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Found 13 results

  1. Celiac.com 02/18/2019 - Many researchers have suspected that childhood infections with certain viruses may open the door for the development of celiac disease. Celiac.com has covered the connection in previous articles, such as Can Viruses Trigger Celiac Disease? and Is a Reovirus Infection a Prime Cause of Celiac Disease? Now there is even more evidence to support such a connection. A team of Norwegian researchers recently set out to learn whether early exposure to common intestinal viruses, specifically human enterovirus or adenovirus, are factors in the later development of celiac disease. The research team included Christian R Kahrs, Katerina Chuda, German Tapia, Lars C Stene, Karl Mårild, Trond Rasmussen, Kjersti S Rønningen, Knut E A Lundin, Lenka Kramna, Ondrej Cinek, professor, and Ketil Størdal. Study Methods For their case-controlled study, nested within Norwegian birth cohort, the team reviewed data for patients recruited between 2001 and 2007, which were followed through September 2016. The team specifically looked at data for children carrying the HLA genotype DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2, which increases risk of celiac disease. The team detected enterovirus and adenovirus in real time using polymerase chain reaction in monthly stool samples from age 3 to 36 months. Celiac disease diagnoses were made using standard criteria. The team looked for celiac disease antibodies in blood samples taken at age 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and then annually. To determine the connection between viral infections before appearance of celiac disease antibodies and celiac disease, the team calculated adjusted odds ratios using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Study Findings This study showed that exposure to Enterovirus A and Enterovirus B during early childhood is associated with later celiac disease. Interestingly, The connection was only for infections after introduction of gluten into the infant diet.They found no connection between adenovirus and later celiac development. This study strengthens the idea that early childhood exposure to a viral infection likely plays a role in the development of celiac disease. Read more at BMJ.com; Science 07 Apr 2017: Vol. 36, Issue 6333, pp. 44-50.; and SCILOG
  2. Celiac.com 07/21/2017 - In previous studies, a team of scientists led by Professor Anette-Gabriele Ziegler had already shown an association between infections in early childhood and the development of type 1 diabetes. In that study, the researchers saw the highest risk for type 1 diabetes in children who experienced repeated respiratory infections in the first six months of life. Recently, Zeigler and another team of colleagues from the Institute for Diabetes Research at Helmholtz Zentrum München, a partner in the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), set out to determine whether infections during infancy are associated with increased risk for celiac disease later on. Their current study shows that the risk of developing celiac disease is particularly high when gastrointestinal tract infections occur during the first year of life. To a lesser extent, an increased disease risk was also seen in connection with early respiratory tract infections. The risk seems to be particularly high for people who experience repeated gastrointestinal infections in the first year of life. Whether the connections with early infections and later celiac risk are causal or are based on changes in the microbiome or specific immune responses is not clear from the data, said first author Dr. Andreas Beyerlein. "However," Beyerlein added, "it seems that the increased risk of celiac disease is associated with a permanent inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in early childhood and is not caused by a specific viral or bacterial pathogen." The team reached their conclusion after analyzing fully anonymized data provided by the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (Kassenärztliche Vereinigung Bayern) of 295,420 children who were born between 2005 and 2007. Medically attended infections from birth until a median age of 8.5 years were considered in the analysis. A total of 853 children developed gluten intolerance, equivalent to 0.3 percent. Their results appear in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Source: Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health
  3. Celiac.com 03/13/2017 - A team of researchers recently set out to determine whether there might exist ethnic differences in celiac disease autoimmunity in children at 6 years of age, and if present, to assess how these differences may be explained by known sociodemographic and environmental factors. The research team included Michelle A E Jansen, Sytske A Beth, Diana van den Heuvel, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Hein Raat, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Menno C van Zelm, and Henriette A Moll. They are variously affilated with the Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; the Department of Paediatrics, the Department of Immunology, and the Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and with the Department of Public Health, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Department of Global Public Health at Leiden University College, The Hague, The Netherlands, and with the Department of Immunology and Pathology, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. The team embedded their study within a multi-ethnic population-based prospective cohort study of 4442 six-year-old children born between 2002 and 2006. They used questionnaires to assess information on ethnicity, environmental and lifestyle