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Found 1,779 results

  1. Celiac.com 06/20/2018 - Currently, the only way to manage celiac disease is to eliminate gluten from the diet. That could be set to change as clinical trials begin in Australia for a new vaccine that aims to switch off the immune response to gluten. The trials are set to begin at Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre. The vaccine is designed to allow people with celiac disease to consume gluten with no adverse effects. A successful vaccine could be the beginning of the end for the gluten-free diet as the only currently viable treatment for celiac disease. That could be a massive breakthrough for people with celiac disease. USC’s Clinical Trials Centre Director Lucas Litewka said trial participants would receive an injection of the vaccine twice a week for seven weeks. The trials will be conducted alongside gastroenterologist Dr. James Daveson, who called the vaccine “a very exciting potential new therapy that has been undergoing clinical trials for several years now.” Dr. Daveson said the investigational vaccine might potentially restore gluten tolerance to people with celiac disease.The trial is open to adults between the ages of 18 and 70 who have clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and have followed a strict gluten-free diet for at least 12 months. Anyone interested in participating can go to www.joinourtrials.com. Read more at the website for Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre. Source: FoodProcessing.com.au
  2. Celiac.com 05/30/2018 - One of the key aspects of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is that patients are diagnosed partly by the absence of celiac disease. That is, patients with NCGS, whatever their symptoms, do not have celiac disease. But could those patients still have some kind of gut damage, or permeability issues? Do people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity have distinct duodenal histological features? Researchers are seeking a better understanding of this still undefined condition. Some researchers have suggested that histology may play a key role in NCGS, but there is still no consensus. A recent review by Bardella et al. revealed that histology is not always reported in NCGS studies, and exclusion of celiac disease is generally done by showing negative serology and/or genetic typing. In June 2015, researchers published what is now called the Salerno Experts’ criteria, which proposes a double (or single)-blind, placebo-controlled, (DBPC), crossover gluten challenge as the gold standard to NCGS diagnosis In order to investigate histological findings of people with suspicion of NCGS, we retrospectively evaluated duodenal biopsies of a cohort of patients undergoing clinical diagnostic algorithm for NCGS as proposed by the Salerno consensus. The research team included B Zanini, V Villanacci, M Marullo, M Cadei, F Lanzarotto, A Bozzola, and C Ricci. They are variously affiliated with the Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123, Brescia, Italy; and with the Institute of Pathology Spedali Civili, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123, Brescia, Italy. Their team’s main goal was to underline that the peculiar IEL distribution and the increased eosinophil count may represent a valid warning that help to identify patients with NCGS, given the absence of serological markers for NCGS. The team also performed a CD3 immunohistochemical evaluation of T lymphocytes confirming that the IEL numbers were normal, but their distribution is peculiar, as noted by the clusters of T lymphocytes in the superficial epithelium and linear disposition of T lymphocytes in the deeper part of the mucosa above the muscularis mucosae. They also note that their failure to fully match study subjects with placebo challenge is a limitation of this study, but stress the current uncertainty of the actual clinical diagnostic algorithm as supported by recent reviews of the literature. The team’s observations led them to note that histology may play a similar role in NCGS diagnosis as it does in celiac diagnosis. Researchers do know that, unlike with celiac disease, there is an absence of damage or change to intestinal mucosa in patients with NCGS, especially an absence of villous atrophy. In addition, the morphological exclusion of celiac disease is a crucial assessment, because some patients classified as NCGS show increased duodenal IEL count (> 25 IELs/100 enterocytes), corresponding to Marsh I, or grade A lesions of celiac histological classification. To properly diagnose NCGS, the team says it’s very important to confirm these features, to rule out any type of organic malabsorption diseases, and to definitively rule out celiac disease, via a negative celiac disease serology. Taken as a whole, the team’s results provide evidence that both intraepithelial lymphocytes and eosinophils play a role in the physiopathology behind NCGS. They are calling for more studies to confirm their findings and to determine whether the results they observed were specific to NCGS. Source: Virchows Arch. 2018 Apr 4. doi: 10.1007/s00428-018-2346-9
  3. Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease. Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease. A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed. The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response. "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author. That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists. In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood." O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease." The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health. Read more at: Sciencedaily.com
  4. Celiac.com 06/12/2018 - A life-long gluten-free diet is the only proven treatment for celiac disease. However, current methods for assessing gluten-free diet compliance are lack the sensitivity to detect occasional dietary transgressions that may cause gut mucosal damage. So, basically, there’s currently no good way to tell if celiac patients are suffering gut damage from low-level gluten contamination. A team of researchers recently set out to develop a method to determine gluten intake and monitor gluten-free dietary compliance in patients with celiac disease, and to determine its correlation with mucosal damage. The research team included ML Moreno, Á Cebolla, A Muñoz-Suano, C Carrillo-Carrion, I Comino, Á Pizarro, F León, A Rodríguez-Herrera, and C Sousa. They are variously affiliated with Facultad de Farmacia, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain; Biomedal S.L., Sevilla, Spain; Unidad Clínica de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain; Celimmune, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; and the Unidad de Gastroenterología y Nutrición, Instituto Hispalense de Pediatría, Sevilla, Spain. For their study, the team collected urine samples from 76 healthy subjects and 58 patients with celiac disease subjected to different gluten dietary conditions. To quantify gluten immunogenic peptides in solid-phase extracted urines, the team used a lateral flow test (LFT) with the highly sensitive and specific G12 monoclonal antibody for the most dominant GIPs and an LFT reader. They detected GIPs in concentrated urines from healthy individuals previously subjected to gluten-free diet as early as 4-6 h after single gluten intake, and for 1-2 days afterward. The urine test showed gluten ingestion in about 50% of patients. Biopsy analysis showed that nearly 9 out of 10 celiac patients with no villous atrophy had no detectable GIP in urine, while all patients with quantifiable GIP in urine showed signs of gut damage. The ability to use GIP in urine to reveal gluten consumption will likely help lead to new and non-invasive methods for monitoring gluten-free diet compliance. The test is sensitive, specific and simple enough for clinical monitoring of celiac patients, as well as for basic and clinical research applications including drug development. Source: Gut. 2017 Feb;66(2):250-257.  doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310148.
