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Found 6 results

  1. Celiac.com 09/25/2008 - Even after identifying yourself as having a wheat or gluten allergy and asking for a specially prepared meal, it is a common mistake to have a server deliver soup with crackers, or the entree with a side of Texas toast. I get frustrated just thinking about the number of times my salad has arrived with croutons. However, getting upset, or pointedly reminding the server can ruin the ambiance of the meal, as well as leave a bad impression with your dinner companions. It is helpful to remember that you are in the very small minority of their customers, and simply consider it an honest mistake. Do not remove the croutons, crackers, cheese, etc. and eat your contaminated food—SEND IT BACK TO THE KITCHEN—politely, please. State that you cannot eat what they have brought you, and repeat that you are allergic to the offending food. Use the opportunity to gently remind your server and educate them about gluten. Hopefully the next time they will be more conscientious. If you are wheat or gluten intolerant, and have the genetic component that leads to celiac disease, there is no going back to gluten. As your body heals, you may think that you will be able to cheat once in a while, and that your sensitivity to gluten will decrease once you are not getting "too much". In fact, the opposite seems to be true. Once the body begins to get rid of its toxic load, heal damaged tissues, and regain health, it becomes more sensitive to gluten. I see this over and over again in the clients I counsel, and in my cooking class students. You will know right away if you cheat, or if you are accidentally "glutened". Your body, fortunately or unfortunately, will tell you. It is important to learn techniques to sooth your symptoms as much as possible until recovery takes place. Symptoms of gluten exposure in a gluten-intolerant person can vary widely, but some commonly reported ones are abdominal discomfort, bloating, pain, swelling (sometimes extreme) and cramping, followed by diarrhea, or loose stools. For those with Dermatitis Herpetiformis (DH), even very minor exposure can provoke itching and a return of a healed or nearly healed rash. Others report headaches, or experience a sudden decrease in alertness and clarity of thought. Short-term treatment strategies for gluten exposure include taking an over-the-counter anti-histamine (check with your pharmacist for gluten ingredients), drinking nettle leaf tea (a natural anti-histamine), and using a warm castor oil pack over your upper or lower abdomen, wherever the pain and cramping are centered. Longer-term strategies include rebuilding your intestinal health through following an anti-inflammatory diet, taking supplements like L-Glutamine, coconut oil, fat-soluble vitamins A, E, D, and K, Calcium, Magnesium, B-Vitamins, Essential Fatty Acids (EFA's), and probiotics. Dr. Thomas O'Bryan, a nationally recognized speaker on celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, also recommends Carnitine, an amino acid, in the treatment of celiac/gluten intolerance. L-Carnitine helps in the absorption and transport of essential fatty acids into cells, and also helps to protect nerve membranes from free-radical damage. You may have good results with the tummy rescue smoothie recipe below, which I developed in response to a "gluten emergency" of my own. The healing properties of each ingredient are also listed. Puree in blender until smooth, and slightly thickened. It is most soothing when consumed while still warm from the hot tea Tummy Rescue Smoothie: 1 cup hot freshly brewed nettle leaf tea (anti-histamine, anti-spasmodic) ¼ cup Santa-Cruz pear juice (flavoring/sweetener - pears are the least allergenic of fruits) ¼ - ½ teaspoon whole fennel seed (reduces gas & bloating) 2 Tablespoons slippery elm powder (healing & soothing to mucous membranes and the gut) 1 Tablespoon flax seed oil (soothing, anti-inflammatory) ¼ - ½ cup rice milk (hypoallergenic, use to thin to desired consistency) This smoothie is best consumed in small sips over an hour or so. Magnesium also helps with pain and relaxes muscle spasms, so taking a little extra magnesium may be of benefit. For severe symptoms, drink the smoothie while reclining in bed, with a warm castor oil pack over the abdomen, covered by a heating pad set on low. Do not leave the pack in place for more than an hour. There is also an enzyme coming on the market that may help reduce some symptoms of gluten exposure, although this product is in no way meant to replace the gluten-free diet. Use it only for emergencies.