characteristics. They divided ethnicity into Western, which included Dutch, European, Indonesian, American, Oceanian, and non-Western, which included Turkish, Moroccan, Cape Verdean, Antillean, Surinamese. The team then used fluorescence enzyme immunoassay to measure serum transglutaminase type 2 antibody (TG2A) levels . They used ELISA to measure serum IgG levels against cytomegalovirus (CMV). They defined TG2A positivity as TG2A ≥7 U/mL, strong TG2A positivity as TG2A ≥10 upper limit normal (70 U/mL). Of the 4,442 children they assessed, just 60, or 1.4%, tested TG2A positive. Of these 60, 31 registered strong positive. In all, 66% of these children were Western, 33% non-Western. Western ethnicity, high socioeconomic position and daycare attendance were positively associated with strong TG2A positivity (odds ratio (OR) 6.85 (1.62 to 28.8) p Together, these factors explained up to 47% (−67 to −17; p=0.02) of the ethnic differences in TG2A positivity between Western and non-Western children. Ethnic differences in children with celiac disease autoimmunity are present in childhood. Socioeconomic position, daycare attendance and CMV seropositivity partly explained these differences, and may serve as targets for prevention strategies for CDA. Source: BMJ Publishing Group Limited
  4. Celiac.com 07/08/2016 - If their symptoms don't get worse, many patients diagnosed with celiac disease as children do not pursue follow-up care as adults, according to data presented at Digestive Disease Week 2016. There's been some really good stuff coming out of Digestive Disease Week 2016 in San Diego. One example is a talk given by Norelle Reilly, MD, from the division of pediatric gastroenterology and the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. According to data presented by Dr. Reilly many patients diagnosed with celiac disease as children do not pursue follow-up gastroenterology care as adults, unless symptoms worsen. Reilly and colleagues sent a 33-question survey to nearly 8,000 recipients via the medical center's proprietary distribution list and received 98 qualified responses. According to Reilly, 37% of respondents said they were not seeking ongoing care for celiac disease. These respondents reported an average of 2 to 5 years, and sometimes as many as 10 years, between doctor visits for their celiac disease. Compare that with an average of six months between doctor visits for people who were getting regular care. Large numbers of patients diagnosed with celiac disease in childhood do not seek follow-up care as adults, especially those diagnosed earlier in childhood, who may have fewer ongoing symptoms, Reilly said. She ended her talk by asking "providers caring for children and adolescents with celiac disease [to] educate early as to the importance of ongoing care, emphasize the importance of follow-up and the reasons for follow-up, particularly with patients who lack symptoms and may not seek care otherwise and to provide a referral, and formally transition the patient to adult care to improve compliance." Reference: Reilly N, et al. Abstract #35. Presented at: Digestive Disease Week; May 21-24, 2016; San Diego. Read more at Helio.com.
  5. Celiac.com 10/05/2015 - Studies on early life infections and risk of later celiac disease (celiac disease) are inconsistent but have mostly been limited to retrospective designs, inpatient data, or insufficient statistical power. A team of researchers recently set out to determine whether early life infections are associated with increased risk of later celiac disease using prospective population-based data. The research team included K. Mårild, C.R. Kahrs, G. Tapia, L.C. Stene, and K. Størdal. T Division of Epidemiology at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Oslo, Norway, the Department of Medical Epidemiology & Biostatistics at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, and with the Department of Pediatrics at Østfold Hospital Trust in Fredrikstad, Norway. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and includes prospective, repeated assessments of parent-reported infectious disease data up to 18 months of age for 72,921 children born between 2000 and 2009. The team identified celiac disease patients through parental questionnaires and the Norwegian Patient Registry. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios adjusted for child's age and sex (aOR). Their data showed that, over an average follow-up period (ranging from 4.5-14.5 years, and averaging 8.5 years, 581 children (0.8%) were diagnosed with celiac disease. Children with ten or more infections up to age 18 months had a significantly higher risk of later celiac disease, as compared with children with four or less infections (aOR=1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.65; per increase in infectious episodes, aOR=1.03; 95% CI=1.02-1.05). The aORs per increase in specific types of infections were as follows: upper respiratory tract infections: 1.03 (95% CI=1.02-1.05); lower respiratory tract infections: 1.12 (95% CI=1.01-1.23); and gastroenteritis: 1.05 (95% CI=0.99-1.11). The results were largely unchanged even after making additional adjustments for maternal celiac disease, education level, smoking, birth weight, prematurity, infant feeding practices, birth season, and antibiotic treatment. This is the first large-scale population-based cohort study of this association. These results are in line with earlier studies that suggest that early life infections may have a role in celiac disease development. However, further study is needed to fully eliminate surveillance bias and reverse causation as non-causal explanations for this association. Source: Am J Gastroenterol. 2015 Sep 8. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2015.287.