  5. Hello! Hoping some of the more well versed Celiacs here may have a bit of input on my recent situation. Additional and relevant details also included. Quick Celiac Backstory: Mother and sister were diagnosed with Celiac circa 2003. I at the time was blood tested (borderline results) and scoped (negative, no noticeable damage to cilia / villi). I've went through life on a non-gluten free diet as any guy that was told they don't have Celiac would do, am now just shy of turning 30, and decided to get another blood test (this time a newer antibody one). The results were a very strong positive for Celiac, which isn't surprising given my family history. I haven't gotten scoped as I see little actual point in it; I don't doubt I have Celiac. This was about May 1st. I've eaten Gluten Free since then. Relevant Background Information: Main reason how I've went undiagnosed for so long is I've been by and large asymptomatic. My mom and sister were super sick and a wreck GI wise, that's what led to their diagnosis. I probably poop a little more than the average person, but of a normal Type 4/5 Bristol scale (important for later!). My bowel movements don't typically disrupt my life. I didn't feel foggy, nauseous, swollen, or the typical other symptoms. I do have acne flare ups and a hand rash on a few fingers, but not sure they're Celiac related (not sure they aren't, also.) In April I decided I was a bit overweight. I was 5'9", 185 lbs. I started counting calories and eating mostly healthy food. Lot of rice, chicken, and vegetables. I have comfortably lost 10 pounds in 2.5 months, a very safe rate to lose weight. In mid-May I started also cutting added sugars and simple carbs, like white bread, etc. I wouldn't say I was eating Gluten-Free at that point, but definitely a lot less than I ever had before. Around this time of cutting out sugars, my stool started getting a bit softer, and while not diarrhea, definitely a 5-6 on the Bristol scale. I had considered it could be some sort of Candida / yeast / gut flora rebalancing. The soft stool also contains some solids in it, which I later determined to be what I believe is rice husks. I also eat granola with gluten-free oats daily for breakfast with yogurt. After cutting out all gluten, it's looking even a little less solid. I think that today I saw some oat-y looking things in there. While not yellow, it's definitely more yellow-brown than it used to be. My question is this. Does it make sense for my stool to get softer and exhibit the characteristics above while switching to a gluten free diet, or has anyone perhaps experienced this and know what might be up? The only reason I started cutting added sugars and simple carbs in the first place was in attempts to get healthier. I have been eating rice regularly and also greek yogurt and granola for literally years almost day. (Though it wasn't gluten-free granola before.) So it's not a change in the types of fiber going through me. My plan is to cut out oats for a bit as I hear that's a good suggestion for people starting gluten-free diets. I still don't feel ill, nauseous, or really any different than before I went gluten free. Around the time I cut sugars, my stomach was considerably more bubbly and gassy, which I attributed to a change in diet. Unless something stands out to someone as telltale signs of something else, I think it's completely reasonable to carry on with everything else that I've been doing for a month or two and monitor the progress. Thanks for the long read and thanks for any input or advice!