  2. Hello, So based on blood tests and discussing symptoms with a GI, we have both come to the conclusion that I almost certainly have celiac. I am a 17 year old junior in High School. This week and the following are finals weeks. Gluten causes me a great deal of headaches, lack of sleep, lack of focus, as well as irrational depression. ( I do not know if the depression is a separate factor but it sure doesn't help.) But I have a Biopsy scheduled a few days from now. (right before the end of finals week.) And I am having a miserable time trying to study and get homework done now. I have a presentation to make for my english class, and it is way harder than it should be. I normally have an outstanding work ethic in school, but i just simply can't focus on anything. I have terrible short term memory loss as well. I am a very good student and can't afford to fail these finals. I am so damn depressed about all of this. I don't know what to do, I have been trying to tough out the symptoms I'm feeling until the biopsy, but it occurs and an unfavorable time. And I am receiving no support from my parents, just insults like "oh you're glutens making you act all illogical again huh? Deal with it, get your finals done." I have never worked so hard in my life before. I just would like to ask, what do i do? I have absolutely no idea how to cope with this, my most important year in High School is going down the drain because of this unforgiving disease. I almost just want to give up.
  3. Celiac.com 06/23/2014 - Previous studies of adults have shown a strong connection between celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but there has been very little data for children. A research team recently set out to determine rates of celiac disease in children with ongoing abdominal pain. The researchers included Fernanda Cristofori, MD; Claudia Fontana, MD; Annamaria Magistà, MD; Teresa Capriati, MD; Flavia Indrio, MD; Stefania Castellaneta, MD; Luciano Cavallo, MD; Ruggiero Francavilla, MD, PhD. They are variously affiliated with the Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Pediatric Section at the University of Bari ’s Giovanni XXIII Hospital in Bari, Italy, the Department of Pediatrics at Ravenna Hospital in Ravenna, Italy, and the Department of Pediatrics at San Paolo Hospital in Bari, Italy. For their prospective observational study, the team tested 782 children who presented with abdominal pain-related disorders, 270 with IBS, 201 with functional dyspepsia, and 311 with functional abdominal pain. All subjects were treated between 2006 and 2012 at the university hospital of Bari, the regional tertiary referral center for gastrointestinal disorders. As a primary screen for celiac disease, the researchers used serum tests for immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin A antitissue transglutaminase, and endomysial antibodies. They then confirmed the diagnosis with upper endoscopy, including multiple duodenal biopsies. Overall, fifteen patients tested positive for celiac. They included 12 children with IBS (4.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5% - 7.6%), 2 children with functional dyspepsia (1.0%; 95% CI, 0.2% - 3.5%), and 1 child with functional abdominal pain (0.3%; 95% CI, 0.1% - 1.7%). The team concluded that treating IBS as a high-risk condition for celiac disease might be help pediatric primary care specialists extend celiac disease screening to children with IBS rather than testing all children with recurrent abdominal pain, Source: JAMA Pediatrics. Published online April 21, 2014.
  4. I've been gluten free for almost 3 years and still have bouts of discomfort and pain. I am a "borderline" Celiac, meaning my doctors wont classify me as "full blown" Celiac because of testing. Weird, since I have a dead spot in my stomach from gluten and am extremely sensitive... but, with that said, no tests (not even an colonoscopy/endoscopy) come back positive. How do other people handle their symptoms when they occur at school? I have a hard time managing my discomfort, lack of appetite, anxiety, foggy brain and depression once I have been exposed to gluten but, it's exhausting. How do you eat on campus? Most days I am at school 12-13hrs and even if I pack food, it isn't always enough. I'm scared to eat food that is prepackaged, even if it is labeled "Gluten-Free"; as I just recently found out that Amy's organic "gluten-free" burritos are still main on equipment that processes wheat! WTF? How is that even allowed? I'm frustrated and very tired of not feeling like I am able to concentrate on my research, when I am constantly fighting my symptoms. Even after all these years of being gluten free....
