in Copenhagen, Denmark; the Laboratory of Genomics and Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Biology; the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research; the Department of Radiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; and the Department of Biomedical Sciences; and the department of Biostatistics at the Department of Public Health at the University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  3. Celiac.com 08/25/2011 - This is a controversial topic. Elizabeth Hasselbeck’s book, The gluten-free Diet (1), has been attacked because it suggests that a gluten free diet can help some people lose weight. One celiac support group has condemned this book as misleading (2). However, I thought it was a pretty good book, and I’m grateful for the public attention that Hasselbeck has drawn to celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. There are at least two sides to the question of whether a gluten free diet is useful for weight loss. As with much other dietary advice, each of these conflicting views is sometimes presented in very strident voices. On one side there are numerous websites and newspaper articles, with an array of “experts” weighing in on this issue, decrying the use of a gluten free diet for weight loss. I even saw a segment of a television show called “Dr. Oz” where the gluten free diet was asserted to cause only weight gain. On the same show the diet was referred to as a “fraud” with respect to weight loss. Similarly, one group of researchers claim that an important side effect of the gluten free diet is weight gain. Even some very popular advocates of the gluten free diet insist that it is inappropriate for weight loss. Yet there are some individuals who advocate this diet as an effective weight loss tool and there is some evidence to back them up. There are even a couple of research reports of weight loss on a gluten free diet. In fact there is at least one study that provides some support for each paradigm. So who are we to believe? What information supports each side of the argument? And how can we evaluate that information? Before we get to the evidence, however, I’d like to say that I have listened to Ms. Hasselbeck express some of her political and economic opinions. I am now of the firm belief that she is one of the five people on this continent who may know even less about these issues than I do. So let’s leave out the politics and confine our discussion to the issue of the gluten free diet and whether it is suitable for weight loss. The first and most compelling piece of evidence (for me) is a personal observation. I watched my mom try to lose weight, starting when I was in elementary school. She tried just about every diet out there, from radical fringe to mainstream. She drank protein powders mixed with water instead of eating meals. She tried eating these “rye” crackers that I thought tasted like cardboard.... very crunchy cardboard. She tried a low sodium diet, then a low fat diet, then a sugar free diet, an all fruit diet, a raw food diet, or maybe that was just a single diet of raw fruit. I’m not sure. She probably tried a host of other diets that I don’t remember, but I think you get the idea. She sometimes lost weight only to gain it back as soon as she stopped the diet. More often, she gave up because she got tired of being hungry all the time. She eventually gave up on dieting altogether and accepted being overweight. Then, about fifteen years ago, in her early-mid 70s, she started a gluten free diet. It wasn’t aimed at weight loss. She was trying to reduce the pain caused by her arthritis. In the first year and a half or two years, she lost 66 pounds. From that time onward, her weight continued to gradually diminish to the point where she had lost about 100 pounds over about ten years of eating gluten free. She was not trying to lose weight. She had long since given up on that objective. Yet the excess pounds just melted away. If only because of its weight loss benefits, I suspect that the gluten free diet has extended her life substantially. At about 85 years of age, she started eating gluten occasionally. Part of her gluten consumption is wilful. She sees something that she thinks she might enjoy eating, and she requests a serving. Perhaps because of mom’s lapses into gluten, the staff at the home where she now lives have also become quite cavalier about her gluten free diet. They frequently serve her dishes that contain gluten. Still, her weight has remained fairly stable. My mom is not the only example of weight loss on a gluten free diet. There are other stories on the Internet. Just Google “gluten free weight loss diet” and you will see what I mean. But I can’t vouch for those stories. I didn’t observe their weight loss. All I saw was my mom’s. Currently, there are only a few formal studies that have explored body mass changes on a gluten free diet. One conducted in Ireland reveals that there are eight times as many overweight celiacs as underweight celiacs (Dickey & Kearney). That is quite surprising in light of the common perspective that celiac disease is one of under-nutrition, suggesting that underweight should be a more likely sign of celiac disease. For a long time, that was the dominant belief, but there is clearly a flaw in this paradigm. Suspecting celiac disease only in underweight patients is not the only complication of this issue. Dickey and Kearney also report that after two years of dietary compliance, eighty two percent of their 143 overweight and obese patients with celiac disease had gained yet more weight on a gluten free diet. This would seem to suggest that the gluten free diet is not a good bet as a weight loss tool. However, these results do not seem to have been replicated by other investigators. Another follow-up study, conducted in New Rochelle, NY, reports that ’’ 66% of those who were underweight gained weight, whereas 54% of overweight and 47% of obese patients lost weight’’ on a gluten free diet (Cheng et al ). Thus, on this side of the Atlantic, of the eighty one overweight and obese celiac subjects, about half lost weight following a gluten free diet. That is quite different from the findings in Ireland. Another, much smaller study of childhood celiac disease revealed that about half of the eight overweight children they studied also experienced weight loss (Venkatasubramani et al ). This research was conducted in Milwaukee and is congruent with the findings from New Rochelle. So, on this side of the Atlantic, about half of the overweight celiac patients studied experienced weight loss on a gluten free diet. Perhaps these differences are the result of variations between the versions of the gluten free diet in North America, as compared with the diet in the United Kingdom. The primary difference I am aware of is that gluten free in the UK includes wheat starch whereas most American organizations do not accept wheat starch as gluten free. However, the gluten free diet that includes wheat starch has been shown to reduce cancer risk and many other celiac-associated risk factors, and has therefore been deemed safe. Nonetheless, that same wheat starch may be a factor in the different body mass findings between Ireland and the USA. Or maybe the difference lies in variations in research methods. Without further research, it is difficult to guess.... and that is exactly what we would be doing. Without solid evidence, our beliefs are no more than just guesses. For instance, my mom’s weight loss could have been the result of some factor other than her gluten free diet. Perhaps the beginning of her weight loss just happened to coincide with when she started the gluten-free diet. I’m convinced by my observations of her experience, but that doesn’t mean that you should be. After all, I could be kidding myself. Or her weight loss could have been caused by some other factor that I’m not even aware of or recognizing. That is why many of us contribute our hard-earned dollars to research. We need something more than stories about my mom’s experiences. We need solid, peer reviewed research such as what is found in medical journals. However, even there we need to be cautious about reported findings. One good indicator that researchers are on the right track is when we see a convergence of results from very different studies. When one study produces a given result, and another study produces a similar result despite very different study designs and objectives, the results of the first study are said to have been replicated by the second study. The advantage, in the case of celiac patients experiencing weight loss following institution of a gluten free diet clearly goes to the two studies conducted in the USA. The studies looked at two different sub-populations of celiac patients yet produced approximately the same results. But both studies still have a problem with selection bias. One of the greatest difficulties in assessing research findings is that we are really just assuming that what we see in one or two small groups will be reflected in the general population. This is why, where possible, study subjects are picked randomly from the general population. However, this cannot happen in studies of celiac patients. They are a select group. This is partly because these subjects have celiac disease and partly because they have a diagnosis of celiac disease. I’m really not splitting hairs here. Please bear with me for a moment as I try to explain this important distinction. Unlike more than 95% of Americans with celiac disease, these study subjects have a diagnosis. And don’t be fooled. Clinicians are missing almost as many cases of celiac disease in Europe as they are in the USA. Thus, all three of these studies are looking at a sub-group (diagnosed with celiac disease) of a select group (celiac disease). And the lengthy delays to diagnosis, somewhere between five and eleven years, also occur in Europe and Canada, so the difference is probably not dependent on whether there is a socialist medical system in place, as some have suggested. The select group is formed by people with celiac disease. The sub-group is people drawn from the three to five percent of those who have been diagnosed with celiac disease. We know some of the ways that those with celiac disease differ from the general population. But we don’t know any of the ways, beyond the diagnostic criteria, that people with undiagnosed celiac disease differ from the general population or from the population of people whose celiac disease has been diagnosed. Studying a small sub-group of celiac patients who have a diagnosis, then assuming that the features observed will be present in all those with celiac disease, whether they have a diagnosis or not, is a flawed approach. Statisticians call this mistake ‘selection bias’. It is a well recognized type of statistical error. For instance, if you wanted to predict the buying habits of people living in Pennsylvania, you would not just observe members of the Amish community. Doing so would not only induce a selection bias, it would lead to very misleading information about the general population of Pennsylvania. While many Amish live in Pennsylvania, their buying habits probably do not reflect the buying habits of most people in Pennsylvania. Similarly, the selection bias driven by extrapolating from observations of sub-groups of people with diagnosed celiac disease and applying those principles to undiagnosed celiacs, leading us to either assume that weight loss will or will not occur on a gluten free diet is mistaken and likely to produce misleading information. In addition to selection bias, sample size is another important factor in predicting features of a larger population based on observations of a sub-population. The smaller the group, the less likely it is to reflect the variations present in the larger population of those with celiac disease. For instance, if the US population is currently about 311 million, and the rate of celiac disease is about one in every 133 people, then there should be about 2.3 million Americans with celiac disease. Only three to five percent of Americans with celiac disease are thought to be diagnosed with celiac disease. And the studies of overweight celiacs who gained or lost weight on a gluten free diet include about 89 Americans and 143 Irish people. Is it credible to imagine that we can predict the responses of 2.3 million Americans based on observations of a sub-group of 89 of their compatriots and 143 Europeans? I think that most readers will agree that leaping to such conclusions is unreasonable. Yet that is what we do if we insist on the exclusive correctness of either side of the question of whether the gluten free diet is an effective weight loss tool. I am convinced, both by my observations of my mom, and by the results of these two small studies, that some celiacs will lose weight on a gluten free diet. However, I would not presume to insist that it is the best, or even a good tool for all overweight celiacs. Neither would I insist it was a good weight loss tool for all diagnosed overweight celiacs. Given the US studies, that is clearly not the case. Equally, denial of anecdotal reports or the two US studies claiming that the gluten free diet is not an effective weight loss tool for anyone is also unreasonable. We can only say, with confidence, that these study results may apply to those who are diagnosed with celiac disease. Yet we have a fairly even split, with American researchers showing that about half of overweight celiacs lose weight on a gluten free diet, and Irish researchers asserting that eighty two diagnosed overweight celiacs gained even more weight on a gluten free diet. Yet these statistical problems are not insurmountable. If a group of researchers conducted random screening blood tests for celiac disease in a variety of settings and circumstances, confirmed the celiac diagnosis in a large group of these individuals, and followed up with those who were overweight and undertook the gluten free diet, then their observations might reasonably be applied to the celiac population in general, whether diagnosed or undiagnosed. There would still be a relatively minor statistical error induced by cases of sero-negative celiac disease, but the statistical problems would not be anywhere near as problematic as asserting that any or all of these three studies tell us much about weight loss on a gluten free diet, except that it sometimes happens in small sub-groups of diagnosed celiac patients. Since such research has not been conducted, it behooves all of us to take a moderate stance on either side of this debate. That does not mean that we can’t or shouldn’t make use of the available information. Each of us can draw our own conclusions based on our interpretations of the available data. If you believe that, in North America, a gluten free diet can induce weight loss in about half of overweight, newly diagnosed celiac patients, it does seem reasonable to suggest that the gluten free diet may be all that is needed for some diagnosed celiacs to lose weight. However, since we are missing more than 95% of cases of celiac disease, it is difficult to say whether it will help those undiagnosed, overweight celiacs to lose weight. Nonetheless, it is possible. Thus, if it will help some, perhaps about half of them to lose weight, those individuals might well consider this information, limited though it may be, very valuable. Anecdotal reports, such as my mother’s story, might also be considered very valuable by those who can lose weight on a gluten free diet. For those who do not lose weight on this diet, I suspect that many of them have walked the path my mother did, and it won’t be the first time that a diet failed to work for them. This, of course, raises the question of why some individuals and organizations have vigorously opposed and decried anecdotal claims that a gluten free diet may help some people lose weight. Clearly, there is hard scientific evidence to support this claim. The reverse is not the case. Nobody has, or can, prove that the gluten free diet is always ineffective at helping people lose weight. Meanwhile, we can hope for more research that will answer some of the many questions that arise from this relatively new information that there may be many more overweight people with celiac disease than there are underweight people with celiac disease. Several of the questions that remain include: What causes overweight and obesity in patients with celiac disease? It is, after all, a disease that is characterized by inadequate absorption of nutrients from the food that passes through the gastrointestinal tract. I have previously suggested that specific nutrient deficiencies may induce food cravings that cause some to continue to eat despite feeling ’’full’’ because their bodies continue to demand these missing nutrients. The new field of metabonomic research may soon shed more light on this area. It has already demonstrated that subjects diagnosed with celiac disease are not as efficient at metabolizing glucose (usually derived from carbohydrates) as those without celiac disease. Does wheat starch have any impact on nutrient absorption or appetite? If even small amounts of opioid peptides survive in wheat starch and are allowed access to the bloodstream and brain, they may well have an impact on appetite. Opioids or some other component of wheat starch might also alter ghrelin (a hormone that incites appetite) and/or leptin (a hormone that suppresses appetite). We just don’t know. Are there other dietary differences between Ireland and the USA? We are aware of the difference in wheat starch, but what other factors might contribute to these divergent research results? How does wheat starch compare with the 20 parts per million currently being put forward as the labelling standard for American legislation in the offing? Does wheat starch contain 20 ppm? Will the legislation in question change conditions for celiac patients? Just how much contamination from gluten grains is present in commercial oats? Even in the absence of contamination, how many people with diagnosed celiac disease experience cross-reactions with oats? This is where the selective antibodies are sensitized to protein segments found in oats as well as in gluten grains. What other differences between Ireland and the USA might explain these variations in research findings? Could variations in sunlight, or water-borne minerals, or even genetics contribute to the difference in findings? How representative are these groups of other groups of celiac patients? Do they reflect what is going on among all the other diagnosed celiacs in their region? And how do these findings apply to the undiagnosed celiacs? Is region a genuine factor in all of this? I remember when many researchers were quite willing to believe that there was some difference that had Italy showing a rate of celiac disease of one in 250 while in the USA and Canada it was thought to afflict about one in twelve thousand. We now know that was silly, but at the time, there were a lot of apparently intelligent people who were vigorously asserting the accuracy of those variations and postulating many creative explanations for them. I remember one, now prominent celiac researcher, admonishing me not to take the Italian findings too seriously. He was very confident that they represented a large overestimation of the true incidence of celiac disease in Italy and could not reasonably be suggested as reflecting anything about Canada or the USA. Now here is a really startling thought. Some of the overweight people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity might also be able to lose weight on a gluten free diet. If so, this could produce as much as a ten-fold increase in the number of people who might lose weight on our diet. Has anyone tested obese and overweight people for anti-gliadin antibodies? Could gliadin be a factor in some peoples’ weight problems? I wonder how many people might be helped to lose weight if pre-conceived notions about the gluten free diet could be relinquished in favour of a more open minded view.... one that recognizes that there is some evidence that some people can and do lose weight on a gluten free diet? The dogmatic certitude that abounds on the question of weight loss through the gluten free diet is profound and disturbing. As is pointed out by nutritionist, Brian Dean, in his article on gluten and heart disease in this issue of The Journal of Gluten Sensitivity, one long-standing dietary sacred cow has been killed. We now know that eating saturated fats is not a causal factor in heart disease. Equally, the emerging sacred cow that a gluten-free diet is not appropriate for weight loss is, as yet, supported only by flimsy evidence, all of which is contradicted by other research. So let’s avoid making rigid pronouncements about the gluten free diet until we have a better understanding of the complex and perplexing causes of obesity and overweight in the context of untreated celiac disease. And please, let’s remember that some people can and do lose weight on a gluten-free diet alone. My mother is an excellent but by no means unique example. Others have similar stories. My own experience on the diet was weight gain, and now I have to work at keeping from gaining any more. Only those who know all there is to know should speak in absolutes. The rest of us should constrain ourselves to offering opinions and perspectives. Sources: Hasselbeck E, The Gluten-Free Diet: A Gluten-Free Survival Guide. Center Street- Hatchette Book Group, NY, 2009. http://glutenfreegoddess.blogspot.com/2009/05/gluten-free-diet-opinion-from-elaine-monarch.html Dickey W, Kearney N. Overweight in celiac disease: prevalence, clinical characteristics, and effect of a gluten-free diet. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct;101(10):2356-9. Cheng J, Brar PS, Lee AR, Green PH. Body mass index in celiac disease: beneficial effect of a gluten-free diet. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr;44(4):267-71. Venkatasubramani N, Telega G, Werlin SL. Obesity in pediatric celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Sep;51(3):295-7.