  6. Celiac.com 06/11/2018 - Untreated celiac disease causes damage to the small intestine, which can interfere with proper nutrient absorption. Most patients can recover proper nutritional absorption via vitamins and mineral therapy, according to the CDF. Avoiding gluten is key. However, many people with celiac disease may not know that their pharmacist might just be one of their best allies in the fight to avoid gluten. Currently, there are no rules that require drug manufacturers to disclose the source of medication ingredients. Consumers can contact the manufacturer directly with questions, and some drug companies strive for clear, helpful answers, but getting correct information can be challenging. Many times though, an answer won't address possible cross contamination during the manufacturing process. This is where pharmacists can be a strong ally for patients with celiac disease. Here are a few way that pharmacists can help people with celiac disease to avoid hidden gluten in their prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs. The first thing pharmacists can do is to check ingredients on prescription medications these patients are taking. They can also share related information to help educate patients, and to improve their choices, and speak with drug manufacturers on patients’ behalf. In addition to assisting with prescription medicines, pharmacists can offer recommendations on vitamins and supplements. As with prescription drugs, both doctors and patients should do their best to review the ingredients used to manufacture vitamins and supplements, and to share this information with celiac patients. So, if you have celiac disease, definitely consider enlisting your pharmacist in an effort to get complete drug and supplement information. This simple tactic can help you to remain gluten-free during your course of drug treatment, however long that may last? Do you have a story about gluten in prescription drugs or supplements? Do you use your pharmacist to help you better understand your gluten-free drug and supplement options? Share your story with us. Source: medscape.com
  7. Celiac.com 11/15/2010 - Fermentation of wheat flour with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases decreases the concentration of gluten in wheat. Depending on the level of hydrolyzation, gluten levels can be reduced as low as 8 parts per million. A team of researchers recently conducted a small study to assess whether people with celiac disease can eat baked goods made with wheat flour that is hydrolyzed via sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases during food processing. The team included L. Greco, M. Gobbetti, R. Auricchio, R. Di Mase, F. Landolfi, F. Paparo, R. Di Cagno, M. De Angelis, C. G. Rizzello, A. Cassone, G. Terrone, L. Timpone, M. D'Aniello, M. Maglio, R. Troncone, S. Auricchio. They are affiliated with the Department of Pediatrics and European Laboratory for the Study of Food Induced Diseases, University of Naples, Federico II in Naples Italy. The team evaluated the safety of daily administration of baked goods made from this hydrolyzed form of wheat flour for patients with celiac disease. Patients who volunteered for the study were assigned at random to consume 200 grams per day of baked goods from one of three groups. The did so every day for 60 days. The first group of six patients ate natural flour baked goods (NFBG), with a gluten content of 80,127 ppm gluten. The second group of 2 patients ate baked goods made from extensively hydrolyzed flour (S1BG), with a residual gluten content of 2,480 ppm. The third group of patients ate baked goods made from fully hydrolyzed flour (S2BG), with just 8 ppm residual gluten. In the first group, two of the six patients consuming baked goods made with natural flour (NFBG) discontinued the challenge because of adverse symptoms. All six patients in this group showed increased levels of anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies and small bowel deterioration. The two patients who ate baked goods made from extensively hydrolyzed flour (S1BG) had no clinical complaints, but biopsy showed intestinal damage in the form of subtotal villous atrophy. The five patients who ate baked goods made with made from fully hydrolyzed flour (S2BG), at just 8 ppm residual gluten had no clinical complaints. Also, they showed no increase in anti-tTG antibodies, and Marsh grades of their small intestinal mucosa showed no adverse change. Evidence with this small 60-day dietary study shows that people with celiac disease can safely consume baked goods made from fully hydrolyzed wheat flour, manufactured with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases. This flour shows no toxicicity to patients with celiac disease. The team notes that a combined analysis of serologic, morphometric, and immunohistochemical parameters is the most accurate method to assess new therapies for this disorder. The results need to be borne out by further study, but, in the future, baked goods made with fully hydrolyzed wheat flour, manufactured with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases may become another option for people with celiac disease. Source: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Oct 15. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2010.09.025
  8. Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown. To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis. Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed. Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults. This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries. The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A. Source: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.
  9. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:1199-1203. Celiac.com 07/30/2004 - According to a study by Italian researchers published in the June edition of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis is much more common in those with celiac disease. The researchers looked at 1,044 adults with untreated celiac disease at the point of their diagnoses, as well as 2,752 of their relatives, and 318 of their spouses. They also looked at the prevalence of allergies in celiacs after one year on a gluten-free diet. The subjects filled out a standardized questionnaire upon their diagnosis, and those who reported having an allergy were tested for it using a standard makeup of 20 antigens for serum specific IgE. The researchers found that one celiac in 173 (16.6%) had at least one additional allergy, compared with 523 of their relatives (19%), and 43 of their spouses (13.5%). Patients with celiac disease were also more likely (3.8%) to have atopic dermatitis than their relatives (2.3%) or their spouses (1.3%). The amount of time that the celiac patients went undiagnosed and therefore untreated did not seem to influence the presence of allergy or atopic dermatitis. It is possible that a longer period of time on a gluten-free diet could influence the prevalence of allergy in those with celiac disease, and more research needs to be done to determine if being gluten-free longer can decrease allergies in those with celiac disease.