  5. This article originally appeared in the Winter 2003 edition of Celiac.coms Scott-Free Newsletter. Evolution is an interactive process. Those of us who learn quickly and well are more likely to survive, thrive, and reproduce. Learning capacities then, are factors in the survival of our genes. Research is now revealing that cereal grains, along with other allergenic and highly glycemic foods, pose a serious threat to our sustained ability to learn. These foods have been shown to interfere at almost any stage of the learning process, impeding our attempts to focus our attention, observe, ponder, remember, understand, and apply that understanding. Grains can alter learning capacities in four specific ways: as sequelae of untreated celiac disease; through an immune sensitivity to gluten; through dietary displacement of other nutrients and; through the impact of grain on blood sugar/insulin levels. There are many reports of learning problems in association with untreated celiac disease. A majority of children with celiac disease display the signs and symptoms of attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD)1, 2 a range of learning difficulties3 and developmental delays4-6. Many of the same problems are found more frequently among those with gluten sensitivity7 a condition signaled by immune reactions against this most common element of the modern diet. Grain consumption can also cause specific nutrient deficiencies that are known to play an important role in learning. Grains can also cause problems with blood sugar/insulin levels resulting in reduced capacities for learning. Further, foods derived from grain are an important element in the current epidemic of hypoglycemia, obesity, and Type 2 diabetes8-10. Our growing understanding of the biological impact of cereal grain consumption must move educators to challenge current dietary trends. Part of our improved understanding comes from new testing protocols which are revealing that celiac sprue afflicts close to 1% of the general population, making it the most common life-long ailment among humans, with frequencies ranging from 0.5% to more than 5% of some populations11, 12. It is widespread and appears to occur more frequently among populations that have experienced relatively shorter periods of exposure to these grains13. The importance of this newly recognized high frequency of celiac disease becomes obvious when we examine the impact it has on learning and behavior. Research has identified ADHD in 66-70% of children with untreated celiac disease, which resolves on a gluten-free diet, and returns with a gluten challenge1, 2. Several investigators have connected particular patterns of reduced blood flow to specific parts of the brain in ADHD13-15. Other reports have connected untreated celiac disease with similarly abnormal blood flow patterns in the brain16. One might be able to dismiss such reports if viewed in isolation, but the increased rates of learning disabilities among celiac patients3, and the increased rates of celiac disease among those with learning disabilities leave little to the imagination17. Further, there is one report of gluten-induced aphasia (a condition characterized by the loss of speech ability) that resolved after diagnosis and institution of a gluten-free diet18. Still other investigations suggest a causal link between the partial digests of gluten (opioid peptides) and a variety of problems with learning, attention, and development. Gluten sensitivity, afflicting close to 15% of the general population19, 20 is an immune reaction to one or more proteins in found in grains. When a persons immune system has developed antibodies against any of these proteins, undigested and partly digested food particles have been allowed entry into the bloodstream21. The leakage of food proteins through the intestinal wall signals a failure of the protective, mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract, as is consistently found in untreated celiac disease. Many of the same health and learning problems that are found in celiac disease are significantly overrepresented among those with gluten sensitivity for the very good reason that many of the same proteins are being leaked into the blood of those with gluten sensitivity. Our cultural obeisance to grains is at odds with the remains of ancient humans. Archaeologists have long recognized that grains are a starvation food—one for which we are not well suited. Grains result in consistent signs of disease and malnourishment in every locale and epoch associated with human adoption of grain cultivation. Grains are a poverty food. As we increase our grain consumption, we cause deficiencies in other nutrients by overwhelming the absorptive and transport mechanisms at work in our intestines. For instance, diets dominated by grains have been shown to induce iron deficiency22—a condition that is widely recognized as causing learning disabilities23-29. This should not be surprising since iron is the carrier used to distribute oxygen throughout our bodies, including various regions of our brains. There is little room to dispute the hazards to learning posed by reductions in oxygen supply to the brain. Iron deficiency reduces available oxygen in the brain, revealing yet another dimension of gluten grains as mediators of