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Found 6 results

  1. Betty Wedman-St Louis, PhD, RD

    Vitamin K2 for Healthy Bones and Arteries

    Celiac.com 10/18/2016 - Vitamin K was discovered in 1929 and named for the German word koagulation with Herrick Dam and Edward A. Doisy receiving the Nobel Prize for their research in 1943. But Vitamin K is a multi-functional nutrient. Vitamin K1 or phyloquinone is found in green leafy vegetables like spinach and used by the liver for blood coagulation within 10 hours. Vitamin K2 or menaquinone (referred to as MK-4 through MK-10) comes from natto (fermented soybeans), organ meats, egg yolks, and raw milk cheeses. It circulates throughout the body over a 24 hour period and is synthesized in the human gut by microbiota according to the Annual Review of Nutrition 2009. Aging and antibiotic use weakens the body's ability to produce K2 so supplementation needs to be considered. The Rotterdam Study in the Journal of Nutrition 2004 brought into focus the role of K2 as an inhibitor of calcification in the arteries and the major contributor to bone rebuilding osteocalcin- NOT calcium supplementation that many health professionals had recommend. The study reports K2 resulted in 50 percent reduction in arterial calcification, 50 percent reduction in cardiovascular deaths, and 25 percent reduction in all cause mortality. K1 had no effect on cardiovascular health. Dennis Goodman, M.D. in Vitamin K2- The Missing Nutrient for Heart and Bone Disease describes why most western diets are deficient in K2. Dietary awareness of Vitamin K has focused on anti-clotting since warfarin was approved as a medicine (in 1948 it was launched by the Germans as rat poisoning) and President Eisenhower was administered warfarin following his heart attack. Little attention was paid to any other nutritional importance this essential fat-soluble vitamin could provide. Menaquinones (K2 or MK) are rapidly depleted without dietary intake of natto or animal sources needed for repletion which results in bone health issues, especially in menopause. Without it, the body does not use calcium and Vitamin D3 to activate osteoblasts to rebuild bone. Menaquinones cause cells to produce a protein called osteocalcin which incorporates the calcium into the bone. Without it, calcium moves into the artery wall and soft tissues of the body leading to hardening of the arteries and osteoporosis. The benefit of K2 is not new research. In 1997 Shearer presented the roles of vitamins D and K in bone health and osteoporosis prevention in the Proceedings of Nutrition Society. The Osteoporosis International meeting in New Zealand 2013 re-emphasized this nutrient's importance proclaiming the best treatment for osteoporosis is achieving a strong peak bone mass before 30 years old and increasing Vitamin K2 food sources in the diet throughout life. The richest food source of K2 is the Japanese fermented soybean natto, which is produced with Bacillus natto, a bacterium that converts K1 to MK-7. Fermented cheeses like Swiss and Jarlsberg contain Mk-8 and Mk-9 which can be converted to K2 at a 20 to 40 percent lower rate than from natto, but more appealing to the western taste buds. Grass-fed beef and egg yolks are the most common source of K2 in the American diet. For those who have not acquired a taste for fermented soybeans or natto, my nutrition mentor, Adelle Davis, had it right when she recommended eating liver once a week. Celiacs need to be sure that their diets include ample red meats, eggs and fermented cheeses or yogurt or else dietary supplementation with Vitamin K2 (MK-4) is recommended. Without it, bones can become soft tissues and arteries "turn to stone" or calcified. A Chart of Vitamin K levels in Foods can provide insight into food choices for menaquinone compared to Vitamin K1. It was adapted from Schurgers et al. Nutritional intake of vitamins K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone) in the Netherlands. J Nutr. Environ. Med. 1999. Food K1 MK-4 MK-7,8,9 Meats 0.5-5 1-30 0.1-2 Fish 0.1-1 0.1-2 Green Vegetables 100-750 Natto 20-40 900-1200 Cheese 0.5-10 0.5-10 40-80 Eggs (yolk) 0.5-2.5 10-25 The American Heart Association and many medical professionals who advocated no organ meats or red meat and egg yolks, deprived Americans of primary sources of Vitamin K2 which is essential for bone and cardiovascular health.