  10. Celiac.com 06/14/2018 - Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a rare complication of celiac disease that has high death rates. To diagnose RCDII, doctors identify a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). However, researchers really don’t have much data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. Such data could provide useful comparison information for patients with RCDII, among other things. To that end, a research team recently set out to try to get some information about the frequency and importance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. The research team included Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, and Govind Bhagat. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and the Department of Medicine at the Celiac Disease Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA. Their team analyzed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active celiac disease, 172 celiac disease on gluten-free diet, 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without celiac disease. Clonal TCR-GRs are not infrequent in cases lacking features of RCDII, while PCPs are frequent in all disease phases. TCR-GR results should be assessed in conjunction with immunophenotypic, histological and clinical findings for appropriate diagnosis and classification of RCD. The team divided the TCR-GR patterns into clonal, polyclonal and prominent clonal peaks (PCPs), and correlated these patterns with clinical and pathological features. In all, they detected clonal TCR-GR products in biopsies from 67% of patients with RCDII, 17% of patients with RCDI and 6% of patients with gluten-free diet. They found PCPs in all disease phases, but saw no significant difference in the TCR-GR patterns between the non-RCDII disease categories (p=0.39). They also noted a higher frequency of surface CD3(−) IELs in cases with clonal TCR-GR, but the PCP pattern showed no associations with any clinical or pathological feature. Repeat biopsy showed that the clonal or PCP pattern persisted for up to 2 years with no evidence of RCDII. The study indicates that better understanding of clonal T cell receptor gene rearrangements may help researchers improve refractory celiac diagnosis. Source: Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023
  11. celieacresearch

    Celiac Research

    Do you or someone you know have Celiac Disease? Do you or someone you know have a Gluten Intolerance or Sensitivity? We Want to Hear Your Story! We are two cultural anthropology students from Linfield College conducting research on Celiac disease and how it affects the lives of those who have it. Cultural anthropologists aim to learn about human lives within their society and how different variables affect them. Celiac disease is one of those variables. Your story is what we’re looking for and everyone has something to tell. If you are interested in participating, email Rose or Carmen at celiacresearch24@gmail.com or reply to this post for more details or to set up an interview time and date.
  12. WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE? Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1.4% of the population (91.2 million people worldwide, and 3.9 million in the U.S.A.). People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems. Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases. Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others. LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important. NO SYMPTOMS Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS) Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there. There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity: No Hereditary Link in NCGS Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)? IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS. To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise. That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different. In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis. Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery. Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection. Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult. Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis. TESTING There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis. Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products. BIOPSY Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide. WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET? Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years. For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease. WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.? There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease. There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes. Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement. ASSOCIATED DISEASES The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include: Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES: Global Prevalence of Celiac Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2018;16:823–836 Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Gluten Intolerance Group National Institutes of Health U.S. National Library of Medicine Mayo Clinic University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center
  13. Sorry for the long post, I've been dealing with this forever and want to figure it out! Hi, I just got tested for celiac (blood test at a family practice (USA)) without knowing that I had to have been eating gluten regularly for it to show anything. I read forums here that said so, so I called the doctor's office before my test to ask if that was true, and they put me on with a nurse that said "I've never heard of that, but let me check the test we have....Oh, yep, it says to eat gluten. So just eat some bread before you come today." Seemed doubtful. I ended up NOT eating any gluten, and I've been actively avoiding wheat for at least 3 years (I noticed a gluten intolerance when I started college, my dad and uncle and 2 cousins can't eat it either). I was accidentally glutened with the tiniest bit of fajita seasoning from a restaurant 3 weeks prior to my blood test, but that's it. I didn't want to make myself sick with bread after reading that the blood test really only works if you've been eating it for weeks/months, so I went and got tested with basically non gluten in my system at all. The test itself said "negative." But I've attached a screenshot of my levels. After talking with the nurses on the phone twice, I'm convinced they know nothing about it. My antibodies were low/normal, probably because I haven't eaten gluten in years. (I sometimes drink beer made with barley instead of wheat because it doesn't give me horrible stomach cramps, but I hadn't had any in probably a month). The one thing that seemed "high" to me for someone who hasn't eaten wheat in years was the tTG IGA (I have no idea what that means). Mine said 7.2 U/mL (again, whatever that means). This family practice test says that a normal level is under 15 U/mL, but all my other levels are less than 1. After some research, I came across what "normal" levels should look like and Mayo Clinic suggested under 4.0 U/mL is negative for celiac (Source) [4.0-10 is a "weak positive"]. Like I said, I'm not very trusting that the practice I went to knows anything about celiac. I know if I want a diagnosis I should go to some specialist. But I really don't want to get put under just to be told "yep, do exactly what you've doing for years, avoiding gluten." So, I decided to sort of "self-diagnose" myself with celiac JUST to make myself be extra careful, you know, just in case my intestines are damaged whenever I get cross-contaminated food. My question is: does anyone else think it's possible I have celiac? Or am I being nuts? Recap & Symptoms: In 2014 I could barely eat anything in my house because I would be sick with horrible stomach cramps and constipation that would make me cry and have to stay home the next day. I lost weight then. Someone suggested going gluten-free, and I knew my dad was doing that because he had a couple passing-out episodes and similar gut pain. My uncle (dad's brother) also has a sever intolerance to gluten, like it gets him hospitalized because of malnutrition and cramping (I'm pretty sure he has celiac, but he's too stubborn to get tested). I tried avoiding gluten for a week and felt way better. Now I've been gluten free for years. Like I said before, though, I am not careful with barley and rye. Malt hurts me a lot, and when I take one bite of, say, a donut thinking it'll be worth it (I miss donuts..) it NEVER is. I'm out for two days after that. If I get glutened, I experience: fatigue, horrible cramps, gas (that won't pass), constipation (for days), foggy head, itchy skin, irritability, and my appetite fluctuates like crazy-- one minute I'm so full I can't think of food, another I'm starving.
