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Found 9 results

  1. Celiac.com 07/17/2018 - What can fat soluble vitamin levels in newly diagnosed children tell us about celiac disease? A team of researchers recently assessed fat soluble vitamin levels in children diagnosed with newly celiac disease to determine whether vitamin levels needed to be assessed routinely in these patients during diagnosis. The researchers evaluated the symptoms of celiac patients in a newly diagnosed pediatric group and evaluated their fat soluble vitamin levels and intestinal biopsies, and then compared their vitamin levels with those of a healthy control group. The research team included Yavuz Tokgöz, Semiha Terlemez and Aslıhan Karul. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the Department of Pediatrics, and the Department of Biochemistry at Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty in Aydın, Turkey. The team evaluated 27 female, 25 male celiac patients, and an evenly divided group of 50 healthy control subjects. Patients averaged 9 years, and weighed 16.2 kg. The most common symptom in celiac patients was growth retardation, which was seen in 61.5%, with abdominal pain next at 51.9%, and diarrhea, seen in 11.5%. Histological examination showed nearly half of the patients at grade Marsh 3B. Vitamin A and vitamin D levels for celiac patients were significantly lower than the control group. Vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies were significantly more common compared to healthy subjects. Nearly all of the celiac patients showed vitamin D insufficiency, while nearly 62% showed vitamin D deficiency. Nearly 33% of celiac patients showed vitamin A deficiency. The team saw no deficiencies in vitamin E or vitamin K1 among celiac patients. In the healthy control group, vitamin D deficiency was seen in 2 (4%) patients, vitamin D insufficiency was determined in 9 (18%) patients. The team found normal levels of all other vitamins in the healthy group. Children with newly diagnosed celiac disease showed significantly reduced levels of vitamin D and A. The team recommends screening of vitamin A and D levels during diagnosis of these patients. Source: BMC Pediatrics
  2. This article appeared in the Winter 2007 edition of Celiac.coms Scott-Free Newsletter. Celiac.com 04/26/2007 - My fingernails were shredding and I was a bit out of it mentally, missing obvious things. I’ve had to stop eating many foods because I have intolerances to almost everything I used to eat before I went gluten-free, and I wondered if I had dropped some essential nutrients when I cleared all of those foods out of my diet. So I checked my diet for nutrient deficiencies, using the USDA nutrients database at www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search. I’m sure there’s software that works with this database but I wrote a little computer program to analyze my diet. I have an electronic food scale, so weighing food is easy. The most important thing I found is that I’m low on vitamin D. You can get vitamin D from food, or from a supplement, and from the ultraviolet B in sunlight; many of us, like me, may get almost none from any of those sources. And—this is important for a lot of us—vitamin D deficiency can cause a lot of symptoms including immune system problems! I went looking on Medline and it was mentioned as having anti-inflammatory properties, as preventing cancers such as colon cancer and lymphoma; preventing infections, and helping with autoimmune diseases. Gluten intolerance is less common in the middle east and more common in northern Europe. I’ve seen this explained as the result of evolution, since wheat has been used for longer in the Middle East. But I wonder if people in the north are also more likely to be gluten intolerant (an autoimmune disease) because they don’t get as much vitamin D. It may also explain why people get more colds during the winter season when there’s less sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency is best known for causing rickets in children and osteomalacia (softened bones, muscle weakness and pain, tender sternum) in adults. Osteomalacia is often misdiagnosed as fibromyalgia, because the symptoms are similar. Rickets is increasing in the U.S., especially among black children. Most post-menopausal bone loss in women occurs during the winter. It can take months of increased vitamin D intake to correct the health problems caused by deficiency. There are only a few significant dietary sources of vitamin D. In the U.S., almost all milk is fortified with vitamin D to 100 IU per cup, so you should get the recommended daily intake of 400 IU if you drink 4 cups of milk per day. However, milk often doesn’t have as much vitamin D as is claimed on the label. Some cereals, like Kellogg’s Cornflakes, have small amounts of added vitamin D. Typically, 10 cups of