  4. Celiac.com 11/26/2018 - Many people with celiac disease suffer from headaches. A team of researchers recently set out to more thoroughly explore the relationship between celiac disease and headaches. The research team included Panagiotis Zis, Thomas Julian, and Marios Hadjivassiliou. They are variously affiliated with the Academic Department of Neurosciences, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK, and the Medical School of the University of Sheffield in Sheffield, UK. The team's goal was to establish the relationship between headaches and celiac disease, and vice versa, to explore the role of a gluten-free diet, and to describe the imaging findings in celiac patients affected by headaches. For their systematic review and meta-analysis, the team reviewed 40 articles published in the the PubMed database between 1987 and 2017. They included information regarding study type, population size, the age group included, prevalence of celiac disease among those with headache and vice versa, imaging results, the nature of headache, and response to gluten-free diet. They found that the average pooled rate of headaches in celiac patients was 26% (95% CI 19.5–33.9%) in adult populations and 18.3% (95% CI 10.4–30.2%) in pediatric populations. The headaches usually resemble migraines. Children with headaches of unknown origin, have celiac disease rates of 2.4% (95% CI 1.5–3.7%). There is presently no good data for adult populations. In such cases, brain imaging can be normal, but can also reveal cerebral calcifications with CT, white matter abnormalities with MRI, and deranged regional cerebral blood flow with SPECT. The good news is that a gluten-free diet seems to be an effective treatment. Up to 75% of celiac patients saw their headaches resolve when they followed a gluten-free diet. Celiac patients have high rates of idiopathic headache (that is, headaches of unknown cause), and patients with such headaches have higher rates of celiac disease. Therefore, patients with headache of unknown origin should be screened for celiac disease, since they may gain symptom relief from a gluten-free diet. Source: Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1445; doi:10.3390/nu10101445
  5. Celiac.com 11/30/2018 - By day, I am a special education teacher in a large public middle school. I am also the mother of three “children,” ages 27, 21, and 16. Several months after our oldest daughter Jennifer’s diagnosis with celiac disease, I too was diagnosed with it—this following a family screening, then a biopsy. Jen and I both had the good fortune of joining a strong local celiac support group. When we first made vacation plans to go to Disney World, our biggest dilemma was whether to drive to Orlando and save ourselves some money, or to splurge a little and fly. Due to Jennifer’s diagnosis several months before the trip, however, our dilemma had become whether to go at all! As parents of a newly diagnosed celiac we had our own issues to deal with, and after many months of Jennifer being ill, we were all emotionally drained. As her mom, I was determined to show Jennifer (and frankly myself as well) that her life would be “normal,” even without gluten. So began Jennifer’s first sojourn as a celiac. After doing some research I contact the executive chefs at each of the theme parks. At this point I was still naive enough to think that someone at Disney’s central reservations number would know these phone numbers. It took several phone calls to discover that I needed to speak to Disney’s “Special Requests Reservation Person.” Her name was Linda and she magically (no pun intended) began to make things happen. She arranged for a refrigerator to be in the room at no extra charge, provided a brand new, still in the box, unopened toaster, and assisted me in making special gluten-free and lactose-free meal reservations sixty days in advance at full service Disney restaurants. Perhaps most importantly, Linda provided me with the names and numbers of the (mysterious) executive chefs. She also e-mailed the concierge at the Disney resort where we were staying and advised them they needed to get some gluten-free and lactose-free items in stock. However, this was not in place when we arrived—which caused me to make an “unhappy Mouseketeer” phone call. Shortly thereafter someone from guest relations at the resort went to Chamberlain’s and brought gluten-free waffles, cookies, and Lactaid milk directly to our room. So now everything seemed to be in place—well, you know what they say about the best laid plans! As luck would have it, there was a lightning storm in central Florida the day we arrived which resulted in no natural gas for two days. This became an excuse at several locations and a really good way to get me fired up, with or without the gas! I made an early morning call to Brenda, the executive chef at the Magic Kingdom, who seemed genuinely upset at Jennifer’s circumstance. Thankfully the gas crisis was also over at this point. She e-mailed all of the remaining restaurants, even if they were in Epcot or MGM, putting them on a sort of “alert.” Ultimately, this led to several chefs personally contacting either Jennifer or myself, which allowed us to pre-order her meals. Even after this, there were still some rough spots but good help was available. Marianne, the executive chef at MGM, was very helpful after Brenda contacted her. She had done some work with the celiac support group in Orlando, and knew enough to try to coordinate Jennifer’s meals at MGM so there was some variety. Chef Wendy at the Prime Time Cafe was especially thoughtful in her service. Although there is an executive chef at Epcot, the communication was weak and we had a less than pleasant experience trying to arrange for a much awaited gluten-free and lactose-free Mexican meal. Ironically, the restaurant that was the most accommodating also had the least amount of advanced notice, and was the only place Jennifer chose to go to more than once—Spoodles on the Disney Boardwalk. The chef was Damian and he really went out of his way to make a special dinner and a gluten-free and lactose-free fruit cobbler for dessert. Magic Kingdom restaurants also deserve some accolades. Cinderella’s Royal Table served Jennifer a gluten-free and lactose-free breakfast that was fit for a queen. Someone at Tony’s Town Square hightailed it over to Adventureland to get a Dole Whip for dessert (there are two types; the one with no ice cream is gluten-free and lactose-free—yes, I called Dole beforehand). Before leaving the Magic Kingdom if found out the following: The French fries at Casey’s at the end of Main Street are gluten-free, as is the Magic Kingdom popcorn. There is gluten-free ice cream at the Cone Shop on Main Street. Last, several of the full service restaurants had Tofutti on hand for us. My best advice would be to always speak directly to the chef—have some emergency rations on hand just in case—and consider renting a condo or room with a kitchenette. ©A Personal Touch Publishing, LLC. Donna’s daughter Jennifer wrote “When You’re A Teen” which appears in the book A Personal Touch On...™ Celiac Disease.
  6. Celiac.com 12/01/2018 - If you’re looking for an easy, yet sure to please dinner, then this simple oven wonder is just what you need. The recipe is a delightful marriage of sizzling sausages, crisp, tender potatoes, and sweet cabbage. A final savory drizzle of brown butter and fried sage leaves seals the union. Ingredients: 4 uncooked gluten-free sausages of choice ¼ cup olive oil 1 small green cabbage (1½ to 1¾-pound), cut in 8 wedges through core 1¼ pounds small Yukon Gold potatoes, halved lengthwise 6 unpeeled garlic cloves, lightly crushed 4 fresh sage sprigs ½ teaspoon kosher salt ½ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper ¼ cup butter 20 small sage leaves Directions: Heat oven to 425 degrees. In a large bowl, toss cabbage lightly in oil. Lay wedges flat on foil-lined baking sheet, and drawn any excess oil drip back into bowl. Toss potatoes in remaining oil. Place potatoes cut sides down on a second foil-lined baking sheet. Drain any excess oil back into bowl. To each pan, add 3 garlic cloves and 2 sage sprigs seasoned with salt and pepper. Cover pans tightly with foil; roast for 20 minutes. Remove foil from pans. Lightly prick the sausages and toss in remaining oil; add to pan with cabbage. Switch roasting pans to opposite oven racks, and roast for another 15 minutes or so. Turn cabbage, potatoes and bratwurst; Continue roasting another 5 minutes or so, until everything is tender, golden and juicy. Transfer everything to a large platter. In a small skillet, melt butter over medium heat until it begins to foam. Add sage leaves; cook up to 60 seconds until butter is brown and sage is crisp. Spoon butter over everything on the patter.