learning difficulties. There is more. The impact of grain consumption on our blood sugar levels is yet another facet of its contribution to learning problems. We evolved as hunter-gatherers, eating meats, and complex carbohydrates in the form of fruits, vegetables, and seeds. Refined sugars were a rare treat wrested from bees with some difficulty. At best, it was a rare treat for our pre-historic ancestors. Today, with unprecedented agricultural/industrial production of refined sugars along with cultivation and milling of grain flours, these products have become very cheap and available, particularly over the last fifty years. During that time, we have added enormous quantities of grain-derived starches to the overwhelming quantities of sugar we consume. The result of this escalating dietary trend may be observed in the current epidemic rates of Type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. In the classroom, we see these trends manifest in students mood swings, behavioral disorders (fluctuating between extreme lethargy and hyperactivity), chronic depression, forgetfulness, and muddled thinking—all of which reflects the inordinate, counter-evolutionary burden placed on many homeostatic systems of the body, particularly those related to blood sugar regulation. The pancreas has many functions. One important activity of the pancreas is to stabilize blood sugar levels. When blood sugar is not well regulated, learning is impaired30. The pancreas secretes carefully monitored quantities of glucagon and insulin. The pancreas responds to the presence of proteins, sugar, and starch in the digestive tract by producing insulin. It produces glucagon in response to fats. The balanced presence of both of these hormones in the bloodstream is critical to learning because they regulate the transport of nutrients into cells. Too little or too much insulin can cause blood sugar levels go out of control inducing a wide range of symptoms. Today, when the insulin/glucagon balance goes awry, it is frequently due to insulin overproduction due to a diet dominated by sugars and starches. This overproduction is caused by chronic consumption of highly glycemic foods. The resulting elevated levels of insulin cause rapid movement of nutrients into cells, either for storage as fat, or to be burned as energy, causing increased activity levels, "hot spells", sweating, increased heart rate, etc. This energized stage requires a constant supply of sugars and starches to be maintained. Otherwise, it is soon followed by bouts of lethargy, light-headedness, tremors, and weakness, which are all signs of hypoglycemia or very low blood sugar levels. Despite having stored much of the blood sugars as fats, there is insufficient glucagon to facilitate its use for energy. As this condition progresses, and as blood sugar levels plummet, periods of irrational anger and/or confusion often result. These moods often result from adrenaline secreted to avoid a loss of consciousness due to low blood sugar levels. The next step in the progression, in the absence of appropriate nutritional intervention, is lapsing into a coma. In the short term, the answer to these fluctuations is more frequent consumption of sugars/starches. However, the long term result of such an approach is either a state of insulin resistance, where more and more insulin is required to do the same task, or a state of pancreatic insufficiency, where the pancreas is simply unable to keep pace with the demand for insulin. In either case, once this stage is reached, the individual may be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. This disease has so increased among North Americans, particularly among children, that an autoimmune form of diabetes, previously called juvenile onset, had to be renamed to "Type 1 diabetes". By now, it will not surprise the reader to learn that Type 1 diabetes has also been shown to be significantly associated with gluten. Research reveals that there is considerable overlap between celiac disease and Type 1 diabetes. About 8% of celiacs also have Type 1 diabetes31-33, and 5-11% of Type 1 diabetics have celiac disease34-38. Further, Scott Frazer et al. have repeatedly shown, in animal studies, a causal, dose-dependent relationship between type 1 diabetes and gluten39-42. The growing reaction against gluten and other allergenic foods should not be confused with the several dietary fads of the 20th Century. The vegetarian perspective ignores the vitamin deficiencies that result from a strict vegetarian diet. The low-fat craze is another fad that has mesmerized the industrialized world for the last 30-40 years. Fortunately, this perspective has recently come under scrutiny. Despite having served as the driving force behind most physicians dietary recommendations during the last several decades, the low fat dictum is overwhelmingly being discredited by research reported in peer reviewed publications. Recognition and avoidance of allergenic and highly glycemic foods is a whole new trend that is based on scientific research and evidence. It reflects an improved understanding of the function of the gastrointestinal tract, the endocrine system, particularly the pancreas, and the immune system. Past dietary fads are consistently deficient in important nutrients that are necessary to our good health and survival. Further, they frequently contain substances that are harmful to us, such as the phytates that are abundantly present in whole grain foods, and interfere with absorption of many minerals. It is increasingly clear that grains, especially those that contain gluten, are contraindicated for human learning. The evidence is overwhelming. The mandate of eating to learn is learning to eat as our ancestors did. Ron Hoggan is an author, teacher and diagnosed celiac who lives in Canada. His book "Dangerous Grains" can be ordered here. References: Kozlowska, Z: (1991). Results of investigation on children with coeliakia treated many years with glutethen free diet Psychiatria Polska. 