fortified cereal would give you the RDI. The government encourages fortification of milk and cereal so that fewer children will develop rickets. Otherwise—you would get the RDI from nine oysters, or about 4 ounces of fatty fish like salmon or tuna, or a teaspoon of cod liver oil. Many other kinds of fish have only small amounts. You’d have to eat 2 pounds of cod to get the RDI. The only natural vegan source of vitamin D is Shiitake mushrooms. Just like people, mushrooms make vitamin D when they’re exposed to ultraviolet. About 13 sun-dried shiitake mushrooms contain the RDI. And that’s it. Many of us on gluten-free diets are also not eating dairy or fortified cereals, so unless we have a passionate love-affair with fish or oysters or shiitake, we would be getting almost no vitamin D from food. You can get vitamin D the natural way, from the sun. It takes exposure to sunlight outside (not under glass) on your hands and feet for about fifteen minutes a day. I was not sure what was meant by “direct sunlight”. I read someplace that ultraviolet is scattered over the whole sky. Unlike visible light, the whole sky shines with ultraviolet. Clouds would filter out some of it. People with dark skin require more time in the sun, so many black people develop a deficiency. Using even low-SPF sunscreen prevents your body from making vitamin D. The farther from the equator you live, the less UVB there is in the winter sunlight, because the sun is closer to the horizon in the winter and the sunlight filters through more atmosphere before it gets to you. At the latitude of Boston, and near sea level, there isn’t enough UVB radiation between November and February for one’s body to make vitamin D. You have probably heard the public health advice to wear sunscreen—the same ultraviolet B that generates vitamin D in your body also causes skin cancer and ages skin. The small amount of exposure to sunlight required is probably only a very small cancer risk and would cause little photo-aging of the skin. Unfortunately I wasn’t able to find quantitative information about how carcinogenic fifteen minutes’ daily sun exposure would be. There are also vitamin D lights, which are probably also a healthful choice. I have severe immune system problems. I tested positive for 53 inhalant allergies—my body had developed allergies to almost all the allergens around. I get sick for days if I eat almost any of the foods that I ate while I was eating gluten. I even get sick from a couple of foods that, so far as I can remember, I only started eating on a gluten-free diet. So I live on an exotic-foods diet. I’ve had a hellish time trying to get allergy shots. At a concentration of 1 part in 10 million they make me sick for a couple of days while the normal starting concentration for allergy shots is 1 in 100,000. I’m plagued by bladder infections. With cranberries being one of my intolerances, I can’t even use them to help prevent the infections. I’ve certainly been short of vitamin D. I live in the north, and I’m always careful to use high-SPF sunscreen when I go outdoors. I can’t eat milk, fish, shellfish or mushrooms, so I can’t get a significant amount of vitamin D from food. I haven’t been taking any vitamin supplements, because almost all have traces of protein from some food that makes me sick. It would be lovely if vitamin D deficiency turned out to be part of the cause of my very burdensome immune problems. I’m skeptical because I was getting vitamin D from a supplement and/or from my diet up until 2 years ago, when I found I had a vast number of hidden food intolerances, and I started having reactions to vitamin pills. Fortunately there is a vitamin D supplement that I can take—vitamin D3 made by Pure Encapsulations. The ingredients in the capsule are made from wool and pine trees. I’ll find out if it helps over the next few months. Vitamin D causes disease when taken in large amounts, so if you think you are deficient, don’t take too much to make up for it. Vitamin D is a hormone—it’s not something to take in mega-doses, any more than, hopefully, one would take a mega-dose of estrogen or testosterone. If your doctor recommends a high dose, they should do regular blood tests to keep track of your vitamin D level. It’s pretty safe to take up to 2000 IU per day on your own. Dr. Michael Holick, a vitamin D researcher at Boston University and author of The UV Advantage, believes that people need about 1000 IU per day. I asked a family doctor, who said they suggest 400-800 IU per day for middle-aged women. However, it might be a good idea for gluten intolerant people to take more, about 1000 - 2000 IU per day, since we may have difficulties absorbing vitamins and celiac disease is an autoimmune disease. Vitamin D is very important, just as all the vitamins are. But we are conditioned by the media, and tend to think more about vitamins C and E, which