  14. Hi all, This is my first post here. I'm a college student and I have to eat most meals on the go, I'm also a nanny and have no choice but to cook and eat in a mixed kitchen for work. I also live in a home with HEAVY gluten eaters. It is not financially viable at this point in my life for me to buy my own pots and pans, utensils, etc. I have two main parts to my problem: 1. It is so overwhelming to be gluten free when I eat most of my meals on a college campus where they don't pay any mind to if the food is being cross contaminated. I try to bring lunch and snacks, but I am out for 15-18 hours a day and forget or get hungry and need to buy additional food while I'm out. What are some meal prep tips y'all can give me? How can I ensure these meals stay gluten free when I'm stuck living in a home with a mixed kitchen? I don't have a dishwasher, so even washing the dishes makes me nervous. I'm trying to learn how to cook but my anxiety over gluten is at the point where I don't even want to be around the kitchen. 2. I've been gluten free for a year now, since my diagnosis with both celiac and hashimoto's disease. I'm VERY sensitive to cross contamination. I work at this so hard, I'm hyper vigilant, I annoy restaurant employees asking them to change utensils and wipe surfaces and change gloves, I annoy everyone in my home about cleaning up between prep, I obsessively read labels. I feel like being gluten free is a full time job, and I STILL get severely glutened regularly. It has happened twice just this week, and I get so sick every time. What else am I supposed to do? How much hidden gluten is there? On this one, I really could just use some support and maybe quick tips on how to keep this from feeling so difficult. Thank you so much in advance. This whole thing is so difficult. I'm young and want to be able to enjoy meals out with friends, cook for the kids I watch, eat on campus, enjoy my life, and just to not be sick half the time.
  15. Hi all, I'm new to the forum so I'm really hoping someone will be able to help. I've been having digestive issues for the past 2 years and have lost nearly 4 stone in weight. All of my symptoms suggest celiac disease, I not only have digestive issues, bloating ect but my upper arms are covered in a rash, obviously the weight loss and then I'm also constantly anaemia and I now have low vitamin D levels along with depresssion, anxiety, constant headaches, tiredness, stomach pain ect. I know these symptoms could suggest a number of issues but I have noticed once I've stopped eating gluten products my symptoms seem to at least lessen. I've asked the doctor what he suggests and he does think it is likely but i'm struggling to be put forward for further testing. I'va had countless generic blood tests but obviously this isn't enough to diagnose if I have it or not. I'm honestly losing my mind with not only feeling so ill but also not knowing what exactly is wrong with me. Should I just try a gluten free diet and see if my symptoms continue to improve or what?
  16. Hello! I am a 59-year-old, newly diagnosed with allergies (I also suspect that i have some form of celiac or gluten intolerance). I haven't done the food allergy tests or challenges yet - but from what i've read, i may have OAS when it comes to certain foods, but i'm not sure. I'm not sure I would do a celiac test at this point, because that would require me eating mostly gluten - i've been eating mostly gluten-free - i don't know what else to do and i need some tips - HELP!
  17. Celiac.com 05/28/2018 - Myasthenia gravis is a medical condition caused by a disturbance in the communication between nerves and muscles. Symptoms include weakness of arm or leg muscles, double vision, drooping eyelids, and difficulties with speech, chewing, swallowing and breathing. There is no cure for myasthenia gravis, but treatment can help symptoms to improve. Some case reports have indicated a connection between celiac disease and myasthenia gravis (MG). A team of researchers recently set out to determine if those reports are accurate, and, if so, what the connection might be between celiac disease and risk for myasthenia gravis. The research team included Sujata P. Thawani, Thomas H. Brannagan, Benjamin Lebwohl, Peter H. R. Green, and Jonas F. Ludvigsson. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY USA; the Peripheral Neuropathy Center, Neurological Institute, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY USA; the Celiac Disease Center, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY USA; the Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; and with the Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. The team found 29,086 people who had celiac disease in Sweden between 1969 to 2008. The team then compared these individuals with 144,480 matched control subjects. They used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for future MG, as identified through ICD codes. Their study period covered 326,376 person-years of follow-up in celiac patients. Over that period, they found 7 cases of MG, for a total of 21 cases per million person-years. In the control group, the team found 22 cases of MG over 1,642,273 years of follow-up, for a total of 14 cases per million person-years, which yielded an HR of 1.48 (95% CI = 0.64–3.41). The HRs did not change when stratifying for age, sex or calendar period. HRs were highest in the first year after follow-up, though insignificant. Individuals with celiac disease showed no increased MG risk for more than 5 years after celiac diagnosis (HR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.16–3.09). Fortunately, this study showed no increased risk for myasthenia gravis in celiac disease patients. Source: BMC Neurol. 2018; 18: 28.Published online 2018 Mar 12. doi:  10.1186/s12883-018-1035-2