25(2),130-134. Paul, K., Todt, J., Eysold, R. (1985) [EEG Research Findings in Children with Celiac Disease According to Dietary Variations]. Zeitschrift der Klinische Medizin. 40, 707-709. Grech, P.L., Richards, J., McLaren, S., Winkelman, J.H. (2000) Psychological sequelae and quality of life in celiac disease. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 31(3): S4 Reichelt, K., Sagedal, E., Landmark, J., Sangvic, B., Eggen, O., Helge, S. (1990a). The Effect of Gluten-Free Diet on Urinary peptide Excretion and Clinical State in Schizophrenia. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 5(4), 169-181. Reichelt, K., Ekrem, J., Scott, H. (1990b). Gluten, Milk Proteins and Autism: DIETARY INTERVENTION EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR AND PEPTIDE SECRETION. Journal of Applied Nutrition. 42(1), 1-11. Reichelt, K., Knivsberg, A., Lind, G., Nodland, M. (1991). Probable etiology and Possible Treatment of Childhood Autism. Brain Dysfunction. 4, 308-319. Hoggan, R. (1997a). Absolutisms Hidden Message for Medical Scientism. Interchange. 28(2/3), 183-189. Caterson ID, Gill TP. Obesity: epidemiology and possible prevention. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;16(4):595-610. Hennessy AR, Walker JD.Silent hypoglycaemia at the diabetic clinic. Diabet Med. 2002 Mar;19(3):261. Kue Young T, Chateau D, Zhang M. Factor analysis of ethnic variation in the multiple metabolic (insulin resistance) syndrome in three Canadian populations.Am J Human Biol. 2002 Sep-Oct;14(5):649-58. Wahab PJ, Meijer JW, Dumitra D, Goerres MS, Mulder CJ. Coeliac disease: more than villous atrophy.Rom J Gastroenterol. 2002 Jun;11(2):121-7. Catassi C, Ratsch IM, Gandolfi L, Pratesi R, Fabiani E, El Asmar R, Frijia M, Bearzi I, Vizzoni L. Why is coeliac disease endemic in the people of the Sahara?Lancet. 1999 Aug 21;354(9179):647-8. Langleben DD, Acton PD, Austin G, Elman I, Krikorian G, Monterosso JR, Portnoy O, Ridlehuber HW, Strauss HW. Effects of Methylphenidate Discontinuation on Cerebral Blood Flow in Prepubescent Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.J Nucl Med. 2002 Dec;43(12):1624-1629. 2: Kim BN, Lee JS, Shin MS, Cho SC, Lee DS. Regional cerebral perfusion abnormalities in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Statistical parametric mapping analysis. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002 Oct;252(5):219-25. Lou, H., Henriksen, L., Bruhn, P. (1984). Focal cerebral hypoperfusion in children with dysphasia and/or attention deficit disorder. Archives of Neurology. 825-829. De Santis A, Addolorato G, Romito A, Caputo S, Giordano A, Gambassi G, Taranto C, Manna R, Gasbarrini G. Schizophrenic symptoms and SPECT abnormalities in a coeliac patient: regression after a gluten-free diet. J Intern Med. 1997 Nov;242(5):421-3. Knivsberg AM. Urine patterns, peptide levels and IgA/IgG antibodies to food proteins in children with dyslexia.Pediatr Rehabil. 1997 Jan-Mar;1(1):25-33. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia.N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48. Hadjivassiliou M, Boscolo S, Davies-Jones GA, Grunewald RA, Not T, Sanders DS, Simpson JE, Tongiorgi E, Williamson CA, Woodroofe NM. The humoral response in the pathogenesis of gluten ataxia. Neurology. 2002 Apr 23;58(8):1221-6. Hadjivassiliou M, Grunewald RA, Davies-Jones GA. Gluten sensitivity as a neurological illness.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002 May;72(5):560-3. Review. Husby, V., Jensenius, C., Svehag, S.(1985). Passage of Undegraded DietaryAntigen into the Blood of Healthy Adults. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 22, 83-92. Ma A, Chen X, Zheng M, Wang Y, Xu R, Li J. Iron status and dietary intake of Chinese pregnant women with anemia in the third trimester. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11(3):171-5. Kapil U, Bhavna A. Adverse effects of poor micronutrient status during childhood and adolescence. Nutr Rev. 2002 May;60(5 Pt 2):S84-90. Review. Youdim MB, Yehuda S. The neurochemical basis of cognitive deficits induced by brain iron deficiency: involvement of dopamine-opiate system. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2000 May;46(3):491-500. Otero GA, Aguirre DM, Porcayo R, Fernandez T. Psychological and electroencephalographic study in school children with iron deficiency. Int J Neurosci. 1999 Aug;99(1-4):113-21. Guesry P. The role of nutrition in brain development. Prev Med. 1998 Mar-Apr;27(2):189-94. Review. Bruner AB, Joffe A, Duggan AK, Casella JF, Brandt J. Randomised study of cognitive effects of iron supplementation in non-anaemic iron-deficient adolescent girls. Lancet. 