get a lot of attention because they’re antioxidants. Vitamin D was the absolutely last one I looked at. Then I found that it was my most serious deficiency! And nutrient deficiencies are not a trendy topic, so the possibility of developing deficiencies is something people tend to forget while trying to improve their diets. Many people who avoid gluten also have other food intolerances, or are on some other kind of special diet, and it would be an excellent idea to go to the USDA database and find out whether their new diet is giving them enough vitamins and minerals. It certainly helped me. I feel more cheerful and alert, like my mind woke up on a sunny day. It’s best to get as much as possible from one’s diet, too. Whole foods have a lot in them that’s good for the body that research hasn’t yet identified, and if your diet gives you the RDA of all the vitamins and minerals, it will also be giving you other healthful nutrients that will do you a lot of good. This might also be true of vitamin D. Maybe it’s better to get a small amount of ultraviolet, like an iguana sitting under a UV lamp, instead of taking pills. UVB might be healthy in ways we don’t yet know about. Vitamin D is a bit like stored-up sunlight. You can catch it for yourself from the sun when it’s high in the sky, you can eat the sunlight the fish have gathered for you, or you can take a supplement and keep packed sunlight on your shelf.
  3. Hi everyone, I'm a 27-year old woman living in the Netherlands. I first started seeing my GP in 2009, when my stomach/belly problems got really out of hand and I got extremely tired en depressed (and lots of other strange symtoms). To make a long story short: I had a colonoscopy that showed a mild chronic proctitis (probably not Colitis Ulcerosa or Crohns) I was diagnosed with a huge B12 deficiency (52); Folic acid deficiency (4) Ferritin deficiency (3) Vitamin D deficiency Celiac bloodtest was negative, so the doctors were very clear I didn't had it. I knew the test wasn't 100% sure, but they -I've also got a second opinion- refused to look any further. I've been thinking about Celiac before I went to the GP en these test results only got me more suspicious. I've never had a gastroscopy and I still don't know the cause of my B12 deficiency (I also had no Pernicious Aneamia antibodies). I gave up and figured I had to feel better with B12 shots en other vitamin suppletion. My stomach problems got way milder, but I never felt any better. Actually, I only got feeling worse. I was extremely tired all the time, got more depressed, couldn't study anymore not only because of a tired and weak body, but I coundn't concentrate anymore and basically got really STUPID. I had to quit my studies and there I was, doing absolutely nothing. I can't study, I can't work. I did go back to school after a 2,5 year break, but I ended up home again within a month. I had to eat a lot to stay up on my feet, but I didn't feel better. It made me go to the bathroom more en I still was very tired. Now, 7 years later I still feel horrible, possibly even worse than before. I still get weekly B12 shots and daily vitamin D, folic acid and magnesium. I'm so tired and I have to get more than 12 hours of sleep a day (more if I can). My body is weak, sometimes I feel like I can't stand up anymore. I can't let Celiac go. Apparently there is still something that makes me sick and food is the only thing left. Also, the proctitis and deficiencies are very common with Cealic. The extreme fatique, depression, brain fog... I find it hard to believe that it's all just a coincidence, so I went to (my new) GP asking for another Cealic test (maybe after 7 years I developed antibodies?). The results were negative, with IgA tTG: <1. So very very negative. My total IgA was 0.7 (references according to my lab <0.7 - 4.0) They didn't do any further testing (IgG) I definitely have a LOW IgA and a partial IgA deficiency (when your IgA levels are below 1.2). I've been searching all over the internet and according to some studies you already have a severe/"complete" IgA deficiency when you are below 0.8 or even 0.9. It's confusing, as I am below those two. My question is: is a total IgA of 0.7 mean that I can't make antibodies and my Celiac test will always be negative, while my actual chance of having Celiac is higher? Does anyone have had the same thing? It's all so confusing and I just can't take it anymore. It's hard to believe all of the aboves are just coincidental. Hope someone can help me out, cause I really can't take this anymore and the doctors don't know anything about this and keep saying everything is fine. I still am fighting to have some final answers and I won't give up this time. I made this topic only to get some answers to the question above. I also would love to hear similar stories. Thank you for reading my (not so short after all) story!