  18. I’m the parent of a nearly 15 year old daughter. 5 years ago we finally found something that made a difference in her pain. A natural doctor did a blood test showing her to be severely gluten intolerant. Regretfully, we did not know to test her for celiac before removing gluten from her diet. Without that diagnosis, many doctors have made us feel gluten intolerance isn’t that serious. Very long story. Anyway, after 5 years of strict gluten avoidance, we were on vacation and let our guard down. Served what we thought was rice, she ate a portion. It ended up being ORZO. Pasta that looks like rice. That night she was dizzy, faint, even developed a fever. She slept most of the next day not eating much at all thinking she was coming down with a cold. Then, severe stomach pain and headache. Then, she threw up everything she ate for a few days. Ready to take her to the ER, we realized it was gluten! Picked up some digestive enzymes, anti-nausea medications, ginger, peppermint, tea, you name it. Today was the first day she could eat proper in a week. Still having some discomfort. Joint pain starting now too. My main question is: Is this typical for just gluten intolerance or does it sound more like celiac? She has been severely vitamin d deficient taking as much as 10,000 iu a day in liquid D and never bringing her levels to normal and menstral cycle never regular although she started at 10. Goes for months without and then when it does come, crazy heavy lasting weeks. Doctor still wasn’t horribly concerned. Just exhausted trying to be our own doctor. Insurance constantly changing making us look for new doctors. I wish I was rich. So expensive and frustrating having to try to get enough bedside time with each new doctor to reexplain her whole journey. Any information appreciated. She was doing much better by strictly avoiding gluten all these years but this last episode has me researching again to do what I can. Again, what do you think? My gut says “Celiac” but I guess we might not ever know for sure.
  19. My entire life I've been dealing with what I now know is reactive hypoglycemia. I vividly remember eating a ton in the morning because I was scared of getting "woozy" and not having snacks prepared during elementary school. I also remember nearly passing out several times in P.E. class just two hours after lunch. Over the years I've managed it by having snacks and protein with each meal, but it's been getting more difficult as I've gotten older. My mom has the same thing and she gets woozy pretty often. She said her mother dealt with it, too. I thought this could be something related to diabetes, but after I posted on a diabetes forum, I had someone ask if I had been tested for gluten intolerance or thought about it. So, I'm bringing my symptoms here to see if any of this sounds like an intolerance. I am so tired of having digestive problems and I don't know what to do. Here are my other symptoms: *I have dealt with anorexia since I was 13 (currently 18), but I've been doing well for this past year, so new foods/normal amounts of food/eating out really shouldn't be bothering my stomach this much anymore. I've never experienced a regular period since I started starving myself soon after I first got it. When I was recovered the first time, before a relapse, I had a couple of irregular periods. Since my second recovery, I STILL have not regained my period. It has been over a year and my nutritionist seemed stumped. I have since stopped seeing her and am eating quite normally and freely as I used to and have gained weight recently just to see if that could help. Still nothing. In the mornings I'm usually very full, kind of nauseous, hot, and thirsty. I feel sick after eating a lot, or even "normal" amounts when I go out with friends. I have stomach cramps/sharp pains, extreme gas all day and everyday, suuuuuper bloated all the time, reflux, nausea, sometimes constipation, fatigue, my finger and toes often tingle, mouth ulcers, headaches...when I was younger I had "chicken skin" on the backs of my arms, which has since gone away. I also am diagnosed with anxiety. There's honestly more symptoms but I can't list them all. To sum it up, my stomach is upset all the time and I am always bloated no matter how long ago I ate/how nutritionally dense the food was. *forgot to mention, I'm also lactose intolerant, just like my mom. Any feedback is greatly appreciated.
  20. Celiac.com 11/23/2015 - A new study looks at the impacts of introducing gluten to infants and the development of celiac disease. A research team recently set out to assess the evidence regarding the effect of time of gluten introduction and breastfeeding on the risk of developing celiac disease. The research team included MI Pinto-Sánchez, EF Verdu, E Liu, P Bercik, PH Green, JA Murray, S Guandalini, and P Moayyedi. Their team conducted a comprehensive review of studies from the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE (Ovid); EMBASE (Ovid); and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE). Two independent authors collected the data. Their analysis included randomized controlled trials and observational studies that assessed proper timing for introducing gluten to the infant diet, appropriate quantity of gluten consumption at weaning, and the effect of breastfeeding on celiac disease risk. Out of a total of 1982 studies they identified, 15 matched their criteria for data extraction. The team performed a meta-analysis on 2 randomized controlled trials, 10 cohort studies, and 1 case-control study. That analysis showed a 25% increase in celiac disease risk with gluten-introduction after 6 months, compared to the recommended 4 to 6 months (risk ratio [RR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08-1.45). There was no difference between breastfeeding vs no breastfeeding on celiac disease risk (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.28-1.10), with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 92%) among studies. There is currently no evidence to support that early introduction of gluten to the infant diet increases the risk of celiac disease. However, introduction of gluten after six months of age might promote an increased risk of celiac disease. More studies are needed that control for potential confounders and that evaluate environmental factors in low-risk families. Source: J Pediatr. 2015 Oct 20. pii: S0022-3476(15)01045-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.09.032.
