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Jefferson Adams posted an article in Celiac Disease Research Projects, Fundraising, Epidemiology, Etc.Celiac.com 03/13/2017 - A team of researchers recently set out to determine whether there might exist ethnic differences in celiac disease autoimmunity in children at 6â€…years of age, and if present, to assess how these differences may be explained by known sociodemographic and environmental factors. The research team included Michelle A E Jansen, Sytske A Beth, Diana van den Heuvel, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Hein Raat, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Menno C van Zelm, and Henriette A Moll. They are variously affilated with the Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; the Department of Paediatrics, the Department of Immunology, and the Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and with the Department of Public Health, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Department of Global Public Health at Leiden University College, The Hague, The Netherlands, and with the Department of Immunology and Pathology, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. The team embedded their study within a multi-ethnic population-based prospective cohort study of 4442 six-year-old children born between 2002 and 2006. They used questionnaires to assess information on ethnicity, environmental and lifestyle characteristics. They divided ethnicity into Western, which included Dutch, European, Indonesian, American, Oceanian, and non-Western, which included Turkish, Moroccan, Cape Verdean, Antillean, Surinamese. The team then used fluorescence enzyme immunoassay to measure serum transglutaminase type 2 antibody (TG2A) levels . They used ELISA to measure serum IgG levels against cytomegalovirus (CMV). They defined TG2A positivity as TG2A ≥7â€…U/mL, strong TG2A positivity as TG2A ≥10 upper limit normal (70â€…U/mL). Of the 4,442 children they assessed, just 60, or 1.4%, tested TG2A positive. Of these 60, 31 registered strong positive. In all, 66% of these children were Western, 33% non-Western. Western ethnicity, high socioeconomic position and daycare attendance were positively associated with strong TG2A positivity (odds ratio (OR) 6.85 (1.62 to 28.8) p Together, these factors explained up to 47% (−67 to −17; p=0.02) of the ethnic differences in TG2A positivity between Western and non-Western children. Ethnic differences in children with celiac disease autoimmunity are present in childhood. Socioeconomic position, daycare attendance and CMV seropositivity partly explained these differences, and may serve as targets for prevention strategies for CDA. Source: BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Jefferson Adams posted an article in Allergy vs. IntoleranceCeliac.com 05/08/2015 - While it's true that all people with celiac disease are intolerant to gluten, not all people who are intolerant to gluten have celiac disease. Several studies have confirmed the existence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), a hypersensitivity or form of gluten intolerance that causes numerous symptoms similar to those of celiac disease. There are several key differences between celiac disease and NCGS. NCGS is distinguished from celiac disease by the following factors: No Hereditary Link Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is not hereditary, and shows no genetic component. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immumological or Serological Markers Researchers have, as yet, identified no immunologic mechanisms or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, and an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the continued presence of adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. Diagnosing celiac disease can be challenging. Misdiagnosis is common, and final and accurate diagnosis can take years and visits to numerous doctors. Because of these key differences, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is often even more slippery and difficult to confirm than celiac disease, itself. How about you? Do you or someone you know have celiac disease or NCGS? Share your story in our comments section below. Source: US Pharmacist. 2014;39(12):44-48.