  4. Celiac.com 11/04/2015 - A research team that conducted an analysis of the relationship between seronegative celiac disease and immunoglobulin deficiencies also conducted a literature search on the main medical databases, which revealed that seronegative celiac disease poses a diagnostic dilemma. The research team included F. Giorgio, M. Principi, G. Losurdo, D. Piscitelli, A. Iannone, M. Barone, A. Amoruso, E. Ierardi, and A. Di Leo. They are variously affiliated with the Section of Gastroenterology at University Hospital Policlinico, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation at University of Bari in Bari, Italy. They note that villous blunting, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) count and gluten "challenge" are the most reliable markers in addressing seronegative celiac disease. They also note that immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence tissue transglutaminase (tTG)-targeted mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune complexes in the intestinal mucosa of seronegative celiac disease patients may be useful. In the team's view, tTG-mRNA was similarly increased in seropositive celiac disease and suspected seronegative celiac disease, and strongly correlated with the IELs count. This increase is found even in the IELs' range of 15-25/100 enterocytes, suggesting that there may be a "grey zone" of gluten-related disorders. An immune deregulation, severely lacking B-cell differentiatio, underlies the association of seronegative celiac disease with immunoglobulin deficiencies. Therefore, celiac disease may be linked to autoimmune disorders and immune deficits, known as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)/IgA selective deficiency. CVID is a heterogeneous group of antibody dysfunction, whose association with celiac disease revealed only by a positive response to a gluten-free diet. The research team suggests a possible familial inheritance between celiac disease and CVID. Selective IgA deficiency, commonly associated with celiac disease, accounts for IgA-tTG seronegativity. Selective IgM deficiency (sIgMD) is rare, with less than 300 documented cases, and is connected to celiac disease in 5% of cases. The team diagnosed seronegative celiac disease in a patient affected by sIgMD using the tTG-mRNA assay. One-year on a gluten-free diet restored IgM levels. This study data support a link between seronegative celiac disease and immunoglobulin deficiencies, and invites researchers to take a closer look at this connection. Source: Nutrients. 2015 Sep 8;7(9):7486-504. doi: 10.3390/nu7095350
  5. 07/29/2013 - Rates of celiac disease in Caucasian populations of European origin are pretty well documented, but little is known about its prevalence in non-Caucasians. Also, data shows that celiac disease is one likely cause of iron-deficiency anemia, but little is known about how celiac disease might contribute to iron deficiency in Caucasians, and especially non-Caucasians. A team of researchers recently looked at for links between celiac disease and iron deficiency in both caucasians and non-caucasians. The study team included Joseph A. Murray, Stela McLachlan, Paul C. Adams, John H. Eckfeldt, Chad P. Garner, Chris D. Vulpe, Victor R. Gordeuk, Tricia Brantner, Catherine Leiendecker–Foster, Anthony A. Killeen, Ronald T. Acton, Lisa F. Barcellos, Debbie A. Nickerson, Kenneth B. Beckman, Gordon D. McLaren, and Christine E. McLaren. To find individuals with iron deficiency and to determine celiac disease rates, the team assessed samples collected from participants in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening study. They looked at blood samples from white men 25 years or older and women 50 years or older who participated in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening study. Individuals with serum ferritin levels ≤12 μg/L were group as iron deficient, while those with serum ferritin levels >100 μg/L in men and >50 μg/L in women served as a control group. The team analyzed all samples for human recombinant tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A; positive results were confirmed by an assay for endomysial antibodies. The team assessed patients with positive results from both celiac