  7. Celiac.com 11/15/2018 - Gluten-free products, marketed as such, were largely unknown 20 years ago, but the gluten-free industry is set to reach an estimated $2.34 billion in sales by 2019. That’s more than double figures for 2014. The growth has been exponential. What sets gluten-free foods apart from other culinary trends or diet fads is that they address a legitimate health concern that affects millions of people around the world. With the massive influx of gluten-free products, and the expansion of “gluten-free” restaurant options, it’s easy to forget that gluten exists in some obvious and not so obvious places that people with celiac disease need to avoid. Here are 15 foods or food ingredients that many people wrongly assume are gluten-free: Beer Light or dark, lager, IPA or Stout, traditional beer is brewed with barley, and is not gluten-free. However, a number of major and micro breweries create tasty gluten-free alternatives. There are a number of tasty, award winning beers that are brewed from gluten-free ingredients and are fully gluten-free. There are also gluten-reduced beers. These beers are brewed like traditional beers and EU regulations allow for gluten-removed beer to be labeled as gluten-free. Plenty of people with celiac disease do fine drinking these beers, but many do not. Know your beer, know your body, and drink accordingly. Read more at Celiac.com's Oktoberfest Beer Guide! Gluten-free vs. Gluten-removed Beers. Barbecue Sauce Many barbecue sauces use artificial colors, flavorings or thickeners that may contain gluten, so it’s important to check labels, and even contact a manufacturer if you're not sure about something. Couscous, Tabbouleh and Falafel Couscous and bulgar are wheat and are used in many different Middle-eastern foods, and some people do not realize that they contain gluten. Bulgar or couscous are also used to make another popular Middle-eastern dish called tabbouleh (salad). Couscous or wheat flour are sometimes used to make falafel, so be sure to ask about the ingredients before eating. Candy Always be careful about candy. Many candies are safe and gluten-free, but many candies are not. Sometimes trusted products can change. Read labels, check websites, contact manufacturers as needed, and be careful! If you’re not sure, Celiac.com’s Annual Safe Gluten-Free Halloween Candy List is a good place to start. Cookie Dough This might seem obvious, but cookie dough, unless specifically gluten-free, almost always contains standard wheat flour and is not gluten-free. Dried Spices Some manufacturers actually use flour to keep their spices from clumping. Pay special attention to spice blends and mixes, including curry powders, which may contain wheat. Gravies, Soups, Sauces and Mixes—Packaged, Canned, or Jarred If you’ve ever made gravy from scratch, you might recall that it involves making a roux, a paste of butter and flour which thickens the gravy and gives it a nice sheen. Well, roux is also used as a thickening agent in many packaged, canned or jarred gravies, soups, sauces and mixes. Even some fresh soups may contain wheat or flour. Gazpacho, for example, can be made gluten-free, but most recipes call for a piece of bread soaked in sherry vinegar and blended into the soup. When it comes to gluten in soup, eater beware! Hot Dogs & Sausages The bun is an obvious source of gluten, but the dog itself can contain traces of wheat as well in the form of both filler and binder. So check labels, know the ingredients, and double-check when it comes to hot dogs and sausages. Ice Cream Although many ice creams are gluten-free, some may contain wheat in the form of added ingredients, like cookie dough, toppings or candy pieces. Double-check the ingredients to be safe. Packaged Deli Meats, Marinated or Pre-Seasoned Meats & Vegetable Proteins Packaged, marinated meat, fish, chicken, or other meats may contain gluten as a binder or hidden ingredient. Some vegetable-based proteins like Seitan contain gluten. Also, many deli meats claim to be gluten-free, but the same companies have released specific lines of gluten-free meats, raising the question of why they needed a separate product in the first place. Deli meats are controlled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, not the Food and Drug Administration, which currently uses a different gluten-free standard. Prescription Drugs, Vitamins and Supplements Even though they are not technically foods, and they are meant to keep you healthy, prescription drugs, vitamins and supplements may contain gluten as binders, typically in the form of wheat starch. Ask you pharmacist for guidance, read labels closely, and make phone calls to companies or visit their Web sites to be sure. Salad Dressings Many salad dressings have updated their recipes to exclude any wheat or barley-derived additives, but some still contain gluten, especially the powdered mix kind. Soy Sauce Most soy sauces contain wheat and should be avoided. Be sure to find a gluten-free soy sauce. Sushi Although raw fish by itself is gluten-free, there are many ingredients in sushi rolls and other items that contain soy sauce and other sources of gluten. The seaweed wrappers in sushi may contain soy sauce, and the wasabi or fake crab may contain gluten. Teriyaki sauce is another source of gluten because it is made with soy sauce. See our How to Safely Order Sushi article for more info. Teriyaki Sauce Teriyaki is nearly always made with made with soy sauce, and most commercial brands contain wheat, so be careful. Read more on: Celiac.com UNSAFE Food List Celiac.com SAFE Food List Celiac.com's SAFE and UNSAFE Halloween Candy List
  8. 11/29/2018 - What do United States senators have that you don’t? Well, aside fro a plum job in the Capitol, they have regular access to this glorious bean soup that happens to be delicious, easy to make, and gluten-free. The soup’s ingredients include creamy navy beans, pig knuckle meat, butter, and chopped onion. It’s sure to be a big hit as a side to your next fall or winter dinner, or as a lunchtime meal by itself. Ingredients: 2 pounds dried white navy beans, cleaned and rinsed 1½ pounds smoked ham hocks ½ stick butter 4 quarts water 1 large russet potato 3 cups chopped yellow onion 3 teaspoons kosher salt ¾ teaspoon black pepper ⅓ cup chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley Directions: Wash the navy beans and run hot water through them until they are slightly whitened. Place beans into pot with hot water. Add ham hocks and simmer approximately three hours in a covered pot, stirring occasionally. Remove ham hocks and set aside to cool. Dice meat and return to soup. Rinse potato; pierce with a fork, and wrap potato in a paper towel. Microwave on HIGH until tender, about 4 to 5 minutes; peel and mash potato. Stir into soup. Lightly brown the onion in butter. Add to soup. Before serving, bring to a boil and season with salt and pepper. Top with parsley, as desired. Read more about this famous bean soup at the US Senate website.
  9. Celiac.com 11/20/2018 - This soup is not fancy, but it is easy to make and super versatile. You can mix and match vegetables to your heart’s content. It makes a great addition to your fall and winter slow cooker recipe box. Basically, just chuck everything into a slow cooker and come back later to dinner. Ingredients: 6 cups chicken broth 1 large onion 4 medium red potatoes, cubed 2 medium carrots, peeled and sliced ½ head of broccoli, cut to bite sized chunks Nice handful of spinach, chard, or mustard greens 1 medium zucchini, cut to ½ inch slices 4 cloves garlic, chopped or minced 2 tablespoons dry white wine A few sprigs of fresh sage or dried herbs de Provence OPTIONAL: Shredded chicken Directions: Chop and sauté a large onion and a few cloves of garlic and a tablespoon or two of olive oil. When onions are translucent, place in slow cooker pot or a large stockpot. Wash, peel, and chop the potatoes, carrots, broccoli, greens, and squash, and add them to the pot. Add chicken broth and white wine. Season with salt and pepper, and dried herbs. Cook in a slow cooker or stove top until the vegetables are soft, then use an immersion blender to blend to your desired level of chunkiness. If you have no immersion blender, then blend small batches of a cup or two at a time to desired chunkiness. Season to taste with salt and pepper, then serve with greek yogurt. To upgrade, add a swirl of olive oil and garnish with toasted pumpkin seeds or other seeds.
  10. Celiac.com 11/27/2018 - If you’ve ever been to the highlands of Peru, then you might have tasted versions of this delicious and simple quinoa soup that is a common staple of local restaurants in the region. It’s a simple and highly versatile recipe, so add or subtract vegetables, as desired. Ingredients: 5 cups chicken broth 5 cups water 1-1½ cups cooked quinoa 3 cloves garlic ½ onion, diced 1 teaspoon oregano 1 teaspoon cumin 1 pinch chili powder 1 cup coarsely shredded carrots 1 cup zucchini, diced 1 cup sliced celery, diced Celery leaves Directions: Prepare quinoa ahead of time. Sauté onions until clear. Add garlic in the last moments and sauté until fragrant. In 5- to 6-quart slow cooker, combine cooked onions, garlic, chicken, carrot, celery, and other vegetables. Add spices. Gradually stir in broth and the water. Cover slow cooker; cook on low-heat setting for 6 to 8 hours or on high-heat setting for 3 to 4 hours. Add a few celery leaves, as desired. When vegetables are tender, but firm, stir in cooked quinoa, and serve hot.
  11. Celiac.com 06/29/2018 - Warning! If you crave the taste of "real" bread, this gluten free bread may be addictive. No rice flour here. This totally satisfying, wholesome, nutritious, hearty gluten free bread exudes the robust taste and firm, springy texture of rye bread. It really, really tastes like REAL bread, no exaggeration. The bread is absolutely delicious toasted or untoasted, keeps fresh for over 2 weeks in the refrigerator, and does not tear, sink in the center, dry out or crumble. This incredible 4 inch tall loaf can even be sliced nearly paper thin and still hold together. It is vegan, free of soy, corn, wheat, gluten, nuts, dairy, or eggs. Add caraway seeds and you'll want to break out the mustard, pickles, and coleslaw. It makes the perfect deli bread. Want pizza? Toasted slices of this bread make great pizza crusts for quick and easy gluten free mini pizzas. Even those not on a gluten free diet will find this bread utterly irresistible. A Quest Begins This outstanding GF bread is the result of a years long quest for the perfect GF bread recipe. It began with the classic GF bread recipe of rice flour, tapioca starch, corn or potato starch, powdered dry milk, eggs, oil, sugar, salt, xanthan gum, yeast and water. It later evolved to include bean flours. These early GF bread recipes, mostly starch and "empty" calories, simply tasted horrible and left a bitter aftertaste. Rice flour, bean flours and corn starch were quickly eliminated. After scientific studies concluded oats were gluten free and safe (except for possible wheat contamination), oat flour became a central ingredient. Starches were limited to no more than one third of the flour mix. Mashed banana, apple sauce, pumpkin puree, and yogurt were added to increase bread height and volume. Oat flour was blended with flour from other seeds and grains, including sorghum, millet, amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat. A blend of oat and sorghum flour, tapioca and potato starch, mashed banana and low fat vanilla yogurt became standard GF bread recipe ingredients. Einkorn Einkorn an ancient form of wheat, was separately investigated. At that time, einkorn was considered potentially safe for celiacs. Samples of einkorn were obtained from Prime Grains [1] in Saskatchewan, Canada. Einkorn flour was found to have most of same height, volume, and sinking in the center problems as with any other gluten free flour blend in creating a GF bread. Einkorn bread, however, does not require the addition of starches. An oat/einkorn bread recipe similar to an oat/sorghum recipe minus the starches was created, but it became necessary to end the einkorn investigation when new research on einkorn came out showing that einkorn does contain gluten epitopes potentially harmful to celiacs. However, gluten content in einkorn is very low. The investigation produced no ill effects from consuming einkorn. Those with gluten sensitivity rather than celiac disease may well tolerate einkorn with no problems. Flaxseed Along with the Prime Grains einkorn samples sent from Saskatchewan, samples of golden and brown flaxseed were also sent. Using a coffee grinder to grind the flaxseed, the ground flaxseed was steeped in near-boiling water and used as egg replacer in GF bread recipes. The steeping releases mucilage from the outer coating of flaxseed to create a thick, slimy emulsion. Flaxseed mucilage seems to have a synergy with beta glucan in oats, a soluble fiber, forming a hydrocolloid combination that increases bread volume. When the Prime Grains flaxseed ran out, flaxseed was locally purchased. It was immediately noticed locally purchased flaxseed produced a much thinner emulsion than did the Prime Grains flaxseed. The local flaxseed had a much lower mucilage content. GF bread made with the local flaxseed had less volume and height and more sinking in the center than the Prime Grains flaxseed. Were it not for the flaxseed samples sent with the einkorn, the great variation in mucilage content in different varieties of flaxseed grown in different localities would have been missed. Little information is available on the mucilage content of flaxseed grown in North America. One study was found [2,3,4]. Prime Grains flaxseed is currently distributed through Farmer Direct Co-op [5] in Regina, Saskatchewan. High mucilage Farmer Direct Co-op flaxseed has been available from Whole Foods in the bulk foods section. Amazon's recent Whole Foods purchase may change that as bulk bin labels no longer state "Farmer Direct", only that it originates from Canada. However, the issue of high mucilage versus low mucilage flaxseed may be moot. The reason is buckwheat. Buckwheat, like flaxseed, also releases mucilage. It turns out buckwheat mucilage also increases bread height and volume, and, when used together with flaxseed, high mucilage flaxseed has no more effect on bread height and volume than lower mucilage flaxseed. More on buckwheat later. Deep Loaf Pans GF breads containing eggs and mostly starch can achieve high height and volume without collapsing using an ordinary loaf pan. But to achieve a full 4 inch loaf height using flaxseed as egg replacer and a low starch content requires a loaf pan with high sides. The deepest loaf pans available are 4 inch deep pullman loaf pans. Ideally a pan deeper than 4 inches is desired because GF breads tend to rise above the loaf pan and then fall during baking. Additionally, during baking, the loaf shrinks and pulls away from the pan side walls, more at the top than the bottom, resulting in a loaf narrowing toward the top rather than straight sides. Ideally the the sides of the loaf pan should taper so the bottom is narrower than the top. This cancels out the narrowing of the loaf at the top creating a finished loaf with straight sides. A small batch of 4-1/2 inch depth by 4-1/4 inch width by 8-1/2 inch and 13 inch length tapered heavy duty 16 gauge solid aluminum loaf pans were custom made by a USA baking pan manufacturer for this author to sell online. These long-life, heavy duty pans were ideal, but, unfortunately, high cost and price made for underwhelming online sales. The website was shut