  21. TMI BUT COULD IT BE CELIAC? About a year ago randomly one night that my bottom started itching around my butthole and since then it would itch every night there after some nights more severe some not as bad but still itchy. It never itched during the day only at night. Few months of dealing with it I finally went to see a hemorrhoid doctor thinking that could be it. I ended up not having any hemorrhoids. I then tried every cream there was from hemorrhoid creams, diaper rash ointment, coconut oil and even a hydrocortisone cream prescription and none helped. I looked online and saw that night time only itching could be that I had pinworms. I tried over the counter pinworm medication twice and still that didn't help either. I then went to another doctor and all she said was she didn't see anything so she didn't know what it could be. I thought about a month or two ago what if I was allergic to something could that be causing my night time bottom only itching? I tried cutting down on dairy and that helped somewhat but then the itching came back. I read about celiac and was wondering if I could have celiac disease? Could celiac be the cause of my night time itching or do you usually itch all day if you have celiac disease?
  22. A week ago Johnny Rockets mistakenly served us regular gluten buns, not thinking of the miscoloring, I ate it. I had EXTREME gas pain, bowel movements and blood the night after and have been suffering through tons of blood when having a bowel movement ever since. Tonight though.. I had the weirdest looking poop like seperated in weird ways and I don’t know if it should be a concern? I’m sorry for any graphic images but I need to know asap!
  23. Celiac.com 06/01/2018 - Sharon Stone is gluten-free and glamorous. Even at 59, the veteran screen star manages to look great and keep landing new work. Stone is in the news recently, promoting her work in two new projects. Stone currently stars in Steven Soderbergh’s innovative murder mystery “Mosaic,” which began as an app and evolved into a full-blown HBO mini-series. She also stars in the romantic comedy “All I Wish,” which premiered at the end of March. A recent article in the New York Times details Stone’s picks for makeup, hair and beauty products, along with some tips on diet and fitness. Among her diet tips, the seasoned star shares the fact that she has celiac disease, so she eats gluten-free. She also avoids processed food, caffeine, and rarely drinks soda or alcohol. For more on Sharon Stone, including her beauty and health routines, check out other recent articles.
  24. Celiac.com 02/29/2016 - Previous studies have shown that oat proteins trigger an adverse anti-33-mer monoclonal antibody reaction that is proportional to the immune responses in terms of T-cell proliferation. Although there has been some research regarding the impact of these varieties on the adaptive response, researchers still don't know very much about the role of the dendritic cells. A research team recently set out to characterize different oat fractions and to study their effect on dendritic cells from celiac patients. The research team included Isabel Comino, David Bernardo, Emmanuelle Bancel, María de Lourdes Moreno, Borja Sánchez, Francisco Barro, Tanja Šuligoj, Paul J. Ciclitira, Ángel Cebolla, Stella C. Knight, Gérard Branlard and Carolina Sousa. They are variously affiliated with the Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain; the Gastroenterology Unit, Antigen Presentation Research Group, Imperial College London & St Mark′s Hospital, Harrow, United Kingdom; the Hospital Universitario de La Princesa and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-IP), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Madrid, Spain; the INRA UMR-1095, Clermont-Ferrand, France; the Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Food Science and Technology Faculty, University of Vigo-Ourense Campus, Ourense, Spain; the Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King's College London, Gastroenterology, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom; and the Biomedal S.L., Sevilla, Spain. The team first isolated protein fragments from oat grains and then analyzed them using SDS–PAGE. They then characterized several proteins in the prolamin fraction using immunological and proteomic tools, as well as Nano-LC-MS/MS. These proteins were very similar to α- and γ-gliadin, and showed reactive sequences to anti-33-mer antibody, indicating their potential for causing adverse immune reactions. Furthermore, the team found that some of the newly identified oat peptides triggered a range of immune responses on circulating dendritic cells from celiac patients, as compared with healthy controls. This is the first study to show that newly identified oat peptides can trigger a range of stimulatory responses on circulating dendritic cells from celiac patients, which highlights the potential of these oat peptides to trigger adverse immune responses in people with celiac disease. Source: Food & Nutrition Research eISSN 1654-661X
  25. Celiac.com 04/29/2010 - May is designated as National Celiac Awareness Month. As such, I thought it would be a great opportunity to explore the history of celiac disease. Most people think of celiac disease as a modern day ailment, which predominantly affects those of European descent and in Westernized societies. However in my research, I found that the best place to start when referencing the history of celiac disease, is actually the beginning of humans. In the beginning of humans, known as the Neolithic Period, humans were hunters and gatherers and primarily survived on fruits, nuts, and meat when available. During the Neolithic Period, humans evolved and began cultivating plants which quickly led to the agricultural revolution. With the agricultural revolution came a myriad of food antigens, such as dairy, eggs and processed grains. It was during this time that celiac disease was born. Some 8,000 years after making its debut, celiac was identified and named by a Greek physician known as Aretaeus of Cappadocia. In the first century A.D., Aretaeus documented information about, “The Coeliac Affection.” He named