disease tests as having untreated celiac disease. They excluded from analysis all subjects with a positive result from only one of the two tests. They analyzed HLA genotypes and frequencies of celiac disease between Caucasians and non-Caucasians with iron deficiency. In all, the team found 14 cases of celiac disease among the 567 study subjects (2.5%), and just 1 case of celiac disease among the 1136 control subjects (0.1%; Fisher exact test, P = 1.92 × 10−6). The case of celiac disease in the control group was in a Caucasian control subject. There were no cases of celiac disease found in non-Caucasian controls. All 14 of the cases of celiac disease found by the team were in the Caucasian group of 363 (4%). There were no cases of celiac disease in the non-Caucasian group of 204 cases (P = .003). Overall, individuals with iron deficiency were 28-times more likely to have celiac disease (95% confidence interval, 3.7–212.8) than were healthy control subjects. Also, and interestingly, 13 of 14 cases with celiac disease carried the DQ2.5 variant of the HLA genotype. This study shows that celiac disease is linked with iron deficiency in Caucasians. In fact, among Caucasians, celiac disease is rare among individuals without iron deficiency. It also shows that celiac disease is rare among non-Caucasians—even among individuals with common features of celiac disease, such as iron deficiency. The study team recommends that doctors conduct celiac screening on men and postmenopausal women with iron deficiency. Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Volume 11, Issue 7 , Pages 808-814, July 2013
  6. Celiac.com 04/28/2010 - Celiac disease primarily impacts the proximal small intestine, and the small intestine is fundamental in maintaining zinc equilibrium within the body. Recently, zinc has been acknowledged for it's importance in upholding the integrity of intestinal mucosa, immunity and proper growth rates in children. Base-line plasma zinc levels are shown to be greatly reduced in over two-thirds of children diagnosed with celiac disease. A study was conducted by the Celiac Disease Clinic in the division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Post Graduate Institute Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India between July 2006 and December 2007, to evaluate plasma levels of zinc in children with celiac disease, correlate plasma zinc levels among celiacs short in stature and with diarrhea, and to compare plasma zinc levels in deficient patients on a gluten-free diet with zinc supplementation, to patients on a gluten-free diet without zinc supplementation. 134 total patients less than 14 years old and newly diagnosed with celiac disease, were enrolled for the study. Each subject enrolled was also evaluated for baseline demographics and social profiles which included an in-depth medical history, physical examination, and thorough blood work. All patients included in the study were placed on a gluten-free diet and received dietary counseling from a physician and experienced dietitian. All patients received a 20 milligram dose of elemental zinc supplementation for 4 weeks. Plasma zinc levels were compared at baseline and also at 4 weeks to determine zinc deficiency. Patients found to be deficient in zinc levels were randomly divided into two groups, Group G and Group G+Z. Group G treatments included a gluten-free diet without zinc supplementation. Group G+Z received a gluten-free diet with zinc supplementation. The results of this study showed that plasma zinc levels had a significant rise in Group G and Group G+Z regardless of zinc supplementation. However, a gluten-free diet alone showed a profound increase in plasma zinc levels, even when compared to gluten-free diet with zinc supplements; thereby indicating that zinc supplementation combined with a gluten-free diet gives no additional benefits to plasma zinc levels. In fact, all celiac patients that maintained a gluten-free diet for this study showed that their ability to absorb zinc had significantly improved. Therefore, it can be concluded that zinc levels rise with a gluten-free diet regardless of zinc supplementation, proving that a completely gluten-free diet is the cure to poor zinc absorption in celiac patients.