down years ago. However, a cheaper 13 inch long by 4 inch width by 4 inch depth aluminum-coated, folded thin steel pullman loaf pan should be adequate for the recipe which later follows. The cover is not needed. The following pans are suggested: USA Pan 13x4x4 Large Pullman Loaf Pan & Cover 1160PM-1 [6] or Chicago Metallic 44615 Pullman pan,single 13x4x4 [7]. Xanthan Gum and Konjac Glucomannan In the early development of oat and einkorn bread recipes, xanthan gum caused some problems. The use of xanthan gum alone often produced strange odd loaf shapes with concave sides. In one case an extra added teaspoon of xanthan gum caused the loaf to balloon well above the 4-1/2 inch deep loaf pan. When done, the sides of the loaf were sucked inwards and a cross section of loaf had the appearance of a giant mushroom. Konjac glucomannan powder [8] was then investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a natural, odorless soluble fiber that is found in the konjac plant and is the most viscous hydrocolloid available. Konjac used by itself produces a very firm loaf and restricts the bread height and volume. Xanthan gum produces a softer, more elastic bread. Konjac used together with xanthan gum have a synergy which allows the firmness of bread to be adjusted depending on their ratio and amounts. Konjac also "tames" xanthan gum so that the loaf has straight sides instead of turning into a mushroom. For a long time, 1-1/2 teaspoons each of konjac powder and xanthan gum, a one to one ratio, was used in the standard GF bread recipe. But this ratio and amount always resulted in at least some sinking in the center of the loaf. Recalling that additional xanthan gum creates a "mushroom" effect which results in a rounded top, the ratio was changed to 3 teaspoons of xanthan gum and 1 teaspoon konjac powder. This worked, resulting in a loaf with a slightly rounded or flat top, no longer sinking in the center. Psyllium husk was never tried as it generally decreases bread volume and height, not the desired effect [9]. Attempts That Did Not Work For years a standard GF bread recipe consisting of oat flour, sorghum flour, tapioca starch, potato starch, flaxseed, banana, low fat vanilla yogurt, molasses, sugar, canola margarine, cinnamon, ginger, salt, yeast, xanthan gum, konjac powder, apple cider vinegar, and water became standard daily fare. This recipe provided an acceptable GF bread, but was by no means perfect. It tended to crumble, required delicate handling, sank in the center, and had less volume and height than desired. It was not vegan or dairy free, and its taste could stand improvement. Deciding it was time for a change, numerous attempts to fix these short-comings were made. The attempts that failed included using citrus pectin, sugar beet fiber, gum arabic, and aquafaba (liquid from cooked chickpeas). High methoxyl citrus pectin did succeed in increasing height and volume and reducing crumbling, but its strong, bitter taste made it totally unacceptable. Choosing the Best GF Starches - Arrowroot and Potato Starch: Yes - Tapioca: No After the previous failures, investigations focused on how choice of starch affects GF bread volume. One especially interesting published research paper looked at GF breads made using a single starch in place of flour [10]. The study compared breads made with wheat, potato, tapioca, corn, and rice starch. Only wheat and potato starch produced any real bread structure. Corn starch had some bread structure. Tapioca and rice starch produced structures too far gone to be fully analyzed in the study. Tapioca starch produced a shapeless blob. Rice starch produced a crust circling a large empty center. The study revealed that potato starch would be the best GF starch for achieving greater volume and preventing sinking in the center. Unfortunately, the study did not look at arrowroot starch which later was found to be superior to tapioca starch. The standard oat/sorghum GF bread recipe used equal amounts of potato and tapioca starch. Two baking tests with these starches were performed using the standard GF bread recipe. One test used 3 parts potato to 1 part tapioca starch and the other test used 1 part potato to 3 parts tapioca starch. The test favoring potato starch produced a higher volume and height bread with reduced center sinking, as expected. The test favoring tapioca starch resulted in a drop in volume and height with increased center sinking. Potato starch has a bland, supposedly neutral taste. In the test favoring potato starch the "bland" taste dominated the entire taste of the bread covering up the taste of all other ingredients including molasses, spices, and banana, oats and sorghum, a totally unacceptable result. In the test favoring tapioca starch, a slight off taste was noted, but, worse, when toasted, the tapioca caused increased burning of the crust resulting in a bitter crust taste. It was concluded one should not make excessive use of potato starch and that tapioca starch may not be the best choice for a starch. This led to arrowroot starch as the next subject for investigation. Arrowroot and tapioca starches appear to be very similar. They definitely are not. Two baking tests were performed with arrowroot and potato starch. One test used 3 parts arrowroot to 1 part potato starch and the other test used equal parts of arrowroot and potato starch. In the test favoring arrowroot starch, the bread did not sink in the center or lose as much volume as when tapioca starch was favored. When toasted, the crust did not burn as with tapioca starch or produce any bitterness. Arrowroot starch also had no off taste as with tapioca starch. In the test with equal parts arrowroot and potato starch, there was a slight improvement in volume and less center sinking than with tapioca and potato starch at equal parts. The conclusion was that arrowroot starch is a superior choice over tapioca starch. Arrowroot may cost more than tapioca starch, but arrowroot starch now replaces tapioca starch as the preferred choice for a perfect GF bread recipe. Arrowroot starch can be found online in bulk at reasonable prices. Buckwheat - The Key to Volume, Height, Amazing Taste and a Bread That Does Not Sink or Crumble Still seeking the key to increasing bread volume and height, the world wide web was scoured for ideas. Intrigued by the impressive volume and height of GF breads made with buckwheat and rice flours by Strange Grains Gluten Free Bakery [11] in Perth, Australia, the question was asked, "Could buckwheat be the key?" Buckwheat had previously been rejected from consideration in the course of earlier oat bread recipe development due to a strong, unpleasant bitter taste. It turns out however, toasted buckwheat groats (kasha) were unknowingly used in that earlier trial years ago, a very bad and unfortunate choice. The world wide web provides many learning opportunities, one being that buckwheat flour does not have to taste awful. Buckwheat flour can be ground from three different forms of buckwheat, each having a completely different taste. The three forms are: 1) whole unhulled buckwheat; 2) raw dehulled buckwheat or buckwheat groats; 3) toasted buckwheat groats or kasha. The familiar earthy slightly bitter taste comes from the buckwheat hulls. In fact, some whole buckwheat flour contains added ground hulls for a stronger earthy flavor. The hulls create a greyish colored flour. Buckwheat groats are dehulled buckwheat seeds. Dehulling removes the source of the familiar earthy flavor. Flour from raw buckwheat groats has a creamy white color and a very mild sourdough rye flavor acceptable to just about everybody except for those who really miss having that earthy buckwheat hull flavor. Kasha or toasted buckwheat groats, on the other hand, has an extremely strong taste and odor that is popular in some cultures, but absolutely repulsive to most people. Kasha has a taste slightly suggestive of rye on the plus side but an odor strongly reminiscent of rotting food waste on the minus side. Kasha can easily be made by stirring raw buckwheat groats in a pan on medium heat for about 5 minutes until evenly brown and "fragrant". If the "fragrance" drives you out of your house into a freezing snowstorm, then you probably won't like kasha. Actually, after about a week of storage in a plastic bag in the refrigerator, the odor of rotting waste in bread made with kasha flour dissipates leaving the desirable sourdough rye flavor. Buckwheat flour can easily be made by grinding groats or whole buckwheat in a coffee grinder. Raw buckwheat groat flour is not readily available, especially gluten free certified flour, so a coffee grinder is needed. Gluten free whole buckwheat and raw buckwheat groats are readily available. Bob's Red Mill whole buckwheat flour is NOT certified gluten free (its groats are) but Anthony's Goods has certified gluten free whole buckwheat flour. Whole Foods has raw buckwheat groats in the bulk section at a very reasonable price. Bulk raw buckwheat groats are available online at reasonable prices. To test if buckwheat was the key to a perfect GF bread, a blend of one cup each of buckwheat, oat, and sorghum flours together with 2/3 cup each of potato and arrowroot starches went into the bread dough for the baking test. The buckwheat flour made the dough much more workable and elastic. Into to oven it went. The result? Success! Buckwheat indeed proved to be the missing key. The bread volume and height increased, reaching just over 4 inches tall. The use of 3 teaspoons xanthan gum and 1 teaspoon konjac powder contributed to a loaf with a slightly rounded top and absolutely no sinking in the center. The bread did not crumble. The rye-like taste was amazing. Why did buckwheat work? Buckwheat, like flaxseed, contains mucilage, and that slimy fiber likely gives buckwheat flour its high viscosity and unique baking properties [12]. Making GF Bread Dairy Free The final challenge was making the GF bread recipe vegan and dairy free. Low fat vanilla yogurt had been used to increase bread volume and protein. A substitute was needed. The latest trend in protein supplements is yellow pea isolate [13,14]. Yellow pea's protein amino acid profile compares favorably to that of dairy whey although it is not a totally complete protein. One study determined yellow pea protein added to GF bread had the highest level of sensory perception consumer acceptance compared to other proteins added to GF bread [15]. Yellow pea protein has also been used as the basis for a dairy free milk made by Ripple Foods [16]. Yellow pea protein is available from a number sources including Anthony's Goods, Bob's Red Mill, and Bulk Food Supplements. For the new GF bread vegan recipe, 2/3 cup of low fat vanilla yogurt was replaced with 1/4 cup yellow pea protein isolate powder plus 5 oz water. Yellow pea is a legume. If you have allergies to soy or peanuts (also legumes) use with caution, though yellow pea is considered to be much less likely to be an allergen. The yellow pea protein powder can be omitted with little effect on the overall GF bread recipe. Just replace it with another heaping tablespoon each of buckwheat, oat and, sorghum flours to maintain bread volume. Another vegan consideration is choice of oil. Canola oil, olive oil, coconut oil or a vegan buttery flavored spread like Smart Choice Original or Earth Balance Soy Free can be used. Smart Choice Original and Earth Balance Soy Free use yellow pea protein in place of dairy whey and sunflower lecithin in place of soy lecithin. Molasses or Maple Syrup? Molasses is used in the standard GF bread recipe to achieve a satisfying robust rye flavor. For an alternative subtle, delicate, sweet maple taste, grade A very dark and strong flavor maple syrup can be used in place of the molasses and granulated sugar. Pure maple syrup is a very pricey ingredient. The subtle change in taste using maple syrup may not really be worth the syrup's high cost, but the option is included in the recipe below, nonetheless. Maple syrup is sold in four grades: grade A golden color and delicate taste; grade A amber color and rich flavor; grade A dark color and robust flavor; and grade A very dark and strong flavor. Only use grade A very dark and strong flavor maple syrup for baking. The maple flavor of lighter shades of maple syrup is too weak to be tasted when used in most baked goods. The money spent using lighter shades of pricey maple syrup will only be wasted. Grade A very dark and strong flavor maple syrup is mostly used for cooking and not available in most grocery stores. It is readily available online and direct from maple syrup farms. Shipping from the east coast to the west coast may cost more than the maple syrup itself. Try to find an online deal with free shipping. RECIPES Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread This recipe produces a 56 ounce (1.588 kg) gluten free bread loaf yielding 28 slices 7/16 inch (11.11 mm) thick. Preparation time is about 2 hours 15 minutes. Baking time is 1 hour 40 minutes. Kitchen Essentials: Coffee grinder (preferably burr-type) Electric mixer (preferably a stand mixer) Mixing bowl Pullman loaf pan, 13 inch x 4 inch x 4 inch (33.02 cm x 10.16 cm x 10.16 cm) Lidded 2 quart/liter (or larger) plastic food container Quart/liter glass or plastic measuring cups (2) 5 ounce (150 ml) glass measuring cup Potato/banana masher, ricer or food processor Hard rubber bowl scraper, specifically Rubbermaid FG1901000000 Scraper 9-1/2 inch 1 inch pastry brush A good set of stainless steel measuring cups and spoons 10 inch x 14 inch (25.4 cm x 35.56 cm) plastic food storage bags with twist ties Cooling rack Dry Ingredients: 1 cup (240 ml) oat flour 1 cup (240 ml) sorghum flour 1 cup (240 ml) buckwheat flour milled from raw dehulled buckwheat groats 2/3 cup (160 ml) potato starch 2/3 cup (160 ml) arrowroot starch ~3/4 cup (180 ml) (approx.) milled flaxseed freshly ground from 1/2 cup (120 ml) whole flaxseed 1/4 cup (60 ml) yellow pea protein isolate powder (* can be replaced with 1 heaping tablespoon (20 ml) each of oat, sorghum and buckwheat flour) 2 tablespoons (30 ml) granulated sugar (* omit granulated sugar if using maple syrup in place of molasses) 2 tablespoons (30 ml) caraway seed (* optional for deli rye flavor) 1-1/2 (7.5 ml) teaspoons salt 1-1/2 (7.5 ml) teaspoons ground cinnamon 1-1/2 (7.5 ml) teaspoons ground ginger 1 teaspoon (5 ml) baking soda 3 teaspoons (15 ml) xanthan gum 1 teaspoon (5 ml) konjac glucomannan powder 4 teaspoons (20 ml) fast acting yeast Wet Ingredients: 2 cups (480 ml) cold water to mix with milled flaxseed Additional water to mix with mashed banana and molasses (or maple syrup) to achieve 2 cups total mixture ~1 cup (240 ml) (approx.) mashed ripe banana (2 medium to large bananas) 4-1/2 tablespoons (67.5 ml) molasses, unsulphured, mild (or full flavor) to one's taste (* Alternately, omit molasses and use 3/4 cup (180 ml) maple syrup, grade A very dark and strong flavor) 2 + 1 tablespoons (30 + 15 ml) canola, olive or melted coconut oil or melted vegan buttery flavored spread Additional oil or vegan spread to grease loaf pan 1 teaspoon (5 ml) apple cider vinegar (as an antimicrobial, anti-mold agent) Directions: 1. Grind enough raw dehulled buckwheat groats in a coffee grinder to make 1+ cups (260 ml) buckwheat flour. 2. Grind 1/2 cup (120 ml) whole flaxseed in a coffee grinder. 3. Place 2 cups (480 ml) COLD water in a quart/liter measuring cup and stir in the ground flaxseed with a fork. 4. Heat water and flaxseed mixture in a microwave oven until near boiling. Let steep for 10 to 20 minutes. 5. Combine all dry ingredients EXCEPT flaxseed into a lidded 2 quart/liter (or larger) plastic food container. 