  6. Celiac.com 04/12/2013 - A number of studies have suggested a connection between infant feeding patterns and the development or clinical expression of celiac disease. However, until recently, it remained unclear whether infant feeding actually affects the occurrence and/or the clinical presentation of celiac disease. A recent study that shows important differences in celiac disease rates between two groups of 12-year-olds indicates a possible strategy for preventing celiac disease. The notable difference between the two groups was simple infant feeding practices. The study findings suggest that gradual introduction of gluten in small amounts during ongoing breastfeeding provides protection against celiac disease. The study was conducted by Anneli Ivarsson, MD, PhD; Anna Myléus, MD, PhD; Fredrik Norström, PhD; Maria van der Pals, MD; Anna Rosén, MD, PhD; Lotta Högberg, MD, PhD; Lars Danielsson, MD; Britta Halvarsson, MD, PhD; Solveig Hammarroth, MD; Olle Hernell, MD, PhD; Eva Karlsson, MD; Lars Stenhammar, MD, PhD; Charlotta Webb, MD; Olof Sandström, MD, PhD; and Annelie Carlsson, MD, PhD. They are variously affiliated with the Departments of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Medical Biosciences, Clinical and Medical Genetics, and Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics at Umeå University in Umeå, Sweden; the Department of Pediatrics in Clinical Sciences at Skånes University Hospital at Lund University, in Lund, Sweden; the Pediatric Clinic of Norrköping Hospital in Norrköping, Sweden, the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine in the Division of Pediatrics at Linköping University in Linköping, Sweden; the Pediatric Clinic of Norrtälje Hospital in Norrtälje, Sweden; the department of Pathology and Cytology of Aleris Medilab in Täby, Sweden; and the Pediatric Clinic of Växjö Hospital in Växjö, Sweden. To accomplish their goal, the team crafted a 2-phase cross-sectional screening study of 13,279 children from two separate birth groups: the first born during the Swedish celiac disease epidemic of 1993, and the second born in 1997, after the epidemic ended. The team investigated and compared the overall rates of celiac disease in the two groups, each at twelve years old, and compared the results against each group's ascertained infant feeding patterns. To report and confirm all previously diagnosed cases of celiac disease, they analyzed blood samples for serological markers of celiac disease, and referred all children with positive values for small intestinal biopsy. The team used questionnaires to determine infant feeding practices for both groups. They expressed prevalence comparisons as prevalence ratios, and found that the total prevalence of celiac disease was 29 in 1000 for the 1993 group, and and 22 in 1000 1997 group. Children born in 1997 substantially less likely to develop celiac disease compared with those born in 1993 (prevalence ratio: 0.75; 95% conï¬dence interval: 0.60–0.93; P = .01). Again, the difference between the groups was in infant feeding patterns. Specifically, the groups differed in the percentages of infants introduced to dietary gluten in small amounts during ongoing breastfeeding. Many more children in the 1997 group had gluten introduced into their diets in small amounts during ongoing breastfeeding, as compared to the 1993 group. Overall, the signiï¬cantly lower rates of celiac disease in the 1997 group indicate that gradual introduction of gluten-containing foods from 4 months of age, preferably during ongoing breastfeeding, offers a possible way to prevent or lower celiac disease risk. Source: Pediatrics 2013;131:e687–e694. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1015
  7. Celiac.com 08/30/2011 - In a first of its kind study, a team of researchers is attempting a global estimate of the burden of celiac disease in childhood, and to to determine what role childhood celiac disease might play in global mortality due to diarrhea. The research team included Peter Byass, Kathleen Kahn, and Anneli Ivarsson. They are affiliated with the Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine at Umeå University in Umeå, Sweden, and with the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences at University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. In the last several decades, celiac disease has become an an increasingly recognized public health problem. More recently, celiac