  2. Celiac.com 05/12/2014 - Currently, researcher know almost nothing about the natural history and evolution of celiac disease in ancient populations. But, a set of recently unearthed bones from ancient Rome show signs of a struggle with celiac disease, and may help researchers to better understand the natural history and evolution of the condition. Researchers believe the bones are those of an 18 to 20-year old upper class Roman woman, who likely had celiac disease or gluten intolerance, as her skeleton reveals signs of malnutrition and osteoporosis and her attempts to manage it by changing her diet. DNA analysis has confirmed that the woman carried two copies of an immune system gene variant strongly associated with celiac disease. Although celiac disease can be influenced by numerous environmental factors, the gene variant is found in nearly all contemporary celiac populations. The combination of genetic risk factors and malnutrition in someone likely to have good access to nutritious food, make celiac disease a reasonable diagnosis, says Gabriele Scorrano, a biological anthropologist at the University of Rome Tor Vergata. An article about the study appears in Nature, and the study itself appears in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
  3. This article originally appeared in the Autumn 2002 edition of Celiac.coms Scott-Free newsletter. Copyright © 2002 Scott Adams. All rights reserved worldwide. Five years ago I became concerned about weakness in my bones after a couple of surprising fractures. At one point, I broke a rib while shingling a storage-shed roof. I leaned across the peak of the roofs ridge to pick up a shingle. I never expected such light pressure to cause a problem, however, I felt a sudden, sharp pain, and heard an odd sound. This, along with a couple of less dramatic, but similar injuries, caused me enough concern to begin looking into the question of celiac disease and bone strength. My explorations taught me that calcium absorption probably is not our main problem. People with celiac disease seem to be able to absorb adequate calcium1, but the primary problem appears to come from excreting too much of it, thus causing us to lose more calcium than we are absorbing. I also learned that research shows little or no benefit from calcium supplementation for celiac patients, while magnesium supplementation alone results in significant improvements2. The explanation for this may be that some of the antibodies caused by active celiac disease attack the parathyroid gland3. This organ is an important player in regulating calcium metabolism. Magnesium is necessary for the body to repair the parathyroid and to maintain its continued good function. Being convinced by this research, I began to take magnesium supplements without any calcium. I found that I had to be careful. Too much had me visiting the washroom frequently, and I was afraid that too little would fail to provide me the benefits I was seeking. At the same time, I also requested a bone density test. I wanted objective information that would allow me to evaluate the progress I hoped to make. The first test was conducted in March of 1997. The results (called "T scores") are reported based on comparison with the density of bones found in young adults. For instance, a score of 0 indicates that the bone density is about the same as would be found in an average young adult. A score in the minus range indicates a bone that has less mineral and more pores than is found in the same young adult. Thus, a score of –1.0 to –2.5 indicates mild mineral losses, while a score of –2.5 or lower indicates osteoporosis. My test results were not as bad as I had feared. The mineral density in my lower back was normal for my age, at –0.23. However, my upper leg, where it fits into my hip, was reported as –2.02, and my forearm was slightly stronger than that of a normal young adult at +0.19. As I saw it, there were only two causes for concern. First, at the tender age of 50, my hips were very close to osteoporotic, and certainly at a substantially increased risk of fracture. Such fractures can be very serious. Secondly, since only three skeletal areas had been tested for mineral density—and since there was such a wide range of density reported for each of these areas, it seemed impossible to estimate the density of the rest of the bones in my body. About three years after my first bone density test, some Calgary-based research made me suspect that the amount of vitamin D supplements I was taking might be too low4. I increased my intake to 1,000 IU daily. By the fall of 2001, I began to wonder if I was being foolish by avoiding calcium supplements based on the reports I had read. I therefore began to supplement 350 mg of calcium each day. In July of 2002, I underwent a second bone scan. They did not test my forearm, but the other two areas appear to have improved substantially. The T score for my lower back was now at + 0.06, and the T score for my hip had improved to –0.72. I realize that what I am reporting is just one persons experience. It is what the medical professionals call "anecdotal," and does not usually carry much weight. However, my experience does support the only published research of the impact of mineral supplements on bone density in celiac patients that I can find. Based on my own experience, and the relevant research, I am now convinced that magnesium is the most important supplement to consider in the context of celiac disease. I was thrilled to read my latest bone density report. Vitamin D may also be an important factor, but limitations of time and space force me to leave this topic for another day. References: Marsh MN. Bone disease and gluten sensitivity: time to act, to treat, and to prevent. Am J Gastroenterol. 1994 Dec;89(12):2105-7. Rude RK, Olerich M. Magnesium deficiency: possible role in osteoporosis associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Osteoporos Int. 1996;6(6):453-61. Kumar V, Valeski JE, Wortsman J. Celiac disease and hypoparathyroidism: cross-reaction of endomysial antibodies with parathyroid tissue. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996 Mar;3(2):143-6. Embry AF, Snowdon LR, Vieth R. Vitamin D and seasonal fluctuations of gadolinium-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging lesions in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2000 Aug;48(2):271-2. Ron Hoggan is an author, teacher and diagnosed celiac who lives in Canada. His new book "Dangerous Grains" is available at Celiac.com.