6. Thoroughly shake and blend dry ingredients together in the food container holding lid down securely. 7. Mash, rice, or puree 2 medium to large bananas into a separate quart/liter measuring cup. 8. Using 5 ounce (150 ml) glass measuring cup, warm 4-1/2 tablespoons (67.5 ml) molasses in microwave oven to thin and add to mashed bananas, or, in place of molasses, add 3/4 cup (180 ml) maple syrup to mashed bananas 9. Add enough water to the bananas and molasses (or maple syrup) and stir together so that the liquid mixture measures 2 cups (480 ml). 10. Warm up the banana molasses (or maple syrup) mixture in a microwave oven for 2-3 minutes. 11. Melt 2 tablespoons (30 ml) of coconut oil or vegan spread in a microwave oven in a small bowl, if these oils used. 12. Stir banana molasses (or maple syrup) mixture and steeped flaxseed into a mixing bowl. 13. Add 2 tablespoons (30 ml) oil plus 1 teaspoon (5 ml) apple cider vinegar to the mixing bowl. 14. Grease a 13 inch x 4 inch x 4 inch pullman loaf pan. Use a pastry brush for applying liquid oil. 15. Using an electric mixer with a dough hook, blend liquids for 1-2 minutes at a high medium speed. 16. Stop mixer and add dry ingredients to the bowl. Start mixing at low speed for 15 seconds, then increase to a low medium speed and mix for 16 minutes to a smooth, thick, moist (not wet), elastic dough consistency. 17. Preheat oven to 300-325° F (150-160° C). 18. Using a hard rubber bowl scraper, transfer dough from mixing bowl to the greased pullman loaf pan. 19. Plunge the hard rubber bowl scraper up and down in the dough to level and even out the dough. 20. Melt remaining 1 tablespoon (15 ml) coconut oil or vegan spread in the microwave in a small bowl, if oils used. 21. Use a pastry brush to spread 1 tablespoon (15 ml) oil on top of the dough. Smooth and round the top of the dough with the pastry brush. 22. Allow the dough to rise to just above the top of the pullman loaf pan. 23. Place the pullman loaf pan (uncovered) in the preheated oven and bake for 1 hour 40 minutes maintaining an oven temperature slightly above 300° F (150° C) to avoid burning the crust. 24. When done, remove loaf pan from oven and allow the loaf to cool in pan for only about 10 minutes to avoid the crust becoming soggy from trapped pan moisture. 25. Remove loaf from pan, tapping pan bottom corner edges on counter to loosen loaf. Transfer loaf to cooling rack. 26. Allow bread to cool to room temperature before slicing the loaf into 2 halves with a sharp, smooth edged (not serrated) slicing knife. 27. Store each loaf half in 10 inch x 14 inch plastic food storage bags with twist ties and place in the refrigerator. 28. If you can wait, keep it in the refrigerator overnight before consuming. The bread taste and texture actually improve overnight as it firms up in the fridge. When firm, the bread can easily be sliced nearly paper thin without falling apart. The bread will keep fresh in the fridge for well over 2 weeks and seems to improve in taste as it ages. Quick and Easy Gluten Free Mini Pizzas Making mini pizzas using bread slices for crusts is nothing new. But finding a GF bread suitable for a pizza crust is somewhat elusive. Just finding a GF bread with tall enough slices is a challenge. The Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread presented above works great! Its full size slices, taste, and texture make for a wonderful mini crust upon which to build an easy, tempting GF mini pizza. The recipe is simple. Key to this recipe is the use of a cooling rack on top of a metal baking sheet. The cooling rack raises the pizza crust above the surface of the baking sheet allowing hot oven air to circulate under the crust. This keeps the crust dry and crispy, preventing the crust from getting soggy due to moisture trapped between the crust and baking sheet. Directions for one 2-slice pizza serving: Prepare or slice any toppings you desire. Preheat the oven to 450° F (232° C). Toast 2 slices of Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread to a golden brown. Place toast on top of a cooling rack sitting on top of a metal baking sheet. Spread a generous tablespoon of your favorite pizza sauce, canned or homemade, on each slice. Spread a layer of shredded mozzarella cheese on top of the sauce, about 1/3 cup (80 ml) per slice. Spread any other cheeses, such as diced or shredded sharp cheddar, on top of the mozzarella. Add your toppings and a touch more mozzarella. Slide the mini pizzas, cooling rack, and baking sheet together into the hot oven. Bake for 9 minutes until cheese melts and bubbles. Slide the baking sheet and rack out from the oven and transfer pizzas to a plate using a metal spatula. Serve. About Gluten Free Toasters Toasting gluten free bread in a typical kitchen 2 or 4-slice toaster cannot be completed in one toasting cycle. To achieve a golden brown toast requires 2 or even 3 toaster cycles. Typical toasters provide toasting times of no more than 2-1/2 minutes maximum per cycle. A few more expensive toasters can toast up to 3 minutes. It is common for GF breads to require a single cycle toasting time of more than 5 minutes to toast golden brown. It takes 5 minutes 15 seconds starting in a cold 1000 watt kitchen toaster to toast slices of Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread to a golden brown in a single cycle. A toaster-oven can provide a longer single cycle toasting time, but may require 10 minutes or longer to toast GF bread golden brown. A toaster-oven is less efficient for toasting bread than a 2 or 4-slice toaster because it must heat up a much larger volume than a 2 or 4-slice toaster which has heating elements up against the bread. A few manufacturers have provided toasters with a "Gluten Free" button to extend the maximum single cycle toasting time. These include Crux 2 and 4-Slice Toasters [17] available exclusively at Macy's, Bella Pro Series and Ultimate Elite 2 and 4 Slice Toasters [18,19], and the Williams Sonoma Open Kitchen 2-Slice Stainless Steel Toaster [20]. There are several problems with these toasters. First, the maximum toasting times on the "Gluten Free" setting are still not long enough. Maximum toasting times provided by Bella for its Ultimate Elite Toaster are 3 minutes 50 seconds for the "Gluten Free" setting and 4 minutes 20 seconds for the "Gluten Free" + "Frozen" setting. Second, a gluten-free toaster for celiacs, by necessity, must be used exclusively for GF breads to avoid wheat contamination. A gluten free toaster does not need a "Gluten Free" button. A gluten free toaster simply requires a 6 minute maximum toasting time to adequately toast gluten free breads. One should not have to remember to push a "Gluten Free" button every time they toast bread. Is it so hard for manufacturers to offer a toaster with a 6 minute timer? For those with some basic electronic technical skills, there is a relatively easy solution to having a toaster with a sufficiently long 6 minute maximum toasting time for GF bread. The electronic toaster controller board in a toaster can be modified to extend the maximum toasting time by simply replacing a resistor and/or a capacitor on the board. First one needs to find a toaster in which the controller board can easily be accessed. It turns out the Nesco T1000 toaster [21] is well-suited to the task. As toasters go, almost all are made in China and tend to have a high percentage of manufacturing defects per customer product reviews. The Nesco T1000 is a nice looking, sturdy toaster with nice features. With the right screwdriver to remove the "tamper proof" screws, the controller board is easy to get to and easy to modify. The only flaw in the Nesco T1000 is that the toasting time is shorter in a hot Nesco T1000 toaster than the toasting time in a cold Nesco T1000 toaster at the same browning setting, resulting in inconsistent browning. If toasting always begins in a cold toaster, browning is always consistent, and the browning setting need never be touched to achieve the same results every time. Below, instructions on modifying the Nesco T1000 are provided. A modified Nesco T1000 toaster has been perfectly toasting GF bread daily for over 4 years without a single problem. These notes are of a technical nature. Modifying the Nesco T1000 toaster will void the warranty. Any modifications you perform are done so at your own risk. If you are not familiar with electronic components or a soldering iron, do not attempt the modification. Find a friend or someone with the technical skills if you wish to have a modified Nesco T1000 toaster. Nesco T1000 Toaster Tech Notes - How to Increase the Toasting Cycle Time Summary: The browning control circuit of the Nesco T1000 toaster is designed around the AO201D toaster controller chip, an 8-pin DIP integrated circuit. Toaster cycle timing is achieved by adjusting the frequency of a timer oscillator on board the AO201D via an external RC circuit. The frequency is inversely proportional to RC. Increasing R (resistance) and/or C (capacitance) decreases frequency and increases the toasting cycle time. R in the Nesco toaster is a summation of a 250k potentiometer (variable resistor) in parallel with a 390k resistor (R6) in series with a 68k thermistor (NTC) in parallel with a 180k resistor (R5). C is a .033µf capacitor (C3). The Defrost button increases the toasting cycle time by switching in an additional .0047µf capacitor (C4) in parallel with C3. The thermistor decreases the resistance as the toaster ambient temperature rises and is supposed to help stabilize the oscillator frequency which is affected by heat. Ideally, temperature compensation provided by the thermistor and the AO201D should keep the oscillator frequency stable and browning shade the same from batch to batch as the toaster ambient temperature rises. Unfortunately, in the Nesco toaster, the oscillator frequency becomes unstable and increases as the toaster heats up, significantly reducing the toaster cycle time when the toaster is hot compared to the cycle time of a cold toaster. Hence, to maintain the same browning shade of a cold toaster, the browning control must be turned up higher when toasting in a hot toaster. The modifications below will increase the original factory maximum toasting cycle time of about 2.5 minutes to about 5.5 minutes when the toaster is cold. The Defrost button adds up to 30 seconds or so additional time. (Note: There is no datasheet available online for the AO201D chip. A datasheet in chinese is available for a similar MCU CMS12530 chip [22] with some diagrams and tables labelled in english. The Pericom PT8A2514A toaster controller chip [23] is also of interest with an english datasheet and a timer that can be adjusted from 30 sec to 10 min.) Tools Required: TA23 triangle head screwdriver (Silverhill Tools ATKTR4 Triangle Head 5 Size Screwdriver Set) #1 Phillips head screwdriver Mini needle nose pliers Mini wire cutter 25 watt taper point soldering iron Desolder bulb, wick, or tool 60/40 Tin/Lead rosin core solder Parts Required: .02µf 25v to 100v ceramic or polyester film capacitor 68k 1/4-watt resistor (blue-gray-orange) Disassembly: Lay some newspaper or a towel on the work surface. Have a container handy to keep the small screws and parts from getting lost. Remove the crumb tray (which makes 2 tabs on the plastic base that slip under the shell lip more visible). Lay the toaster upside down on the work surface. Using the TA23 screwdriver, remove the tiny black screw from the bottom of the chrome pop-up lever knob. Insert a tool slightly larger than the TA23 screwdriver into the screw hole (the TA27 driver if you have it) and push the black plastic insert out of the chrome portion of the pop-up lever knob to free the knob from the metal lever. Slip the knob off the metal pop-up lever. Remove the 4 triangle head screws which attach the black plastic base to the metal shell. Separate and lift the metal shell off the plastic base noting the 2 tabs that were under the crumb tray and the 4 metal tabs at the ends of the toaster slots that insert into small slots on top of the inner metal cage. Disconnect the 4-wire cable small white nylon connector connected to the browning control circuit board attached to the toaster shell. Completely separate the base and inner cage from the outer metal shell and set aside the base. Using the #1 Phillips screwdriver, remove the 2 broad head screws securing the insulation board to the browning control circuit board attached to the outer metal shell. Remove the 4 Phillips screws securing the browning control circuit board. Turn the browning control to an extreme so that you can easily realign it on reassembly. Lift up and slip the browning control circuit board from out behind the browning control knob and push buttons (the knob and buttons remain in place and do not have to be removed). Modifications: Desolder and remove the 390k resistor (orange-white-yellow) labelled R6 (no replacement needed). Desolder and remove the 180k resistor (brown-gray-yellow) labelled R5. Replace R5 with a 68k 1/4-watt resistor (blue-gray-orange). Locate capacitor C3 (.033µf) which is numbered 2A333J. Turn the circuit board over and on the back side solder a .02µf 25v to 100v ceramic or polyester film capacitor across the two C3 capacitor connections keeping the .02µf capacitor flat against the circuit board and trimming off excess leads. Reassembly: Before reassembling, take a look at the pop-up lever spring mechanism and make sure the small metal plate beneath the lever properly aligns with the electromagnet arms when lowered. If skewed, twist the the metal plate until it is properly aligned (the plate in my toaster was skewed at the factory which caused a glitch preventing the pop-up lever from latching when first testing the toaster out of the box). Reverse the steps used in disassembly. Be sure to reconnect the 4-wire connecter, use the 2 broad head screws for the insulator board, and carefully align and insert the 4 outer metal shell tabs into the inner metal cage slots. Make sure you properly align the small notch in the black plastic insert with metal pop-up lever notch before pressing it back into the chrome portion of the pop-up knob. Do not over-tighten the triangle head screws, especially the tiny black screw in the pop-up knob (tighten just enough to bottom-out the screw heads). Testing: Make sure all functions still work (you don't need bread in the toaster to test). Get a watch and time the toasting cycles at "1" and "6" settings both in hot and cold conditions (give the toaster plenty of time to cool to the touch for cold testing). At "1" you should get about 32 sec hot and 1 min 23 sec cold. At "6" you should get about 4 min 25 sec hot and 5 min 35 sec cold. Pressing the "Defrost" button will add additional time. SOURCES Prime Grains Inc. http://www.primegrains.com/about-us.htm Variation of Mucilage Content in the Flaxseed Coat; Diederichsen A, Raney JP, Duguid SD; Saskatchewan Flax Grower Oct 2003 Vol 5 No 1 https://saskflax.com/quadrant/media/Pdfs/Newsletters/flaxfall03.pdf Variation of mucilage in flax seed and its relationship with other seed characters; Diederichsen A, Raney JP, Duguid SD; Crop Science Feb 2005 Vol 46 No 1, p 365-371 https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs/abstracts/46/1/365 Selection for increased seed mucilage content in yellow mustard; J Philip Raney and Gerhard FW Rakow; (Describes method used for determining mucilage content in seed); The Regional Institute, Online Publications http://www.regional.org.au/au/gcirc/4/79.htm Farmer Direct Co-op http://www.farmerdirect.coop/ USA Pan 13x4x4 Large Pullman Loaf Pan & Cover 1160PM-1 https://www.usapan.com/13-x-4-x-4-large-pullman-loaf-pan-and-cover-1160pm Chicago Metallic 44615 Pullman pan,single 13x4x4 https://www.bundybakingsolutions.com/product/44615/ Konjac Glucomannan Powder http://www.konjacfoods.com/product/1.htm The Gluten-Free-Bread Baking-with-Psyllium-Husks-Powder Test by Annalise Roberts http://mygluten-freetable.com/2014/04/the-gluten-free-bread-baking-with-psyllium-husks-powder-test/ Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads; Horstmann SW, Belz MC, Heitmann M, Zannini E, Arendt EK; Foods. 