celiac disease, “koiliakos” derived from the Greek word for “abdomen”. In his descriptions of celiac Aretaeus stated, “If the stomach be irretentive of food and if it pass through undigested and crude, and nothing ascends into the body, we call such persons coeliacs”. While a name had been given to the disease, people with celiac still had no idea how to heal from the condition, and were still vastly unaware of the cause for their ailments. It wasn't until the early 19th Century that Dr. Mathew Baillie published his observations on celiac disease which he sited as, 'chronic diarrheal disorder causing malnutrition and characterized by a gas-distended abdomen'. In his observations, Dr. Baillie documented that some of his patients appeared to benefit from eating only rice. However important Dr. Baillie's findings were, they still went largely unnoticed by the medical community until 75 years later when an English doctor known as Dr. Samuel Gee, came into the scene. In 1888 Dr. Gee was working for the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in the United Kingdom when he demonstrated a set of clinical trials performed on children and adults with celiac disease. Dr. Gee was quoted as saying, “To regulate the food is the main part of treatment. The allowance of farinaceous foods must be small, but if the patient can be cured at all, it must be by means of diet.” As an example he sited a very sick child that was fed the best Dutch mussels every day during mussel season. The child thrived during mussel season, but as soon as the season was over, the child regressed and died before the next mussel season. In the 1920's, Sidney Hass presented the “Banana diet”. Sydney successfully treated 8 out of 10 children suffering with celiac disease using the banana diet. He claimed to have cured the 8 children that were on the banana diet, but the other 2 children not on the banana diet, died. The banana diet included the elimination of all bread, crackers, potatoes and cereals and for several decades, the banana diet was the only cure for celiac disease. Another important marker in the history of celiac disease were the findings by Dutch pediatrician, Dr. Willem Karel Dicke. In 1953 Dr. Dicke wrote his doctoral thesis for the University of Utrecht based on his observations that the ingestion of wheat proteins specifically, and not carbohydrates in general, were the cause of celiac disease. He was able to exemplify his findings based on bread shortages in the Netherlands during World War II. During the bread shortages, he found that the health of children with celiac improved tremendously. However, when the allied planes began dropping bread to the Netherlands, the same children quickly deteriorated. In the 1960's, it became evident that the best method for testing for celiac disease was to perform a biopsy. However, doctors were urged not to diagnose people as having celiac disease until it was proven that gluten was the cause for the damage. To determine if a patient had celiac disease, a biopsy would be performed to evaluate the damage done to the intestines. The patient would then be put on a gluten-free diet. Another biopsy would then be preformed to determine improvement in the intestines. After improvement the patient would be put back on a gluten diet, and another (3rd) biopsy would be preformed to determine reoccurring damages to the intestine, and thus the presence of celiac disease. This method was used for over 20 years as the best method for testing for celiac disease. Then in the 1980's studies by Dr. Stefano Guandalini, showed that the presence of celiac could be found in 95% of celiac cases by performing a single biopsy. In 1990 these findings helped create the new guidelines for celiac testing which were approved by ESPGHAN (European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology). Also during this time, professionals starting recognizing celiac as an autoimmune disease and also began recognizing the correlation between gluten sensitivity and other autoimmune diseases. Here we are now in the year 2010; thirty years after the medical profession has successfully established the causes, tests and treatments for celiac disease, and thousands of years since celiac first made it's debut. Yet, as far as early diagnosis is concerned, we are still living in the dark ages. In this day and age, knowing what we know about celiac disease, childhood screening for celiac should already be mandatory. It's almost as if, when doctors were told in the 1960's to hold off on celiac diagnosis until they knew undoubtably that gluten was the cause for damage to intestines, they were never told, 'okay, now it's safe to diagnose for celiac'. Unfortunately, many (if not most) doctors still don't know how to appropriately diagnose patients for celiac disease, and therefor they continue to 'hold off' making celiac diagnoses, or misdiagnose regularly. Enforcing mandatory celiac screening in school age children has potential to eliminate the unnecessary suffering of millions of children and adults worldwide. My dearest hope is that we all get to see mandatory celiac testing in this lifetime. If you would like more information on “Celiac Awareness Month,” please check out the links below. The following links are trusted sites that also provide suggestions on how you can get involved and contribute to celiac awareness in your community. Celiac Disease Foundation Celiac Sprue Association Celiac Disease Timeline: Agricultural Revolution - celiac disease is born 1st Century A.D.- Aretaeus named celiac, “ koiliakos” 1st Century A. D.- Aretaeus documented“The Coeliac Affection.” 19th Century- Dr. Mathew Baillie published his observations on celiac 1888- Dr. Gee established the correlation between celiac and diet 1920's - Sydney Hass successfully treated celiac patients with “the banana diet” 1953 - Dr. Willem Karel Dicke confirmed wheat protein to be the cause for celiac disease 1960's - Biopsy established as the most accurate test for celiac 1980's - Dr. Stefano Guandalini established a single biopsy test for celiac 1990 - ESPGHAN established new guidelines for celiac biopsy testing Sources: Impact America's Silent Epidemic