  4. Celiac.com 03/11/2011 - At the December 2010 Annual Conference of the Endocrine Society of India (ESICON), Dr. Ameya Joshi presented a paper on the reduced bone density, and elevated risk of bone fracture faced by people with both celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. The paper was awarded second prize among conference presentations. Dr. Joshi's research was conducted under the auspices of the endocrinology department of BYL Nair Hospital, and the supervision of department head, Premlata Varthakavi. In his recent study, Dr. Joshi found that people with both celiac disease and type 1 diabetes have been found to have poor bone mineral density, making them susceptible to fractures. For his study, Dr. Joshi's research team tested 80 type 1 diabetics. They found that 11 of the 80 patients had celiac disease. A control group of 22 patients suffered from type 1 diabetes without celiac disease. Patient ranged in age from 12 years to 40 years. “While many suffer from typical symptoms such as gastrointestinal problems, others suffer from fractures from unrecognized trauma,” said Dr Joshi, adding, “Simple dietary measures can reverse these symptoms and improve bone density.” While similar research has been done in the West, this is the first study by an Indian research team to show a correlation between celiac disease and low bone mineral density in type 1 diabetics.
  5. International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2005 - Received: 31 March 2004 / Accepted: 30 November, 2004 / Published online: 4 February 2005. Michael W. Davie, I. Gaywood, E. George, P.W. Jones, T. Masud, T. Price, G.D. Summers. International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2005 - Received: 31 March 2004 / Accepted: 30 November, 2004 / Published online: 4 February 2005. Celiac.com 04/27/2006 - Because recent studies may have underestimated the association of celiac disease with fracture by studying patients with low fracture risk, doctors recently conducted a more comprehensive survey of celiac and non-celiac patients. Their study of post-menopausal women over age 50 concluded that women diagnosed with celiac disease face an increased risk of fracture over time compared with control groups. The study looked at non-spinal fracture risk associated with celiac patients and non-celiac control groups in relation to the time-periods before and after the diagnosis of celiac disease. According to the study, Celiac patients displayed greater fracture prevalence (odds ratio [OR], 1.51), confidence interval [CI], 1.13:2.02) and fracture after 50 years (OR, 2.20; CI, 1.49:3.25). The study compared Three hundred and eighty-three female celiac patients with 445 female controls, all over 50 years old. The mean age of celiacs tested was 61.4-67.8 years, and 62.7-69.9 years in controls. The celiac patients generally weighed less than the control patients of the same height. Among celiac patients diagnosed after age 50, no excess fracture risk was found in the period more than 10 years before diagnosis, but risk increased in the period from 10 years before diagnosis to 5 years after and remained high more than 5 years after diagnosis (p Adjusted for height and weight, instance of wrist fracture between the groups was about the same, but celiacs did have more multiple fractures (OR, 2.96; CI, 1.81:4.83). Further, while women diagnosed before age fifty, showed no excess fracture risk, those celiac patients more than five years beyond their diagnosis faced increased risk of wrist fractures ( p While women diagnosed with celiac disease before age 50 faced no greater risk than their non-celiac peers, for those diagnosed after age fifty, the risk of fracture increases as the years pass, with the greatest statistical increase occurring five to ten years after a diagnosis. Accordingly, thin women over 50 who suffer from multiple fractures should consider being tested for celiac disease. If the diagnosis is positive, they should take measures to ensure proper calcium and vitamin D intake.
  6. Celiac.com 11/05/2009 - It's well known that people with celiac disease often show reduced bone mineral density, and that metabolic bone disease is a significant and common complication of celiac disease. A new article in the journal Nutrition Reviews reinforces the benefits of a gluten-free diet in reducing bone problems in children with celiac disease. This is important information, because, even though celiac disease can be diagnosed at any age, it most often discovered in children between 9 and 24 months of age. By better understanding the benefits of a gluten-free diet in preventing bone disease, parents can make smarter choices that will help build healthy bones in their celiac kids. Ideally, this will help the kids to avoid the reduced bone mineral density that can lead to the inability to develop optimal bone mass as children and to the loss of bone as adults, both of which increase the risk of osteoporosis, and contribute to an additional risk of fracture. The good news is that the evidence suggests that a gluten-free diet in celiac children paves the way for a rapid increase in bone mineral density, followed by a complete recovery of bone mineralization. Children may attain normal peak bone mass if the diagnosis is made and treatment is given before puberty, thereby preventing osteoporosis in later life. Also, regular calcium and vitamin D supplements seem to increase the bone mineral density of children and adolescents with celiac disease. In adults, the picture is less rosy. In adults, a gluten-free diet improves, although rarely normalizes, bone mineral density. "Our findings reinforce the importance of a strict gluten-free diet, which remains the only scientific proven treatment for celiac disease to date," the authors conclude. "Early diagnosis and therapy are critical in preventing celiac disease complications, like reduced bone mineral density." Source: Nutrition Reviews
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