2016 Apr 21;5(2) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5302342/pdf/foods-05-00030.pdf Strange Grains Gluten Free Bakery https://www.strangegrainsbakery.com.au/gluten-free-bread-perth Technological Properties of Pea and Buckwheat Flours and Their Blends; Ilze Beitane, Gita Krumina-Zemture, Martins Sabovics; Latvia University of Agriculture Research for Rural Development 2015, Annual 21st International Scientific Conference Proceedings Vol 1, p 137-42 http://llufb.llu.lv/conference/Research-for-Rural-Development/2015/LatviaResearchRuralDevel21st_volume1-137-142.pdf Northern Pulse Grower Association Pea Flour Brochure http://www.northernpulse.com/uploads\resources\661\pulse-flour-brochure.pdf USA Dry Pea & Lentil Council Brochures https://www.usapulses.org/brochures Non-gluten proteins as structure forming agents in gluten free bread; Ziobro R, Juszczak L, Witczak M, Korus J; J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Jan;53(1):571-80 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711467/pdf/13197_2015_Article_2043.pdf Ripple Foods Pea Milk https://www.ripplefoods.com/ Crux Toasters http://www.cruxkitchen.com/crux_toaster_2slice.php Bella Pro-Series Toasters https://bellahousewares.com/products-bella/?taxonomy=productscategories&term=pro-series Bella Ultimate-Elite Toasters https://bellahousewares.com/products-bella/ultimate-elite-collection-2-slice-digital-toaster/ Williams Sonoma Open Kitchen Toaster https://www.williams-sonoma.com/products/willaims-sonoma-open-kitchen-2-slice-stainless-steel-toaster/ Nesco T1000 2-Slice Toaster http://www.nesco.com/products/Small-Appliances/Toasters/TWO-SLICE-TOASTER-THUNDER-GREY/ MCU CMS12530 toaster controller chip (in chinese) http://mcu.com.cn/uploads/file/2015/20150819163253_26043.pdf Pericom PT8A2514A toaster controller chip https://www.diodes.com/assets/Datasheets/PT8A2514A.pdf
  12. Celiac.com 11/22/2018 - Figuring out the best way to make sure that oats are gluten-free is an interesting and important piece of the gluten-free manufacturing puzzle. That’s partly because getting representative test samples for antibody-based testing is challenging when analyzing whole grains for gluten. Moreover, when whole grains are ground into flour for testing, confocal microscopy studies have shown that gluten tends to exist as aggregates within the starch background, making single-sample testing inaccurate and complicating the ability to arrive at an accurate average from multiple samples. In addition, whole-grain products are riskier for gluten-free consumers, because contamination is localized to specific servings, rather than being distributed throughout the product. This makes parts-per-million values less relevant for whole-grain products. Intact grains, seeds, beans, pulses, and legumes offer an alternative opportunity for gluten detection, in that contaminating gluten-containing grains (GCGs) are visible and identifiable to the trained eye or properly calibrated optical sorting equipment. A team of researchers recently set out to assess the use of visual inspection for assessing levels of gluten-containing grains in gluten-free whole oats, grains, seeds, beans, and legumes, and to determine a Gluten Free Certification Organization threshold level for the maximum number of GCGs within a kilogram of non-gluten grains sold as specially processed gluten free product. Researchers LK Allred, C Kupper, and C Quinn are affiliated with the Gluten Intolerance Group of North America, 31214 124th Ave SE, Auburn, WA 98092. In their study, they ran 180 samples containing one or two wheat, rye, or barley grains through an optical sorter at the Grain Millers, Inc. facility 30 times each. In every base, the sorter diverted the GCGs into the smaller stream of rejected material. The calculated probability of detection, or in this case probability of rejection from the oat sample for all three grain types, was 1.00, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.96–1.00.” Their study showed that a gluten grain threshold of 0.25 GCG/kg can be achieved for oats, and is, likely achievable in other cereals, beans, pulses, legumes, and seeds with naturally lower levels of GCGs. Their conclusions rest in part on data quality, and the assumption of a low false-negative rate. Their conclusions were supported by optical sorting verification done by Grain Millers, Inc., and by Discovery Seed Laboratories and Kent Agri Laboratory Ltd, which are CFIA-accredited seed testing facilities. One way to ensure that gluten levels in gluten-free flour remains below 20 ppm might be to visually examine intact grains, seeds, beans, pulses, and legumes; this process is called “hand sorting.” GCGs are generally visible and identifiable to the trained eye or properly calibrated optical sorting equipment. This potentially offers exciting possibilities for creating a system to physically spot-check batches of gluten-free oats. Basically, gluten levels below 20ppm are achievable by both hand and optical sorting. However, a properly calibrated optical sorter is much faster, and much more accurate than hand sorting. Also, as the report states, “even with well-trained personnel, hand picking for grading has shown accuracy in the range of 86–90%, and we have assumed a 14% non-detection rate with the proposed sampling plan presented.” A non-detection rate of 14% could lead to gluten levels as high as 140,000 ppm, compared with optical sorting alone. General Mills claims their optical sorting equipment achieves under 20 ppm. For companies that have access to optical sorting equipment, such as General Mills, employee performance can also be checked by running the batch of material they have accepted through the sorter to determine whether any GCGs have been missed. Employees who do not accurately detect the GCGs in these samples must be retrained and monitored to ensure accuracy. Properly calibrated optical sorting looks to be the best way to sort gluten-containing grains from large quantities of oats and other materials. Any human role in such an undertaking would largely be relegated to spot-checking and re-scanning sub-samples to confirm overall results. This study authors rather diplomatically note that their study does not serve as a validation for either the Purity Protocol or the mechanical sorting method of producing gluten-free grains, “but rather demonstrates that achieving the proposed threshold is possible under both systems.” However, the fact is that even Purity Protocol oats will have to be inspected at some point, using either optical sorting, human sorting, or a combination of both. The reality is that inspecting oats for GCGs using humans alone is both time-consuming and fraught with error. That potentially means increased production costs. In the end, a combination of optical sorting systems and humans checking each other might be the way to go. For now, studies like this one will help us narrow down the best practices and help to ensure that we take the best path toward the manufacture of gluten-free oats. Read more at the JOURNAL OF AOAC INTERNATIONAL VOL. 101, NO. 1, 2018
  13. Hello, What does my results mean? Am I allergic to gluten? tTg-IgG 8.62 tTg-IgA 3.02 Anti Gliadin IgA 93.24 And what’s the normal range for each? Thank you!
  14. Celiac.com 11/17/2018 - This soup works great as a dinner starter. It also works great as a full meal when paired with a salad and some good gluten-free bread. Pair it with half a sandwich for a great lunch. The recipe works great if you happen to have leftover chicken in the fridge. If not, you can use rotisserie chicken or leftover holiday turkey. Ingredients: 2½ cups chopped cooked chicken 5 cups chicken broth 5 cups water 1 cup cream 1 medium onion, chopped 2 cups sliced fresh mushrooms 1 cup coarsely shredded carrots 1 cup sliced celery One 6 - ounce package long grain and wild rice mix 1 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons onion powder 1 teaspoon garlic powder 1 teaspoon dried parsley 1 teaspoon Italian seasoning Celery leaves, as desired Directions: Sauté onions in a skillet over medium heat until translucent. In 5- to 6-quart slow cooker, combine translucent onions, cooked chicken, mushrooms, carrot, celery, cream, rice mix, celery leaves, and the spices. Note: Beware of the spice packet that come with the wild rice mix. Use it only if you are certain it is gluten-free. If you use the packet, omit the other spices. If not, use the spices listed. Gradually stir in the chicken broth and the water. Cover slow cooker; cook on low-heat setting for 6 to 8 hours or on high-heat setting for 3 to 4 hours. Serve warm.
  15. Celiac.com 10/30/2018 - Products with “gluten-free” were unknown just 20 years ago. Now, driven by new labeling standards and demand that far exceeds those on medical diets, the market for gluten-free foods is expected to hit $2.34 billion in sales by 2019. That’s more than double the 2014 level. How has the influx of new gluten-free products in the last few years changed the experience of people with celiac disease? A team of researchers recently set out to investigate how the recent proliferation of the gluten‐free industry has affected individuals living with celiac disease, with a primary focus on their social lives and relationships. The research team included J. A. King, G. G. Kaplan, and J. Godley. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and the O’Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The team employed interpretive phenomenology for study design and analysis. Team members held semi‐structured interviews with 17 adults with clinically diagnosed celiac disease in Calgary, Alberta. They recorded the interviews and transcribed them for analysis. These 17 Canadians living with celiac disease reported that they perceive the growth of the gluten‐free industry as a "double‐edged sword." Although they are grateful for more readily available, more palatable gluten‐free options, they are increasingly faced with misunderstandings about the severity of celiac disease as a perceived result of many non-celiac disease individuals subscribing to the gluten‐free diet. Participants also felt they may be perceived or even perceived themselves differently, such as "high maintenance," etc. To help mitigate these social ramifications of following the gluten‐free diet, participants utilized various strategies. According to the study’s authors, simply telling celiac patients to adopt a gluten‐free diet ignores the regular challenges faced by those patients. The authors of the report are calling for doctors to consider the indirect burdens for celiac patients who must adopt a gluten-free diet when making their recommendations. But how? The report says nothing about what exactly doctors are supposed consider, or what they should tell patients about the challenges of a gluten-free diet. People with celiac disease probably do need more information up front as they begin to follow a gluten-free diet, but clearly far more input and study are needed. This study tells us that seventeen people in Alberta, Canada say that being gluten-free by medical necessity is both easier and more challenging than it was in the past. That it was both more manageable, but also more stressful, because gluten-free fad dieters are confusing everything. What are we to make of this? Talking informally with 17 celiac patients and writing up the results may not rise to the level of a solid study, and their input doesn’t really tell us much about how to improve their situation. Also, blaming the popularity of the gluten-free diet as a cause of confusion or stress in people with celiac disease could be an overreaction. Remember, ten or twenty years ago when most people had nearly zero awareness of celiac disease or the gluten-free diet? That included doctors who were trying to diagnose it. To have these inconvenient misunderstandings, people must first have some idea that celiac disease exists, and that a gluten-free diet is part of it. Is it possible that, as annoying as such misunderstandings may be, they represent progress, however incremental? Perhaps the annoyances are real, perhaps they are perceived. Perhaps they are a reflection of slowly rising awareness levels. But the study doesn’t tell us any of these important details. Again, there’s little question that people with celiac disease need more information up front as they begin to follow a gluten-free diet, but clearly more input and study is needed so that we can come up with an accurate picture of the challenges and provide the best ways to meet them. What’s your experience of the rapidly changing gluten-free landscape? Read more at: JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS. First published: 02 October 2018 https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12597
  16. Celiac.com 11/14/2018 - You don’t have to be a researcher to figure out that, for all the improvements in gluten-free food products in the last few years, gluten-free foods are still expensive and largely inferior in terms of quality and nutrition compared to their non-gluten-free counterparts. Most of the locally available gluten-free flour products are developed by large U.S. and European companies with global distribution. This can mean high local prices. Higher prices mean that some gluten-free products can remain out of reach for people who need them. Researchers in Kazakhstan may have figured out a way to change that reality by creating high quality gluten-free products at low prices. The Kazakh Research Institute of Agricultural Products Processing have developed a method for producing local, affordable gluten-free products, according to the press service of Astana city administration. According to the results of the survey, in Kazakhstan, more than two-thirds of patients with celiac disease are children under 11, while 15 percent are children aged 11-12 and 17 percent are people aged 21-35. “Gluten-free products cost ten times higher than gluten-containing products. Not every family can afford this. We are very interested in producing local products that are not inferior in quality to foreign ones,” said Chief Specialist of the Crop Production Research Laboratory Olga Polubotko. The institute is researching flour confectionery mixes and cereals. They have identified corn, rice, buckwheat, millet and flax grown in various regions of the country as naturally gluten-free raw materials. According to the researchers, imported products contain a large amount of starch and artificial additives. They intend to develop domestic products with less starch and additives using mainly ingredients from the region. Academic Secretary of the Kazakh Research Institute Darigash Shaimerdenova says that a Finnish group is interested in working with Kazakhstan to develop gluten-free pasta. The institute also conducts research to produce other varieties of foods including lactose-free lactic acid, pectin-containing, fat-free products without trans-isomers based on leguminous crops. Look for more news regarding the development of better, more nutritious, more delicious gluten-free food as stories unfold.