  7. Celiac.com 02/09/2009 - Doctors are recommending simple, low-cost blood tests to screen for celiac disease in patients who have Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) with low serum ferritin, but who otherwise show no clear cause for iron deficiency. Low iron reserves are a known risk factor Restless Leg Syndrome, as blood iron levels below 45-50ng/mL have been tied to more severe expressions of RLS. In fact, iron levels are so important to assessing RLS, that it is now common for doctors to test blood ferritin levels when first assessing Restless Leg Syndrome. Celiac disease is a common genetic disorder of the immune system that can cause iron deficiency. Doctors S. Manchanda, C.R. Davies, and D. Picchietti of the College of Medicine at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign recently set out to determine if celiac disease might play a role in iron deficiency in patients with Restless Leg Syndrome. The doctors evaluated a series of four patients with Restless Leg Syndrome and blood ferritin below 25ng/mL, who had shown positive blood tests for celiac disease. Doctors confirmed celiac disease for all four patients via duodenal biopsy and positive reaction to a gluten-free diet. In each case, Restless Leg Syndrome symptoms improved, with two patients discontinuing Restless Leg Syndrome medication and two responding positively without medication. The doctors are recommending simple, low-cost blood tests to screen for celiac disease in patients who have Restless Leg Syndrome with low serum ferritin, but who otherwise show no clear cause for iron deficiency. They also note that diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease is likely to improve the outcome for those patients with Restless Leg Syndrome, as well as to better identify people at risk for the significant long-term complications associated with celiac disease. Restless Leg Syndrome is just the latest neurological disorder to show a connection to celiac disease. Stay tuned as more information becomes available. Source: Sleep Med. 2009 Jan 10. PMID: 19138881
  8. This article appeared in the Summer 2008 edition of Celiac.com's Scott-Free Newsletter. Celiac.com 06/16/2008 - Do vitamin D deficiency, gut bacteria, and timing of gluten introduction during infancy all combine to initiate the onset of celiac disease? Two recent papers raise the potential that this indeed may be the case. One paper finds that when transgenic mice expressing the human DQ8 heterodimer (a mouse model of celiac disease) are mucosally immunized with gluten co-administered with Lactobacillus casei bacteria, the mice exhibit an enhanced and increased immune response to gluten compared to the administration of gluten alone.[1] A second paper finds that vitamin D receptors expressed by intestinal epithelial cells are involved in the suppression of bacteria-induced intestinal inflammation in a study which involved use of germ-free mice and knockout mice lacking vitamin D receptors exposed to both friendly and pathogenic strains of gut bacteria.[2] Pathogenic bacteria caused increased expression of vitamin D receptors in epithelial cells. Friendly bacteria did not. If one considers these two papers together, one notices: (1) Certain species of gut bacteria may work in conjunction with gluten to cause an increased immune response which initiates celiac disease; (2) The presence of an adequate level of vitamin D may suppress the immune response to those same gut bacteria in such a way as to reduce or eliminate the enhanced immune response to gluten caused by those gut bacteria, thus preventing the onset of celiac disease. Vitamin D has recently been demonstrated to play a role in preserving the intestinal mucosal barrier. A Swedish study found children born in the summer, likely introduced to gluten during winter months with minimal sunlight, have a higher incidence of celiac disease strongly suggesting a relationship to vitamin D deficiency.[3] Recent studies found vitamin D supplementation in infancy and living in world regions with high ultraviolet B irradiance both result in a lower incidence of type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease closely linked to celiac disease.[4][5] Gut bacteria have long been suspected as having some role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. In 2004, a study found rod-shaped bacteria attached to the small intestinal epithelium of some untreated and treated children with celiac disease, but not to the epithelium of healthy controls.