disease has emerged as a global earth issue, in spite scant globally representative epidemiological data. Because children with celiac disease often have chronic diarrhea and malnutrition, a proper diagnosis is often missed, especially in poorer settings, where water-borne infectious diarrheas are common, and many children fail to thrive. To make their assessment, the two used available data to build a basic model of childhood celiac disease, incorporating estimates of population prevalence, probability of non-diagnosis, and likelihood of mortality among undiagnosed children of all countries from 1970 to 2010. In their paper, the two state the assumptions underlying their model, and make the model available as a supplementary file. Based on their model, in 2010 there were around 2.2 million children under 5 years of age living with celiac disease, while each year, there would be about 42,000 deaths related to celiac disease in these children. That would mean that, in 2008, deaths related to celiac disease likely totaled about 4% of all childhood diarrhea deaths worldwide. Even if celiac disease accounts for only a small proportion of global diarrhea deaths, these deaths are preventable, but not by normal diarrhea treatment, which can often involve gluten-based food supplements. They also note that, as other causes of diarrhea mortality decline, celiac disease will become a proportionately greater problem unless clinicians begin to try gluten-free diets for children with chronic diarrhea and malnutrition. Source: PLoS One. 2011; 6(7): e22774. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022774
  8. Celiac.com 12/15/2011 - Until now, studies have only shown a connection between celiac disease and functional gastrointestinal disorders in adults. No solid information exists regarding children. Due to the fact that gluten-induced gut inflammation is reversible by dietary manipulation, celiac disease may offer a useful model for examining the role of inflammatory triggers in various functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut inflammation is a well-known cause of functional and structural changes in the central nervous system. Researchers suspect that the culprit is an abnormal afferent input from the gut. Psychological factors may play a role in triggering overt symptoms. A research team recently set out to examine connections between childhood celiac disease and functional gastrointestinal disorder in children meeting Rome III criteria. The team included R. Turco, G. Boccia, E. Miele; E. Giannetti, R. Buonavolontà, P. Quitadamo, R. Auricchio, and A. Staiano. Their goal was to assess the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders at one year, along with the role of psychological aspects on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders in celiac disease children. For the study, the team enrolled a group of 36 boys and 64 girls (Total = 100 children) with celiac disease, and followed them for one year. They also assembled a control group of 56 children, 25 boys and 31 girls. The team had all children and/or their parents complete validated questionnaires for GI symptoms, depression, and anxiety. The team then compared GI symptoms at diagnosis and after 1 year of gluten-free diet. The team was able to follow up on 82 of the patients with celiac disease who followed a gluten-free diet for at least one year. Of those, 23 patients (28%) met Rome III criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders compared with 5 of 56 (8.9%) patients from the control group (P = 0.008; χ2 = 6.8; OR: 3.97; 95% CI: 1.40–11.21). Most of those children who met Rome III criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders after one year on a gluten-free diet complained of GI symptoms alone; 21 of 52 children (40.3%) overall. Children with celiac disease with FGDIs showed substantially higher levels of anxiety and depression compared to control subjects, and to celiac disease children without functional gastrointestinal disorders (P = 0.02). The study shows that children with celiac disease, who follow a gluten-free diet for a year, have much higher rates of functional GI symptoms than do non-celiac control subjects. The risk may be due to residual chronic inflammation, and/or to psychological factors, but further study is needed to make that determination. Source: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2011;34(7):783-789.