  17. What is Gluten? Gluten is a huge molecule held together by smaller molecules linked together called amino acids. A very tiny part of the gluten molecule can initiate a response. If each amino acid that makes up gluten is represented as a single letter that very tiny part would be: SGQGSFQPSQQ. There are other sequences of amino acids that cause a reaction in gluten sensitive individuals, but the point is, as tiny as this fragment is with respect to the entire gluten protein, it is still HUGE with respect to the size of ethanol (the stuff you are drinking). What is Alcohol? The alcohol you drink is ethanol. Ethanol is smaller than the size of the smallest amino acid in the smallest fragment of gluten that has been shown to initiate an autoimmune reaction. More specifically, ethanol is about 10 atomic mass units smaller than just the G in the sequence shown above. What are Amino Acids? The G is glycine, and by the way, each of these amino acids (represented by letters) by themselves is safe, and sold at most health food stores. For example Q = glutamine (yes, “L-glutamine,” the same amino acid mentioned in a recent post and used to heal intestinal damage). If the protein is viewed as beads on a string, then one of those beads might be good for you, but certain sequences strung together can initiate an allergic reaction of many types from acute peanut allergy to less-than-obvious gluten sensitivity. What is Distillation? When a distillation is performed, pure ethanol is separated away from all of the other “stuff” that forms as a result of fermentation. This is because ethanol is volatile (meaning it becomes a gas in the distillation process). Imagine a vat of fermentation products, you heat it, and only the volatile molecules like ethanol enter a tube attached to the vat. This tube is not just any tube - it is a curved condensation tube! Here is what it does: While the heated gas form of ethanol floats into it (because that is what gases do), the molecules are cooled and condense back into a liquid, and fall into a new sparkling clean vessel containing the stuff that intoxicates you and any other volatiles. So the fancier distillation columns that are actually used industrially also purify the ethanol away from other volatiles. Gluten does not stand a chance of “crossing over” because it is not volatile. Here is a simplified analogy. Let's say you put some sand in the bottom of your tea kettle. If you take the spout off your tea kettle, and attach a condensing tube to the opening (a curved tube would be the simplest type of condensing tube but there are many elaborate types), you could distill your water away from the sand. The condensing tube would be curved so as to open into a new clean pot. Let us pretend that the sand is gluten and the water is ethanol. When you heat to the boiling point, the liquid becomes gas so it travels into the condenser, cools and becomes liquid, then falls into the clean pot. Now having read that, is there any way that the new clean pot would contain any sand? No, and distilled alcohol (ethanol) does not contain any gluten. Remember, gluten is not volatile. Another non-volatile compound is table salt. So you could perform a distillation at home, with salt water. Has anyone ever inadvertently done this? Boiled a pot of salt water, perhaps to make some Tinkyada pasta, and walked away to do something else. You came back to find your pot almost empty with white crusty stuff (salt) all inside the pot. So the gluten is left behind in a distillation process. If malt is added to the distilled product it will be disclosed on the ingredients label. What is Vinegar? Vinegar is formed by fermentation in a similar way that ethanol is formed by fermentation. The process is to take ethanol and ferment it with bacteria. Later, there is a filtration to remove the bacteria. Rarely, vinegar is fermented from wheat-based alcohol. “Distilled vinegar,” gets its name from the fact that it was fermented from distilled alcohol. Why is Vinegar Still Questioned? The answer could be, perhaps, because so many people report a reaction to it and vinegar-based products. The never-ending fear is that cross-contamination during the fermentation process is leading to barely detectable amounts of gluten in the finished product (by barely detectable, I mean in terms of commercially available tests). Since the vinegar is rarely distilled post fermentation from the ethanol, the “messy” nature of the second fermentation step could pose a problem, especially for highly sensitive individuals. If the alcohol gets all used up by the bacteria, the bacteria go on to form carbon dioxide and water from the vinegar. So alcohol is periodically added in the fermentation process. Conceivably, one “shortcut” would be to just add beer at this juncture. Adding beer or some other form of cheap malted alcohol would keep the culture alive, and increase the “quality” and yield of the vinegar. Another fear is that the bacterial “mother” as it is called, contains trace gluten through cross-contamination. Claims that these practices actually take place are unsubstantiated by evidence. Why are Distilled Spirits Still Questioned?That is a good question, I do not know.Take a Short Quiz on this Topic: You bought mustard and pickles at the grocery store. These products contain “distilled vinegar” according to the ingredients labels, and the label does NOT say “contains: wheat.” Are the mustard and pickles gluten-free? Rum, gin, whiskey, and vodka are distilled beverages. If they are not flavored with something that contains wheat (would be declared on the label), rye, or barley (usually in the form of “malt”), are they gluten-free? What is wrong with the following statements (they have all been cut and pasted from various blogs and forums on the topic of celiac disease)?a. “Most alcohols are distilled in such a way that any wheat gluten is no longer present.”b. “Even trace amounts of gluten that make it past the filter system can be harmful.”c. “It seems improbable to me, too, that gliadin could survive the distillation process.” Answers: Yes, unless you have reason to believe otherwise, in which case you should simply avoid them. Yes. 3a. All alcohols, if distilled, have been removed from any type of gluten. 3b. Distillation is nothing like a filtration. We are not separating small from large, there is no filter. Filtration would be like how your coffee pot separates water from the coffee grains. A tear in the filter would result in a big problem, right? Filtration is a separation based on size, distillation is a separation based on volatility. 3c. Do we care whether gliadin (a name given to part of wheat gluten) “survives” the process or not? No, because it has been left behind to stew in its own juices in the distillation pot. Your stuff (the ethanol) has floated away, and entered a new, clean pot. Some people have this idea that we heat the fermented mixture to smithereens and it somehow decomposes the molecules of gluten. Clearly, such a process would be ineffective or else we could simply “cook,” “roast,” “fry,” or “burn” the gluten out of our foods, and we know that we cannot do that.
  18. Celiac.com 11/09/2018 - Adjusting to the obvious guidelines of a gluten-free diet is challenging and often overwhelming. You soon learn that what is gluten-free today may not be gluten-free tomorrow—mainly because companies can change their recipes, suppliers, or production methods. As if that weren’t bad enough, you begin to realize that gluten is ‘hidden’ in foods. How is one to keep up to date with all of this? Don’t despair, as there are many avenues of help available to you. Thanks in large part to Andrea Lavario and her Task Force, congress will soon be requiring companies to list ingredients that heretofore have been disguised under auspicious names such as ‘vegetable protein’ and ‘food starch’ (see Autumn 2004 Journal of Gluten Sensitivity, pg. 1). There are also a few reliable food lists on the internet that are compiled by people who call companies regularly to check out dubious ingredients. Some of the posted lists are out of date and unreliable, so check the validity of the sight before relying on the information given. So what are the hidden sources of gluten? Let’s examine our homes first. Do you toast your gluten-free bread in the same toaster that is used for wheat-based bread? Yes, those tiny wheat crumbs that remain in the toaster could contaminate your gluten-free bread. Invest in a dedicated toaster for gluten-free products. If you toast wheat-based hamburger buns and hot dog buns on the same grill as gluten-free ones, this could be another breeding ground for cross-contamination. Grill the gluten-free foods first, and afterwards clean the grates thoroughly (Put the grates in your oven before running the self-cleaning cycle). If you are baking both gluten-free and wheat-based cookies during the holidays, make the gluten-free ones first. If you bake with wheat flour first, there could be some residual flour dust in the air and on your counters (Wheat flour can remain in the air for up to 24 hours!). Wood cutting boards are porous and gluten may become embedded in them—use a marble cutting board instead. Finally, beware of knives. At breakfast, do the gluten-consuming members of your family spread peanut butter on their toast, and then double-dip to get a little more peanut butter out of the jar? If so, get a peanut butter jar just for you. When they double-dip, some of their wheat crumbs may be getting into the jar and will eventually contaminate the dollop you retrieve from the jar. Non-food items also pose gluten challenges. Do you use latex or rubber gloves to wash dishes? These may be dusted with wheat or oat flour. Make a phone call to your doctor, dentist, orthodontist and periodontist and request that they use non-powdered gloves. Gluten hides in art supplies, such as paints, clay, play dough, and glue. It is also present in many personal items such as lipstick, lip balm, sunscreen, shampoos, soaps, cosmetics, and skin lotions. Household products such as cleaning solutions, detergents, even bar soap may contain gluten. Fortunately, you can refer to lists on the internet for ‘safe’ alternative brands that are available. Medications frequently contain gluten. Pills may be dusted with flour during manufacturing and capsules may have gluten present in the oil inside. Frequently your pharmacist will be able to tell you if any given medication is safe for you, but you may have to call the manufacturer. Again, there are websites that have gluten-free medications listed. Oats remain a food of debate. While ‘pure’ oats may be safe for some celiacs, it is very difficult to find ‘pure’ oats that are grown and processed in the U.S.A. Some celiacs are able to consume oats imported from Ireland, while others have reactions to them. Even the safe flours (rice, potato, tapioca, bean) can be contaminated if they are milled or processed in a facility that processes wheat, rye or barley grains. A call to the processing company will tell you if they have machinery and facilities dedicated to gluten-free grains only. If you purchase imported flours from an oriental store, you obviously are not able to contact the manufacturer. Many of the Asian plants are dedicated exclusively to processing rice products, especially those in Thailand, but some are not. It is your personal decision whether or not to trust the purity of items purchased from abroad. Reading labels is a highly refined art form. Not-so-obvious terms on labels signal gluten, like malt, graham, spelt, kamut. If you pick up a jar of chili powder it may or may not contain wheat flour which can be added to keep it from clumping—but even if it does you likely won’t find wheat listed on the label. There are foods that you think are 100% pure, but when you examine the label, other ingredients have been added, like tomato paste. Rice syrup may use barley enzymes. Yeast may be grown or dried using wheat or barely ingredients. At the grocery store beware of anything that is processed. If it is not a whole food, it may contain gluten. Common culprits include rice or corn cereals, soups, snack foods, lunch meats, sausages, and hot dogs. Shortening may contain vitamin E processed from wheat germ. Just when you thought it couldn’t get any more confusing, you find hieroglyphics on labels. Letters like HVP (hydrogenated vegetable protein), HPP (hydrolyzed plant protein), and TVP (textured vegetable protein). Other confusing ingredients are maltodextrin, stabilizers, binders, fillers, natural flavor, vegetable gums, and mono & diglycerides, to name just a few. Enriched products should be avoided unless you are certain of the sources of ‘enrichment’. See the Safe & Forbidden Lists for detailed lists of ingredients and their gluten-free status. Finally, re-check labels each time you buy a product. Companies change their recipes periodically. Duncan Hines Vanilla Ready-to-Spread Frosting used to be gluten-free, as were Pringles Potato Chips—but both manufacturers recently began adding wheat starch to these products. It should be noted that Duncan Hines received so many letters and calls of protest about wheat being added to their frosting that they have switched back to the original gluten-free recipe—but check the label before purchasing. Product ingredients may change from one batch to another. Cool Whip usually does not contain wheat, but occasionally it is added. Archway macaroons are sometimes made with potato starch and sometimes with wheat starch. The lists above are not intended to overwhelm you, but to make you more aware of the problem that you face, and to help you become more alert. With practice and time, screening for gluten becomes second nature. Now for the good news! By 2006, food labeling will disclose many of the hidden ingredients now on labels, including wheat (barley and rye do not have to be disclosed, but are used far less frequently than wheat). Kraft Foods is already beginning to post labels reading “Gluten Free” on many of their products; other companies will follow their lead. Many grocery store chains are responding by setting up entire gluten-free sections. Gluten-free companies and bakeries are springing up every day. Food chains are recognizing the needs of celiacs and are catering to this new market—Godfather’s Pizza now offers a gluten-free pizza crust (beware!) and many restaurants like Outback Steakhouse now offer gluten-free menus upon request. As each month passes, it is becoming easier and easier to identify gluten-free products—and the number of products made for celiacs will continue to grow as time goes on. Connie Sarros’ Tortilla Tower This recipe is from my book: Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults. It takes just 15 minutes to assemble and uses no special utensils or equipment. Ingredients: ½ pound lean ground beef (some discount super stores add ¼ teaspoon pepper ½ teaspoon oregano 1 jar (15 ounce) GF spaghetti sauce 1 egg 1 cup GF small-curd cottage cheese 4 GF corn tortillas 1 cup GF shredded sharp cheddar cheese Directions: Preheat oven to 350F. In a skillet over high heat, brown ground beef, breaking it up into small pieces with a fork as it browns. Drain off any fat. Stir in pepper, oregano and spaghetti sauce. Cover pan and simmer over medium/low heat for 5 minutes. In a small bowl, whisk the egg slightly, then stir in the cottage cheese. Spoon ¼ cup of the meat mixture in the bottom of a 9-inch pie plate. Place 1 tortilla on top of the sauce in the plate. Spread 1/3 of the cottage cheese mixture on top of the tortilla. Top with ¼ of the meat sauce, then ¼ of the shredded cheese. Repeat these layers 2 more times. Top with the last tortilla, remaining meat sauce, and remaining shredded cheese. Bake for 30 minutes. After removing from oven, let Tortilla Tower rest for 5 minutes before cutting. Cut into 4 wedges to serve.