[6][7] Prior to that, a paper published on Celiac.com[8] first proposed that celiac disease might be initiated by a T cell immune response to "undigested" gluten peptides found inside of pathogenic gut bacteria which have "ingested" short chains of gluten peptides resistant to breakdown. The immune system would have no way of determining that the "ingested" gluten peptides were not a part of the pathogenic bacteria and, thus, gluten would be treated as though it were a pathogenic bacteria. The new paper cited above[1] certainly gives credence to this theory. Celiac disease begins in infancy. Studies consistently find the incidence of celiac disease in children is the same (approximately 1%) as in adults. The incidence does not increase throughout life, meaning, celiac disease starts early in life. Further, in identical twins, one twin may get celiac disease, and the other twin may never experience celiac disease during an entire lifetime. Something other than genetics differs early on in the childhood development of the twins which initiates celiac disease. Differences in vitamin D levels and the makeup of gut bacteria in the twins offers a reasonable explanation as to why one twin gets celiac disease and the other does not. Early childhood illnesses and antibiotics could also affect vitamin D level and gut bacteria makeup. Pregnant and nursing mothers also need to maintain high levels of vitamin D for healthy babies. Sources: [1] Immunol Lett. 2008 May 22. Adjuvant effect of Lactobacillus casei in a mouse model of gluten sensitivity. D'Arienzo R, Maurano F, Luongo D, Mazzarella G, Stefanile R, Troncone R, Auricchio S, Ricca E, David C, Rossi M. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2008.04.006 [2] The FASEB Journal. 2008;22:320.10. Meeting Abstracts - April 2008. Bacterial Regulation of Vitamin D Receptor in Intestinal Epithelial Inflammation Jun Sun, Anne P. Liao, Rick Y. Xia, Juan Kong, Yan Chun Li and Balfour Sartor http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/22/1_MeetingAbstracts/320.10 [3] Vitamin D Preserves the Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Roy S. Jamron https://www.celiac.com/articles/21476/ [4] Arch Dis Child. 2008 Jun;93(6):512-7. Epub 2008 Mar 13. Vitamin D supplementation in early childhood and risk of type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Zipitis CS, Akobeng AK. http://adc.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/93/6/512 [5] Diabetologia. 2008 Jun 12. [Epub ahead of print] The association between ultraviolet B irradiance, vitamin D status and incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in 51 regions worldwide. Mohr SB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Garland FC. http://www.springerlink.com/content/32jx3635884xt112/ [6] Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 May;99(5):905-6. A role for bacteria in celiac disease? Sollid LM, Gray GM. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.04158.x [7] Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 May;99(5):894-904. Presence of bacteria and innate immunity of intestinal epithelium in childhood celiac disease. Forsberg G, Fahlgren A, Hörstedt P, Hammarström S, Hernell O, Hammarström ML. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.04157.x [8] Are Commensal Bacteria with a Taste for Gluten the Missing Link in the Pathogenesis of Celiac Disease? Roy S. Jamron https://www.celiac.com/articles/779/
  9. Clinical Endocrinology, March 2005, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 372-375(4) Celiac.com 04/29/2005 – In an effort to determine the occurrence of growth hormone deficiency (GFD) in children with celiac disease, Italian researchers evaluated 1,066 children who were diagnosed with short stature. All patients were screened for celiac disease using anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA), and those with positive results were given a follow-up biopsy. The researchers found that 210 or 19.7% of the children had GHD, and of these12 also had positive EMA and biopsy and were diagnosed with celiac disease. After one year on a gluten-free diet 9 of these 12 children showed marked growth improvement, while the remaining 3 showed no catch-up growth. Additional tests found an isolated GHD in one of the children, and multiple GHDs in the other 2 children. Growth hormone therapy was initiated in addition to a gluten-free diet in these 3 children, which led to an increase in their growth rate. The researchers conclude that growth hormone should be evaluated in those with celiac disease whose growth does not improve on a gluten-free diet, and growth hormone therapy should be started in these individuals while on a gluten-free diet.
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