Celiac.com 02/04/2014 - According to a new article by a team of researchers, not all gluten protein is created equal. That is, not all gluten proteins trigger an immune response in people with celiac disease. The research team included Elma M.J. Salentijn, Danny G. Esselink, Svetlana V. Goryunova, Ingrid M. van der Meer, Luud J.W.J. Gilissen, and Marinus J.M. Smulders. They are variously affiliated with the Plant Research International in Wageningen, The Netherlands, and the Vavilov Institute of General Genetics at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia. Gluten proteins are the source of peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease patients, leading to inflammatory responses in the small intestine. Various peptides with three major T cell epitopes involved in celiac disease are derived from alpha-gliadin fraction of gluten. Numerous factors are known to influence the immunogenicity of individual gene family members, as alpha-gliadins are encoded by a large multi-gene family and amino acid variation in the celiac disease epitopes. That means that some wheat strains are more likely to trigger celiac disease, and other are less likely. Current commercial methods of gluten detection cannot tell the difference between immunogenic and non-immunogenic celiac epitope variants, and thus cannot accurately measure the overall celiac epitope load of a given wheat strain. Being able to tell the difference between what types of wheat have a lower likelihood to cause or trigger celiac disease is important to commercial wheat growers and producers. The team developed a 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method for alpha-gliadin transcripts that includes the three major celiac disease epitopes and their variants. They used the method to screen 61 different durum wheat cultivars and accessions. They found a total of 304 unique alpha-gliadin transcripts, corresponding to a total of 171 ‘unique deduced protein fragments’ of alpha-gliadins. They used the numbers of these fragments obtained in each plant to calculate quantitative and quantitative differences between the celiac epitopes expressed in the endosperm of these wheat plants. A small number of wheat plants showed a lower ratios of celiac epitope-encoding alpha-gliadin transcripts, though none were entirely free of celiac epitopes. Dedicated 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing allows researchers to group wheat plants according to the genetic variation in alpha-gliadin transcripts, and to screen for plants which are potentially less likely to trigger or promote celiac disease. The alpha-gliadin sequence database the team constructed will provide an important reference in proteomics analysis regarding the immunogenic potential of mature wheat grains. Source: BMC Genomics 2013, 14:905. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-905
Amy Leger posted an article in Additional Celiac Disease ConcernsCeliac.com 11/19/2008 - This year my husband and I took in Ida, an exchange studentfrom Norway, who needed a gluten-free home.We couldn’t help but be excited at the prospect to have someone else inthe house set an example for my 9-year-old gluten-free daughter.Ida (pronounced EE-dah) has quickly becomepart of the family. And of course one thing we talk about is food and thedifferences in gluten-free options here in the United States versus Norway. Bread, Gluten-Free, Bread For all of us, bread is troublesome if you’re on thegluten-free diet.Even if it followsyour restrictions, there’s no guarantee it is any good. That has been thebiggest hurdle for Ida.In Norway, shecan get fast food and the hamburgers have gluten-free buns.Can you imagine?“It is more difficult [here],” she toldme.“I eat a lot of Burger King,McDonalds, and pizza in Norway.We havea lot of gluten-free options.”She saysyou never have to worry about French fries either, as they aren’t contaminatedin the oil like most are in the United States. In Norway, not only are the meals more complete (withbread), but they appear to “get” celiac disease.“Everybody understands what you’re saying,”Ida says.We all know here in the UnitedStates, getting a gluten-free burger at a restaurant means no bun. Eating pizza out isa rare treat only at certain restaurants that are willing to explore thepossibility.Right now in the entireTwin Cities area, I know of about 8 places in a 50 mile radius that have agluten-free pizza option.And even this is a hugeimprovement when compared to what was possible just a year ago. Navigating the New Gluten-Free Culture When Ida first got here, I explained to her just howill-equipped most of our restaurants, and many of the people who work there,are regarding specialized diets.While McDonald'shas lists of their gluten-free items on line, many of the people taking ordersdo not understand the first thing about food sensitivities and allergies oreven about what their establishment has to offer. She got a quick guide on the main fast-food places that havegluten-free options, and how to order specialized foods.Also, every time I hear of a place that has agluten-free pizza option, I make sure Ida gets the information.I figure someday she would like to go outwith her friends for pizza.The bestexperiences dining out have been at restaurants with a specific gluten-freemenu (aren’t they all?). For now her focus here is school, meeting new people andexperiencing the American culture instead of food and eating out.She is having a great time learning aboutAmerican football (her high school team is in the state championships) andheading out to the movies with her friends.I suppose as long as I have gluten-free food she can load up at home–she is doing pretty well.Ultimately she is a typical teenager, no matter what country she’s from.