  19. Celiac.com 11/12/2018 - Here’s an uplifting celiac story. Now, this happened a while back, but it's all just coming to light in the way that so many warm and fuzzy family stories do. It starts like this: Once upon a time, a simple check for celiac disease opened the door to parenthood for couple. Just over ten years ago, AnnMarie Bradley from Celbridge, Co Kildare, thought she’d never become a mother. After two devastating miscarriages over a decade, Bradley, who is 47 years old, and her husband Christopher (48) were at wit’s end. "I was just heartbroken,” said Ms Bradley. Then, a simple visit to her doctor changed everything. A blood test indicated she might have celiac disease, which further evaluation confirmed. She began a gluten-free diet, and less than a year later, Bradley was pregnant with her son, Cameron. “Being a mother had been everything I'd wanted," she said. Cameron is nearly 16 now, and has an 11-year old sister, Emily. And they all lived happily and gluten-free ever after. In the UK, the Coeliac Society advises women struggling to conceive to consider celiac testing. Read more at: Independent.ie
  20. Celiac.com 11/10/2018 - If you’re looking for a great dinner hit, here’s a recipe for a tasty, beef tenderloin. Just grab a cast-iron skillet, brown the tenderloin, toss it in the oven to roast, then use the hot pan to cook the mushrooms. Ingredients: 2 pounds beef tenderloin, trimmed and tied 1 pound brown mushrooms, trimmed and sliced ¼-inch thick 1 teaspoon cooking oil 2 tablespoons unsalted butter, divided 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil ⅓ cup finely chopped shallots 3 large garlic cloves, minced ⅓ cup cooking sherry or dry white wine 1½ teaspoons finely chopped fresh thyme Kosher salt Cracked black pepper Directions: Pat beef dry. Let stand at room temperature for 30 minutes. Position rack in center of oven, and heat oven to 425 degrees. Season beef on all sides with 2 teaspoons each kosher salt and pepper. Heat canola oil in a 12-inch ovenproof skillet over medium-high heat. Add beef and sear on all sides for 8 to 10 minutes. Transfer skillet to oven. Roast about 30 to 35 minutes, until internal temperature reaches 135 degrees. Transfer beef to a platter; tent loosely with foil while preparing mushrooms. Add 1 tablespoon butter and the olive oil to same skillet. Add mushrooms and a pinch of kosher salt. Cook over medium-high heat, stirring occasionally, until mushrooms begin to turn golden, 6 to 8 minutes. Add shallots; cook and stir for 2 minutes. Add garlic; cook and stir for 30 seconds. Season with salt and pepper. Carefully add sherry; cook and stir until almost evaporated, about 1 minute. Stir juices from tenderloin platter into mushrooms with remaining tablespoon butter and thyme. Slice beef and serve with mushrooms.
  21. Celiac.com 10/31/2018 - It’s official. Twitter official. Kourtney Kardashian has made peace with wheat and dairy, and called off her highly touted gluten-free, dairy-free diet. After several years of avoiding them like the plague, the celebrity is now on good terms with both gluten and dairy and is ready to accept them back into her diet. In a new post on her website, the ever busy Kardashian says she’s relaxing a bit, and allowing for dietary deviation and occasional indulgences "in moderation." Kardashian and gluten are not exactly new besties. For now, Kardashian says, she plans to remain gluten-free and dairy-free at home, but more flexible when traveling and dining out. "Lately, I've been less strict about avoiding gluten and dairy…Everything in my pantry is still free of dairy and gluten, so when I'm at home, it's still how I eat," she writes. "But when I go out, or have a craving, I'll have whatever I want. I try to do everything in moderation in my usual routine." In addition Kardashian noted recently on her website that, in addition to a few choice supplements, she usually starts her day with “one tablespoon of organic apple cider vinegar mixed into a glass of water." Can’t get enough? Follow Kourtney Kardashian on Twitter: @kourtneykardash
  22. Celiac.com 11/08/2018 - With the popularity and sales growth of gluten-free and other "free from" product categories outpacing their traditional counterparts, more major food manufacturers are moving to provide products for those customers. In the food and beverage sector "free from" products are growing faster than their standard counterparts, according Nielsen data. Antibiotic-free products enjoyed growth rates of nearly 20 per cent last year, followed by soy-free with 19 per cent, and hormone and antibiotic-free at 15 per cent. That means major manufacturers are looking to meet the increasing demand for foods that are "free from" gluten, antibiotics, pesticides or genetic modification, among other things. Consider cereal giant General Mills Inc., which makes the popular breakfast cereal Cheerios from naturally gluten-free oats. In theory, oats are gluten-free, but commercial oats also typically contain small amounts of wheat, barley or rye that can find their way into the oats via shared processing channels. To ensure that every final box of Cheerios was gluten-free when it left the factory, General Mills worked on finding a reliable way to sort through the one billion pounds of oats it uses each year. That solution took five years and involved teams of engineers, and the retooling of numerous machines, along with the construction of a specially-built eight-story sorting facility. "We knew if we wanted to take our Cheerios gluten free, we needed to create our own system," said General Mills spokesperson Mike Siemienas. Other examples of companies looking to adapt to new customer demands are McDonald’s Corp., which plans to source more than 20 million of its Canadian Angus burgers over the next year from sustainable sources. Meanwhile, Tyson Foods Inc., is looking to make inroads into to the organic market with its recent purchase of organic chicken producer Tecumseh Poultry. Major U.S. wheat miller Ardent Mills has created “The Annex,” a unit devoted to the future of specialty grains and plant-based ingredients. As the market continues to grow, look for more manufacturers to offer gluten-free and other specialty foods at markets near you. Read more at: TheStar.com
  23. Celiac.com 11/01/2018 - A terse one-star TripAdvisor review expressed outrage over the lack of gluten-free bread at a family funeral, and slammed the hotel that hosted the reception for the perceived offense. Complaining that, among other things, she had to "munch on some lifeless salad" after the wake reception failed to meet her dietary requirements, a user, known as "Jan" poured her frustration upon the Elmbank Hotel in York. According to Jan, the staff at the Elmbank informed her that why had no gluten-free option, and asked her to bring her own bread. She wrote that she called the hotel a few days before the event, and was “told they don't have gluten-free bread, but if I wanted to take my own they'd make a sandwich for me.” Apparently, Jan chose not to bring her own bread, as she was reportedly “shocked” to discover that they had no gluten free bread on offer. Her outrage on full display, Jan added that "In this day and age you'd think they 'd get their act together, it's quite a common dietary requirement, adding that she had to "sit there, at lunch time, munching on a chicken drumstick and some lifeless salad. Next stop Tesco's on the way past!" In all, Jan gave the funeral reception just one TripAdvisor star, and said that she would never go back again. It didn’t take long for the internet to reply with characteristic mockery. Jan’s review was tweeted by a woman who lives near the hotel who seemed to enjoy the reaction from other users. The tone-deaf nature of Jan’s "munch on some lifeless salad" comment was mentioned in one of the replies. One person wrote: "The genuine coeliacs I know would never complain about this sort of thing." Another said: "I'm glad she was so sensitive and didn't miss the real point of why she was there!" Commenters also took aim at Jan’s admission that she was gluten-free ‘by preference,’ with one user writing: "Glad you saw fit to add the *by preference. I don't know a coeliac who could be this insensitive, they know suffering and would never be so insensitive. Those who 'choose' are princesses." Okay, perhaps the funereal nature of the proceedings makes Jan’s complaint a bit tacky, but does she have a point in general about accommodations for gluten-free eaters? How about you? Been to any tough non-gluten-free funerals or other events lately? Read more in TheSun.co.uk
  24. Celiac.com 10/08/2018 - A new population based study reveals that celiac disease is associated with a wide range of medical conditions, including liver disease, glossitis, pancreatitis, Down syndrome, and autism, according to a database study of more than 35 million people. Moreover, people with autism have celiac disease at rates almost 20 times higher than in those without autism, reported lead investigator Daniel Karb, MD, a second-year resident at University Hospitals Case Medical Center in Cleveland. That raises the question of whether people with autism should be screened for celiac disease, and whether they might benefit form a gluten-free diet. "If you have a patient who is autistic and they have all these unusual symptoms, you might want to screen them for celiac disease," Dr. Karb told the World Congress of Gastroenterology last year. It is known that there are unusual symptoms of celiac disease, which include anything outside the classic symptoms of malabsorption, steatorrhea, malnutrition, abdominal pain, and cramping after eating, "but this is putting numbers to it," said Dr Karb. For their study, Karb and his fellow researchers used the Explorys database to pull health record data from 26 major integrated healthcare systems in the United States. Their search covered the period from 2012 to 2017. Of 35,854,260 people in the database, they found 83,090 with diagnosed celiac disease. Overall, the age-adjusted prevalence of celiac disease in that group was 0.22%, which is much lower than the 1% to 2% range previously estimated. Those numbers are not unusual, said Dr. Karb says that the researchers “don't think there are fewer people with celiac disease, just that it may be under-diagnosed.” The rates are, he says, “what you might expect when you screen asymptomatic people." Overall, the team found a significant connection between celiac disease and 13 other autoimmune disorders, such as type 1 diabetes, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Moreover, celiac disease is associated with every autoimmune disease the team looked at, except for primary biliary cholangitis, Dr Karb says. This is some pretty startling study data. We knew that celiac disease was linked to other autoimmune conditions, and there has been some surprising data about gluten-free diets helping patients with autism, but these numbers are enlightening. It seems that people with autism should definitely be screened for celiac disease, and placed a gluten-free diet, if tests confirm celiac disease. Stay tuned for more information on this important celiac disease topic. Source: World Congress of Gastroenterology 2017
  25. Celiac.com 10/27/2018 - Looking for a simple one-pot meal that can handle family dinner as easily as it can tackle a casual get-together? This recipe marries the flavors of hard cider and chicken with Brussels sprouts and apples to deliver a knockout dish with a tasty sauce that goes great with rice or mashed potatoes. Ingredients: 4 slices bacon, chopped 6 bone-in, skin-on chicken thighs (about 2½ pounds) 2 medium tart red apples, cored and cut into wedges 1 12-ounce bottle hard apple cider, such as Crispin, Harpoon, or Doc’s Draft 2 tablespoons chopped fresh thyme 2 tablespoons whole grain mustard 1 teaspoon kosher salt 2 cups fresh Brussels sprouts, trimmed and halved if large Directions: In large skillet cook bacon over medium heat until crisp; remove from pan, reserving drippings in skillet. Add chicken, skin side down, and cook about minutes until skin side is browned. Turn the chicken and cook another 5 minutes or so, and remove from skillet. Add apples to the skillet and cook 4-5 minutes, stirring until browned on both sides; remove from skillet. Drain and discard drippings from skillet. Add cider, thyme, mustard, and salt to skillet, scraping up any browned bits. Bring to boil and reduce heat. Put the chicken back in the skillet. Cover and simmer 10 minutes. Add Brussels sprouts. Cover and cook 5 minutes. Add apples and cook, uncovered, 3 to 5 minutes more or until chicken is cooked through. Serve with chicken thighs, Brussels sprouts, and apples with rice or potatoes. Top with cider mixture.
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