  9. Celiac.com 04/04/2012 - After numerous studies over several decades showing higher mortality rates in people with celiac disease, including a comprehensive study in 2009, published in Gastroenterology, news of a recent UK study, finding mortality rates for people with untreated celiac disease that are similar to the general population, has raised a few eyebrows. With diverse study data fueling differing opinions, questions regarding long-term mortality in people with celiac disease will likely take time to resolve. In the meantime, a review of scientific literature brought up this small 2007 study. In it, a research team compared long-term mortality rates in people diagnosed with celiac disease as children with rates for those diagnosed as adults. They wanted to find out how those rates might differ and if the rates might be related to the disease and the length of gluten exposure before diagnosis. To find an answer, the team gathered data for 285 children and 340 adults diagnosed with celiac disease. They continued to gather data for each until the end of 2004, excepting those who failed to follow up for other reasons. From their data, the team calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the period starting five years after patient diagnosis. They found that adults diagnosed with celiac disease had 38% higher mortality rates (SMR 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.63). Children on the other hand, faced rates three-times higher (SMR 3.32, 95% CI 2.05-5.07). This excess mortality in children was mainly due to higher rates of death from accidents, suicide, and violence (seven deaths, SMR 3.22, 95% CI 1.29-6.63), cancer (five deaths, SMR 3.72, 95% CI 1.21-8.67), and cerebrovascular disease (two deaths, SMR 10.03, 95% CI 1.21-36.00). The 2007 study found that adults with celiac disease face a modest increase in mortality rates over the long-term, but that mortality rates for those diagnosed with celiac disease as children were three-times higher starting five years after diagnosis. The team proposed that the increased mortality in children from external causes may be due to behavioral changes associated with living with life-long celiac disease and its treatment. Stay tuned for further developments regarding mortality rates in people with celaic disease. Source: The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2007;102(4):864-870.
  10. Celiac.com 11/18/2009 - Clinical studies of adults with celiac disease have shown that duodenal mucosal histopathological changes may be patchy, and the diagnostic value of duodenal bulb biopsies is thought to be limited. Very little data exist regarding how this applies to children with celiac disease. A team of researchers recently set out to assess the prevalence of variable biopsy findings and duodenal bulb involvement in children with celiac disease, as well as its association with clinical parameters. The research team was made up of Dascha C. Weir MD, Jonathan N. Glickman MD, Tracey Roiff, Clarissa Valim MD, ScD, and Alan M. Leichtner MD. The team analyzed the prevalence of variable biopsy findings and duodenal bulb involvement in children with celiac disease, together with its association with clinical parameters. They looked at a total of 198 consecutive cases of celiac disease diagnosed at the Children’ s Hospital from 2001 to 2005. The team scored all biopsies using the Marsh criteria applied by a pathologist blinded to the clinical data. The researchers categorized mucosal changes as 'focal' if changes consistent with celiac disease and normal mucosa were found within a single biopsy fragment. They defined 'patchiness' as variation of at least one Marsh grade between separate fragments in a biopsy set. The median patient age was 9.3 years; 62% were female. The researchers took more than 700 biopsy samples, an average of 3.6 per patient. In 101 cases, they took biopsy sample from both the duodenal bulb and the second portion of the duodenum. They classified 36 biopsy samples (18%) as focal. They classified 105 samples (53%) as 'patchy', with at least 1 normal biopsy fragment was present in 71 cases (36 %). In 10 cases, researchers made reliable diagnosis only via bulb biopsy. There was no association with the clinical features examined. The research team concluded that duodenal involvement in childhood celiac disease is often patchy and may show variable severity even within a single biopsy fragment not reliably predicted by clinical characteristics. To maximize diagnostic yield, they recommend taking multiple endoscopic biopsies, including the duodenal bulb, in suspected cases of pediatric celiac disease. Source: Am J Gastroenterol 6 October 2009; doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.557