1996 Oct 12;348(9033):992-6. Soewondo S. The effect of iron deficiency and mental stimulation on Indonesian childrens cognitive performance and development. Kobe J Med Sci. 1995 Apr;41(1-2):1-17. McCarthy AM, Lindgren S, Mengeling MA, Tsalikian E, Engvall JC. Effects of diabetes on learning in children. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):E9. Bertini M, Sbarbati A, Valletta E, Pinelli L, Tato L. Incomplete gastric metaplasia in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. An ultrastructural study.BMC Clin Pathol. 2001;1(1):2. Schuppan D, Hahn EG. Celiac disease and its link to type 1 diabetes mellitus.J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001;14 Suppl 1:597-605. Holmes GK. Coeliac disease and Type 1 diabetes mellitus - the case for screening.Diabet Med. 2001 Mar;18(3):169-77. x Saukkonen T, Vaisanen S, Akerblom HK, Savilahti E. Coeliac disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a study of growth, glycaemic control, and experiences of families.Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(3):297-302. Spiekerkoetter U, Seissler J, Wendel U. General Screening for Celiac Disease is Advisable in Children with Type 1 Diabetes.Horm Metab Res. 2002 Apr;34(4):192-5. Barera G, Bonfanti R, Viscardi M, Bazzigaluppi E, Calori G, Meschi F, Bianchi C, Chiumello G. Occurrence of celiac disease after onset of type 1 diabetes: a 6-year prospective longitudinal study.Pediatrics. 2002 May;109(5):833-8. Hansen D, Bennedbaek FN, Hansen LK, Hoier-Madsen M, Hegedu LS, Jacobsen BB, Husby S. High prevalence of coeliac disease in Danish children with type I diabetes mellitus.Acta Paediatr. 2001 Nov;90(11):1238-43. Aktay AN, Lee PC, Kumar V, Parton E, Wyatt DT, Werlin SL. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of celiac disease in juvenile diabetes in Wisconsin.J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001 Oct;33(4):462-5. MacFarlane AJ, Burghardt KM, Kelly J, Simell T, Simell O, Altosaar I, Scott FW. A type 1 diabetes-related protein from wheat (triticum aestivum): cDNA clone of a wheat storage globulin, Glb1, linked to islet damage.J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 29. Scott FW, Rowsell P, Wang GS, Burghardt K, Kolb H, Flohe S. Oral exposure to diabetes-promoting food or immunomodulators in neonates alters gut cytokines and diabetes.Diabetes. 2002 Jan;51(1):73-8. Scott FW, Cloutier HE, Kleemann R, Woerz-Pagenstert U, Rowsell P, Modler HW, Kolb H. Potential mechanisms by which certain foods promote or inhibit the development of spontaneous diabetes in BB rats: dose, timing, early effect on islet area, and switch in infiltrate from Th1 to Th2 cells.Diabetes. 1997 Apr;46(4):589-98. Scott FW. Food-induced type 1 diabetes in the BB rat.Diabetes Metab Rev. 1996 Dec;12(4):341-59. Of Relevant interest: Gormanous M, Hunt A, Pope J, Gerald B. Lack of knowledge of diabetes among Arkansas public elementary teachers: implications for dietitians. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Aug;102(8):1136-8.
  6. Celiac.com 06/19/08 - Today in most modern countries, children are being raised in bacteria-free environments, yet studies are seeing a rising incidence of autoimmune disease and allergies. Previous studies have found that Finnish children are six times more likely to have type 1 diabetes and a five times higher rate of celiac disease than Russian children despite equal genetic susceptibility. Over-cleanliness and life-style may be promoting the higher prevalence of these disorders. The Diabimmune study, backed by the EU with EUR 6 million in financing, is asking whether by removing all bacteria, we are not actually weakening our children's immune systems. Led by the University of Helsinki, researchers from 5 European countries will collaborate on Diabimmune, a study involving some 7000 children which will last from 2008-2013. The study will focus on the development of the intestinal bacterial flora after birth, the effect that the living environment has on the composition of the bacterial flora, the effect infections have on the maturation of the human immune system, and the operation of the white blood cells that regulate immune responses. In addition, the researchers will examine whether the protection conferred by infections against autoimmune and allergic responses is associated with the overall infection load or due to specific microbes. It is expected that the results will provide much needed insight into celiac disease, other autoimmune disorders, and allergies. For the first time, researchers will comprehensively monitor the composition of microbes populating the intestines of developing infants and study how the microbes may influence the development of allergies and autoimmune disease, including celiac disease. Finally, conclusive evidence may be found which may answer the question of whether gut bacteria is involved the pathogenesis of celiac disease. Are immune systems becoming lazy? European Research Headlines 18 June 2008 http://ec.europa.eu/research/headlines/news/article_08_06_18_en.html Researchers from five countries to test hygiene hypothesis with EU funding University of Helsinki 29 May 2008 http://www.med.helsinki.fi/english/news/20080529_DIABIMMUNE.htm
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