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  1. Celiac.com 03/20/2017 - Researchers really do not have really good data on rates of celiac disease in the general population of children in the United States. A team of researchers recently set out to estimate the cumulative incidence of celiac disease in adolescents born in the Denver metropolitan area. The research team included Edwin Liu, Fran Dong, MS, Anna E. Barón, PhD, Iman Taki, BS, Jill M. Norris, MPH, PhD, Brigitte I. Frohnert, MD, PhD, Edward J. Hoffenberg, MD, and Marian Rewers, MD, PhD. Their team collected data on HLA-DR, DQ genotypes of 31,766 infants, born from 1993 through 2004 at St. Joseph’s Hospital in Denver, from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. For up to 20 years, the researchers followed subjects with susceptibility genotypes for celiac disease and type 1 diabetes for development of tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). The team was looking for patients who developed either celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA) or celiac disease, and they defined CDA as persistence of tTGA for at least 3 months or development of celiac disease. Marsh 2 or greater lesions in biopsies or persistent high levels of tTGA, indicated celiac disease. For each genotype, the team assessed cumulative incidence of CDA and celiac disease. To estimate the cumulative incidence in the Denver general population, they weighted outcomes by each genotype, based on the frequency of each of these genotypes in the general population. They found that, of 1.339 patients they studied, 66 developed CDA and met criteria for celiac disease, while 46 developed only CDA. Seropositivity for tTGA resolved spontaneously, without treatment, in 21 of the 46 patients with only CDA (46%). The team estimated the total incidence for CDA in the Denver general population at 5, 10, and 15 years of age was 2.4%, 4.3%, and 5.1% respectively; incidence values for celiac disease were 1.6%, 2.8%, and 3.1%, respectively. This 20-year prospective study of 1.339 children with genetic risk factors for celiac disease showed the total incidence of CDA and celiac disease to be high within the first 10 years. Although more than 5% of children may experience a period of CDA, that is, persistently high celiac autoantibodies, not all of them develop celiac disease or require gluten-free diets. Sources: Gastroenterology.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2017.02.002 gastrojournal.org
  2. Celiac.com 10/20/2011 - Very little study information exists concerning rates of celiac disease-predisposing, HLA-related genes in Arab populations. A research team recently investigated the distribution of HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 genotypes in Libyan children with celiac disease, and in healthy control subjects. The study team included Kamla Alaridaa, Jumma Harownb, Maria Rosaria Di Pierroc, Sandro Dragoc, and Carlo Catassid. They are affiliated variously with the Department of Pediatrics, “Omar Al Mukhtar” University, and the El Thoura Hospital in Al Bayda, Libya, the Biodiagene S.r.L., Palermo, Italy, the Department of Pediatrics of the Università Politecnica delle Marche in Ancona, Italy, and the Center For Celiac Research at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. The team tested 31 Libyan children with celiac disease (22 females and 9 males, median age 9.2 years) and 156 Libyan control subjects (81 females and 75 males, median age 10.9). To determine HLA genes, the team used DQ-celiac disease Typing Plus kit by DiaGene of Palermo, Italy, on a drop of dried blood. Test results showed that the HLA-DQ pattern for the 3 children with celiac disease was: hetero DQ2 (n = 15), DQ2 with homo β2 (10), DQ8 and β2 positive (3), DQ8 (2), and hetero β2 (1). Meanwhile, the HLA-DQ pattern of the 156 controls was: hetero DQ2 (n = 36), hetero β2 (30), DQ2–DQ8 negative (23), DQ8 (19), α5 (14), DQ2 with homo β (12), homo β2 (10), DQ8 and β2 positive (7), and DQ2/DQ8 (5). The study team found that HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 in was as common in Libyan children with celiac disease as in Italian children with the disease. However, there were more “high-risk” genotypes in Libyan children with the disease compared to their Italian counterparts. Lastly, the prevalence of HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 genes was higher among the Libyan general population that among the Italian population, which suggests a strong genetic predisposition to celiac disease among the Libyan population. Source: Digestive and Liver Disease 42 (2010) 425–427
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