  11. Celiac.com 03/26/2010 - Mass screening studies among the general population for celiac disease show a prevalence of approximately 0.5-1.0% in adults and in children. Yet, despite the growing numbers of newly diagnosed celiac disease patients, most cases still remain undiagnosed and therefore, untreated. In part, the masses of misdiagnosed or undiagnosed celiac disease patients are a result of the variety of disguises celiac disease can have. Celiac disease can manifest into a multitude of symptoms including, but by no means exclusive to, malabsorption syndrome, diarrhea, anemia, infertility and osteoporosis. It has been demonstrated that there is a clear advantage to early testing for celiac disease. Early testing can aide in avoiding the irreversible damages that come from diagnosis later in life, such as stunted growth and organ damage. It is also faster for children to heal from intestinal lesions caused from undiagnosed celiac disease, when diagnosed early on. New evidence shows that 10 years after being diagnosed with celiac disease, 66% of the children diagnosed exhibited improvement in their health and overall quality of life; indicating that mass screening at an early age is critical. This study was based on a previous study performed by mass screening for celiac disease by a group of scientists in the Netherlands between 1997 and 1998, who studied 6,127 asymptomatic children between the ages of two and four. Using endomysial antibodies (IgA EmA) testing, the children were screened for celiac disease. 57 seropositive children were then given biopsies. The scientists compared different testing methods for celiac disease, evaluated their serological persistence over time, and determined optimum cut-off points for the testing. Using serological samples obtained at biopsy, EmA and tTGA was assessed for each subject studied. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing was obtained from 55 children; 26 of those had normal biopsies and were genetically predisposed for celiac disease and 29 of the children had small-bowel alterations known to be distinctive traits for celiac disease. Of the 26 children with normal biopsies, 4% of them tested positively for HLA-DQ8, and the other 96% tested positive for HLS-DQ2. Of the 29 children diagnosed with celiac disease, all of them tested positive for HLA-DQ2. However, a proportionately large number of children who tested EmA-positive and were diagnosed with celiac disease, had normal biopsies and were thus regarded as false positives. The results of this test confirmed that celiac disease antibody levels may fluctuate in children who are genetically predisposed for celiac disease. While the reason for the transient antibodies is still not known, it has been suggested that children who are seropositive but have normal small-intestine biopsies, potentially have celiac disease, and are susceptible to developing gluten sensitive enteropathy as they get older. Future testing is needed to establish results for this hypothesis. However, children with histological alterations in their small-intestine biopsy indicative of celiac disease, had considerably higher antibodies for EmA than those without celiac disease. The tTGA levels were significantly higher and occurred with more frequency in children with celiac disease than in children without celiac disease. EmA persisted in all celiac disease children, but only in 50% of the non-celiac disease children. tTGA was evident in 83% of celiac disease children, and 15% in non-celiac disease children. Additionally, increasing the cut-off points provided a reduction of false positives, but resulted in lowering test sensitivity. While optimization of standard cut-off points reduced unnecessary biopsies by 50%-96%, it also reduced test sensitivity. In conclusion, celiac disease antibodies are proven to be transient in children genetically predisposed to celiac. It is therefore crucial for medical providers to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. As this study has demonstrated, to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies by 85%, serological mass screening methods may be improved by repeating EmA and/or tTGA in children who test seropositive after 6 months, and before continuing to biopsy. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20047580
  12. Celiac.com 10/01/2009 - Antibodies to deamidated gliadin offer a promising new tool in the diagnosis of celiac disease. A team of researchers recently set out of examine serodiagnosis of childhood celiac disease assay of antibodies against deamidated gliadin. The research team was made up of Christian Prause, Thomas Richter, Sibylle Koletzko, H. Holm Uhlig, Almuthe C. Hauer, Martin Stern, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Martin W. Laass, Christian Probst, Wolfgang Schlumberger, and Thomas Mothes. Their results show that the ELISA for gauging IgG antibodies to deamidated gliadin-analogous fusion peptides (GAF3X) performs better in children than does the ELISA for gauging antibodies against native gliadin, and compares favorably to results for IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (IgA-anti-tTG). By combining investigations of IgG antibodies to GAF3X (IgG-anti-GAF3X) with IgA-anti-tTG, a significantly higher number of children were positively confirmed to have celiac disease, or to be free of celiac disease. The new IgG-anti-GAF3X ELISA detected three instances of IgA deficienc, along with two cases of silent celiac disease, in addition to improving diagnosis of children under 2 years of age. It will be interesting to see where these enhanced approaches for diagnosing celiac disease will take us. Much research certainly supports the benefits of early diagnosis and treatment, especially with respect to the development of conditions associated with untreated and/or latent celiac disease. Even the ability to diagnose a new category of gluten intolerant individuals might gain steam from more refined screening techniques. Source: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences - Volume 1173 Issue Contemporary Challenges in Autoimmunity, Pages 28 - 35
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